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1.
International Journal of Operations & Production Management ; 42(13):482-505, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2107747

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this research work is to examine the financial effect of supply chain disruptions (SCDs) caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and how the magnitude of such effects depends on event time and space that may moderate the signaling environment for shareholder behaviors during the pandemic. Design/methodology/approach This study analyses a sample of 206 SCD events attributed to COVID-19 made by 145 publicly traded firms headquartered in 21 countries for a period between 2020 and 2021. Change in shareholder value is estimated by employing a multi-country event study, followed by estimating the differential effect of SCDs due to the pandemic by event time and space. Findings On average, SCDs due to pandemic decrease shareholder value by -2.16%, which is similar to that of pre-pandemic SCDs (88 events for 2018-2019). This negative market reaction remains unchanged regardless of whether stringency measures of the firm's country become more severe. Supply-side disruptions like shutdowns result in a more negative stock market reaction than demand-side disruptions like price hikes. To shareholder value, firm's upstream or downstream position does not matter, but supply chain complexity serves as a positive signal. Originality/value This study provides the first empirical evidence on the financial impact of SCDs induced by COVID-19. Combining with signaling theory and event system theory, this study provides a new boundary condition that explains the impact mechanism of SCDs caused by the pandemic.

2.
Ann Oper Res ; : 1-43, 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820664

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 can be earmarked as the year of global supply chain disruption owing to the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19). It is however not only because of the pandemic that supply chain risk assessment (SCRA) has become more critical today than it has ever been. With the number of supply chain risks having increased significantly over the last decade, particularly during the last 5 years, there has been a flurry of literature on supply chain risk management (SCRM), illustrating the need for further classification so as to guide researchers to the most promising avenues and opportunities. We therefore conduct a bibliometric and network analysis of SCRA publications to identify research areas and underlying themes, leading to the identification of three major research clusters for which we provide interpretation and guidance for future work. In doing so we focus in particular on the variety of parameters, analytical approaches, and characteristics of multi-criteria decision-making techniques for assessing supply chain risks. This offers an invaluable synthesis of the SCRA literature, providing recommendations for future research opportunities. As such, this paper is a formidable starting point for operations researchers delving into this domain, which is expected to increase significantly also due to the current pandemic.

3.
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013446

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) has appreciably influenced the technology world in the context of interconnectivity, interoperability, and connectivity using smart objects, connected sensors, devices, data, and appliances. The IoT technology has mainly impacted the global economy, and it extends from industry to different application scenarios, like the healthcare system. This research designed anti-corona virus-Henry gas solubility optimization-based deep maxout network (ACV-HGSO based deep maxout network) for lung cancer detection with medical data in a smart IoT environment. The proposed algorithm ACV-HGSO is designed by incorporating anti-corona virus optimization (ACVO) and Henry gas solubility optimization (HGSO). The nodes simulated in the smart IoT framework can transfer the patient medical information to sink through optimal routing in such a way that the best path is selected using a multi-objective fractional artificial bee colony algorithm with the help of fitness measure. The routing process is deployed for transferring the medical data collected from the nodes to the sink, where detection of disease is done using the proposed method. The noise exists in medical data is removed and processed effectively for increasing the detection performance. The dimension-reduced features are more probable in reducing the complexity issues. The created approach achieves improved testing accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity as 0.910, 0.914, and 0.912, respectively. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

4.
IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1550770

ABSTRACT

Disruptions induced by the COVID-19 pandemic have wreaked havoc in supply chain networks. To gain an understanding of the dynamics that had been at play, we construct a real supply chain network (scale-free) based on a seed firm (Apple), its customers, and its first- and second-tier suppliers, yielding a network of a total of 883 firms. We then use visualization to derive insight into various network characteristics and develop an agent-based model to capture the disruption of the network over a period of 400 days from the onset of the pandemic. The disruptions experienced by firms depend on the stringency of measures taken to curb the pandemic in their respective countries and the severity of disruptions experienced by suppliers in a specific region. We specifically find that spatial complexity, degree centrality, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality have changed significantly throughout our observation period. We thus subsequently theorize on the influence of some of these characteristics on supply chain resilience (SCRes), and through our empirical tests, we find that, at the network level, Average degree and spatial complexity significantly influence SCRes. At the firm-level, we find that powerful firms within the network influence SCRes based on their betweenness centrality and closeness Centrality. Implications for managerial practice and academic research are discussed. IEEE

5.
Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev ; 156: 102542, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521578

ABSTRACT

While cold chain management has been part of healthcare systems, enabling the efficient administration of vaccines in both urban and rural areas, the COVID-19 virus has created entirely new challenges for vaccine distributions. With virtually every individual worldwide being impacted, strategies are needed to devise best vaccine distribution scenarios, ensuring proper storage, transportation and cost considerations. Current models do not consider the magnitude of distribution efforts needed in our current pandemic, in particular the objective that entire populations need to be vaccinated. We expand on existing models and devise an approach that considers the needed extensive distribution capabilities and special storage requirements of vaccines, while at the same time being cognizant of costs. As such, we provide decision support on how to distribute the vaccine to an entire population based on priority. We do so by conducting predictive analysis for three different scenarios and dividing the distribution chain into three phases. As the available vaccine doses are limited in quantity at first, we apply decision tree analysis to find the best vaccination scenario, followed by a synthetic control analysis to predict the impact of the vaccination programme to forecast future vaccine production. We then formulate a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model for locating and allocating cold storage facilities for bulk vaccine production, followed by the proposition of a heuristic algorithm to solve the associated objective functions. The application of the proposed model is evaluated by implementing it in a real-world case study. The optimized numerical results provide valuable decision support for healthcare authorities.

6.
Transp Res E Logist Transp Rev ; 156: 102517, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487994

ABSTRACT

With convalescent plasma being recognized as an eminent treatment option for COVID-19, this paper addresses the location-allocation problem for convalescent plasma bank facilities. This is a critical topic, since limited supply and overtly increasing cases demand a well-established supply chain. We present a novel plasma supply chain model considering stochastic parameters affecting plasma demand and the unique features of the plasma supply chain. The primary objective is to first determine the optimal location of the plasma banks and to then allocate the plasma collection facilities so as to maintain proper plasma flow within the network. In addition, recognizing the perishable nature of plasma, we integrate a deteriorating rate with the objective that as little plasma as possible is lost. We formulate a robust mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model by considering two conflicting objective functions, namely the minimization of overall plasma transportation time and total plasma supply chain network cost, with the latter also capturing inventory costs to reduce wastage. We then propose a CPLEX-based optimization approach for solving the MILP functions. The feasibility of our results is validated by a comparison study using the Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and a proposed modified NSGA-III. The application of the proposed model is evaluated by implementing it in a real-world case study within the context of India. The optimized numerical results, together with their sensitivity analysis, provide valuable decision support for policymakers.

7.
Tourism Recreation Research ; : 1-18, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1142555
8.
J Clean Prod ; 281: 125175, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933215

ABSTRACT

In recent years, municipal authorities especially in the developing nations are battling to select the best health care waste (HCW) disposal technique for the effective treatment of the medical wastes during and post COVID-19 era. As evaluation of various disposal alternatives of HCW and selection of the best technique requires considering various tangible and intangible criteria, this can be framed as multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, we propose an assessment framework for the selection of the best HCW disposal technique based on socio-technical and triple bottom line perspectives. We have identified 10 criteria on which the best HCW disposal techniques to be selected based on extant literature review. Next, we use Fuzzy VIKOR method to evaluate 9 HCW disposal alternatives. The effectiveness of the proposed framework has been demonstrated with a real-life case study in Indian context. To check the robustness of the proposed methodology, we have compared the results obtained with Fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique of Order Preference Similarity to the Ideal Solution). The results help the municipal authorities to establish a methodical approach to choose the best HCW disposal techniques. Our findings indicate that incineration is the best waste disposal technique among the available alternatives. Even if the dataset indicates 'incineration' is the best method, we must not forget about the environmental concerns arising from this method. In COVID time, incineration may be the best method as indicated by the data analysis, but "COVID" should not be an excuse for causing "Environmental Pollution".

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