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4.
RMD Open ; 7(3)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533076

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate differences in medium-term patient-reported outcome measures and objective functional outcome measures, between patients receiving and those not receiving intensive short-term immunosuppressive therapy for coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-associated hyperinflammation. METHODS: Patients previously included in the COVID-19 High-intensity Immunosuppression in Cytokine storm syndrome (CHIC) study who received immunosuppressive treatment versus standard of care for COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation were invited for follow-up at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation. At both visits, patients were assessed by a pulmonologist, completed quality of life (QoL) questionnaires and performed pulmonary and exercise function tests. At 3 months, patients additionally completed questionnaires on dyspnoea, anxiety, depression and trauma. Outcomes were compared between patients receiving and those not receiving intensive short-term immunosuppressive therapy for COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation. RESULTS: 131 (66.5%) patients survived hospitalisation due to COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation and 118 (90.1%) were included. QoL questionnaires, pulmonary- and exercise function tests showed improvement between 3 and 6 months after discharge, which was similar in both groups. Assessed patients reached levels that were close to levels predicted from the normal population. In contrast, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was disturbed in both groups: 69.6% predicted (SD 16.2) and 73.5% predicted (SD 16.5) in control group and treated group, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in medium-term outcomes are demonstrated in survivors of COVID-19-associated hyperinflammation treated or not treated with methylprednisolone with or without tocilizumab during the acute phase. Short-term benefits of this therapy, as showed in the baseline CHIC study analysis, are thus not hampered by medium-term adverse events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
7.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The CHIC study (COVID-19 High-intensity Immunosuppression in Cytokine storm syndrome) is a quasi-experimental treatment study exploring immunosuppressive treatment versus supportive treatment only in patients with COVID-19 with life-threatening hyperinflammation. Causal inference provides a means of investigating causality in non-randomised experiments. Here we report 14-day improvement as well as 30-day and 90-day mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first 86 patients (period 1) received optimal supportive care only; the second 86 patients (period 2) received methylprednisolone and (if necessary) tocilizumab, in addition to optimal supportive care. The main outcomes were 14-day clinical improvement and 30-day and 90-day survival. An 80% decline in C reactive protein (CRP) was recorded on or before day 13 (CRP >100 mg/L was an inclusion criterion). Non-linear mediation analysis was performed to decompose CRP-mediated effects of immunosuppression (defined as natural indirect effects) and non-CRP-mediated effects attributable to natural prognostic differences between periods (defined as natural direct effects). RESULTS: The natural direct (non-CRP-mediated) effects for period 2 versus period 1 showed an OR of 1.38 (38% better) for 14-day improvement and an OR of 1.16 (16% better) for 30-day and 90-day survival. The natural indirect (CRP-mediated) effects for period 2 showed an OR of 2.27 (127% better) for 14-day improvement, an OR of 1.60 (60% better) for 30-day survival and an OR of 1.49 (49% better) for 90-day survival. The number needed to treat was 5 for 14-day improvement, 9 for survival on day 30, and 10 for survival on day 90. CONCLUSION: Causal inference with non-linear mediation analysis further substantiates the claim that a brief but intensive treatment with immunosuppressants in patients with COVID-19 and systemic hyperinflammation adds to rapid recovery and saves lives. Causal inference is an alternative to conventional trial analysis, when randomised controlled trials are considered unethical, unfeasible or impracticable.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Causality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Historically Controlled Study , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Mediation Analysis , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
10.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(4): 783-793, 2021 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992739

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic. There is an urgent need for identification and understanding of clinical and laboratory parameters related to progression towards a severe and fatal form of this illness, often preceded by a so-called cytokine-storm syndrome (CSS). Therefore, we explored the hemocytometric characteristics of COVID-19 patients in relation to the deteriorating clinical condition CSS, using the Sysmex XN-10 hematology analyzer. METHODS: From March 1st till May 16th, 2020, all patients admitted to our hospital with respiratory complaints and suspected for COVID-19 were included (n=1,140 of whom n=533 COVID-19 positive). The hemocytometric parameters of immunocompetent cells in peripheral blood (neutrophils [NE], lymphocytes [LY] and monocytes [MO]) obtained upon admission to the emergency department (ED) of COVID-19 positive patients were compared with those of the COVID-19 negative ones. Moreover, patients with CSS (n=169) were compared with COVID-19 positive patients without CSS, as well as with COVID-19 negative ones. RESULTS: In addition to a significant reduction in leukocytes, thrombocytes and absolute neutrophils, it appeared that lymphocytes-forward scatter (LY-FSC), and reactive lymphocytes (RE-LYMPHO)/leukocytes were higher in COVID-19-positive than negative patients. At the moment of presentation, COVID-19 positive patients with CSS had different neutrophils-side fluorescence (NE-SFL), neutrophils-forward scatter (NE-FSC), LY-FSC, RE-LYMPHO/lymphocytes, antibody-synthesizing (AS)-LYMPHOs, high fluorescence lymphocytes (HFLC), MO-SSC, MO-SFL, and Reactive (RE)-MONOs. Finally, absolute eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and MO-FSC were lower in patients with CSS. CONCLUSIONS: Hemocytometric parameters indicative of changes in immunocompetent peripheral blood cells and measured at admission to the ED were associated with COVID-19 with and without CSS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Disease Progression , Erythrocyte Count/instrumentation , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count/instrumentation , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(5): 001675, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-253706

ABSTRACT

Younger patients with COVID-19 may experience an exaggerated immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and develop cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which may be life threatening. There is no proven antiviral therapy for COVID-19 so far, but profound immunosuppression has recently been suggested as a treatment for COVID-19-associated CRS. We present a case of life-threatening CRS caused by COVID-19 infection with a favourable response to immunosuppressive therapy with tocilizumab (TCZ). The rapid clinical and biochemical improvement following TCZ administration suggests that treatment with immunotherapy can be life-saving in selected patients with COVID-19-induced CRS. LEARNING POINTS: Cytokine release syndrome may cause sudden and potentially life-threatening clinical deterioration in COVID-19 pneumonia, particularly in younger patients.Immunosuppressive therapy may provide important additional therapeutic benefit in these patients.Tocilizumab, a specific IL-6 inhibitor, led to dramatic clinical improvement in a young patient with severe COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome.

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