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2.
Neurología (English Edition) ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821429
3.
Cureus J Med Sci ; 14(3):6, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791838

ABSTRACT

Ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, is commonly used as an anesthetic and analgesic but has recently shown promising research in treating certain psychiatric conditions such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suicidal ideation, and substance use disorder. Due to its euphoric, dissociative, and hallucinogenic properties, ketamine has been abused as a recreational drug, which has led to rigid regulation of medication. The COVID-19 pandemic has been an unprecedented challenge for the American population which was reflected in increased reports of problems regarding their mental health. Mood disorders have dramatically increased in the past two years. Approximately one in ten people stated that they had started or increased substance use because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, rates of suicidal ideation have significantly increased when compared to pre-pandemic levels, with more than twice the number of adults surveyed in 2018 indicating suicidal thoughts "within the last 30 days" at the time they were surveyed. Moreover, many responders indicated they had symptoms of PTSD. The PubMed database was searched using the keyword "ketamine," in conjunction with "depression," "suicidal ideation," "substance use disorder," and "post-traumatic stress disorder." The inclusion criteria encompassed articles from 2017 to 2022 published in the English language that addressed the relationship between ketamine and mental health disorders. With this sharp increase in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and an increased public interest in mental health combined with the promise of the therapeutic value of ketamine for certain mental health conditions, including suicidal ideation, this narrative review sought to identify recently published studies that describe the therapeutic uses of ketamine for mental health. Results of this review indicate that ketamine's therapeutic effects offer a potential alternative treatment for depression, suicidal ideation, substance use disorders, and PTSD.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S172, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746738

ABSTRACT

Background. Antimicrobial resistance is a major public health threat internationally but, particularly in Colombia. High and increasing rates of carbapenemases are challenging. Implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs (AMSs) in a large, academic, public network hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia.will help curb inappropriate antibiotic use. Methods. AMS was established in April 2020 consisting of an administrative champion, Infectious Diseases staff, nurse, General Physician, microbiologist, and pharmacists. Antimicrobial stewardship program interventions included postprescriptive audit and establishment of institutional guidelines. The AMS tracked appropriate drug selection including loading dose, maintenance dose, frequency, route, duration of therapy, de-escalation, and compliance with AMS recommendations. Defined daily dose (DDD) of drugs and health economics evaluations of antimicrobials (April-December 2020). Recommendations are placed in the electronic medical record as a progress note. Results. From April to December 2020, 1013 patients were evaluated by means of a prospective methodology. Unnecessary 689 days of hospitalization and 4420 days of antibiotic therapy were avoided. Among the top antibiotics discontinued were piperacillin tazobactam for the months of July, August, November and December, while for September and October was meropenem. The intensive care unit was the most frequently intervened service (52%), followed by hospitalization (43%) and the emergency department (5%).Over the course of the year, there was significant adherence to the program, with 100% in July, followed by 93.3% in April, 87% in December, 86.6% in May and June, 83% in November, 80% in September, 73.3% in August and 57% in October. The AMS program was able to save $47.409US in antibiotics and $55.529US in hospitalization, and 11% decrease in nephrotoxicity events (14 renal failures were avoided), which also saved additionally $ 23.503 US for a total of an estimated cost saving for the network public hospitals of $ 126.441 US by 2020. Conclusion. Implementation of a multidisciplinary antibiotic stewardship program in this academic, large, academic, public network hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia demonstrated feasibility and economic benefits even in a Covid19 pandemic situation.

5.
2021 IEEE Region 10 Conference, TENCON 2021 ; 2021-December:556-561, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1741288

ABSTRACT

The lockdown as a countermeasure at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic gained diverse responses globally. Many turned to Social Media platforms such as Twitter to express their sentiments on health crisis-related concerns. This study magnified the collective support-related Twitter content posted by users within the Philippines at the beginning of the pandemic. Collective Support expressions were collected using the Twitter Python Library and examined using content analysis. The primary goal is to elicit insights to understand the Filipinos' social/collective behaviors and how they were manifested at the onset of the COVID-19 lockdown. Hofstede's and Triandis' Theory of Collectivism primarily guided the direction of the study towards the affirmation of the Philippines as a collectivistic nation as demonstrated in the Collective Support Tweets classified under the following identified themes: (1) Language of Appreciation, Tribute, Support, covering the most significant percentage with 38.96% of the collective support tweets;(2) Friendly Reminders with 28.91%;(3) Acts of Community Service comprising 20.31%;and (4) Encouraging Words forming 11.82%. Given the Filipino's traditional familial and community-oriented culture, their collectivistic behavior shall naturally be conveyed irrespective of location, technology, and other relevant settings. However, considering the Twitter dataset under study, the technology shaped cultural implications based on the shared Twitter content in the Philippines. Further, it has affirmed the Philippines' collectivistic culture in accordance with the indicators under Hofstede's and Triandis' Theory of Collectivism. © 2021 IEEE.

7.
European Neuropsychopharmacology ; 53:S532-S533, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1596897

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Psychedelics have seen various labels: mystical sacrament aids, potential interrogation tools for the Cold War, agents for social change in the Hippie counter movement, a panacea for various mental disorders, and a tool to “hack” of the psyche. This has led to their reputation as both societal threat and a psychopharmacological breakthrough. After the loss of data on over 1000 clinical papers spanning 40000 study subjects in the 60′s, a 40-year hiatus, and a few very determined researchers, new insights of increasingly quality have been emerging from research on the potential benefits of the use of psilocybin in depression. We aim to review available data on psilocybin for treating depression, providing a bird's-eye view on the literature (historical and current), while reporting potential neurobiological, psychological and cognitive mechanisms involved, safety and methodological concerns (as well as recent advancements), emerging modalities of treatment, with a commentary on social and cultural movements occurring in parallel to the scientific endeavor to create regulated and scientifically approved treatments. Methods: Eligible studies will be identified through an electronic search of Medline and clinicaltrials.gov from inception to the date of submission. The search strategy will combine relevant standardized subject terms and text words for psychedelics, psilocybin, and depression, with relevant Boolean operators implemented. Only articles written in the English language will be included. Reference lists from eligible studies will be cross-checked to identify potential additional studies. For data synthesis, results and outcomes will be explored narratively, along reporting and critical analysis of relevant statistical data. Results: Psilocybin emulates serotonin, with special affinity for the 5-HT2A receptor. Neuroimaging studies suggest an attenuation of the default mode network and an overall increase in multiple brain area connectivity [1]. Current treatment models involve previous psychological profiling and preparation, followed by one to two sessions where administration of 25 mg of psilocybin under supervision and support from the researcher, a physician, and a therapist, with post-treatment integration. Since 2011, five clinical studies, evaluated psilocybin treatment efficacy on patients suffering from clinical depression [2,3,4]. Limited by small samples, variability of setting, timeline, and methodology, they combined number of 139 patients. Despite these limitations, 60% of patients reported significant symptom reduction (58-83%) providing promising preliminary evidence for further investment. A recent trial found no significant difference in antidepressant effects between psilocybin and escitalopram in a selected group of patients, further contributing to this trend of research [5]. Over 50 studies addressing effects of psilocybin in depression have been approved on clinicaltrials.gov. One of these [6] is a phase 2 multicentered clinical trial, aiming to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of psilocybin in treatment resistant depression in a variable dose range. Conclusion: Psilocybin might become a promising approach to depression. These therapies have been (re)gaining social and cultural support, with parallel “off label” use in various spiritual and psychotherapeutic settings. There is a need for the upmost rigor in designing future research. Psilocybin might emerge as an important therapeutic tool for current and upcoming global mental health challenges in a post-COVID-19 world. No conflict of interest

9.
International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy ; 43(6):1747-1747, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1558042
10.
6th Future Technologies Conference, FTC 2021 ; 359 LNNS:374-387, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1549334

ABSTRACT

As the global pandemic continuously affect millions to date, an abundant number of internet users turn to seek and share health information in mainstream social networking sites such as Twitter. This study is a theoretically based qualitative analysis on the utilization of health information during the first COVID-19 Philippine lockdown. With Uses and Gratifications Theory as its theoretical lens, results suggest that health information on tips and pointers on COVID-19 prevention are commonly sought and shared, along with the latest information on COVID-19 health statistics, and the economic impact of pandemic on business ventures and on personal lives. But more importantly, this paper argues that more than utilizing health information to meet user cognitive needs (information seeking and sharing), social and integrative needs were also met and vital through the themes surrounding community engagement and social interactions. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
6th Future Technologies Conference, FTC 2021 ; 359 LNNS:293-309, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1549333

ABSTRACT

Twitter is considered one of the most popular social networking platforms. More than microblogging, it has evolved to be an integral source of information from daily news, current events, and other trending topics on social media. Since the emergence of COVID-19 in Asia in 2019, Twitter has become one of the platforms primarily utilized for information seeking and sharing by Internet users to keep updated with and disseminate relevant information about the virus and its spread. However, the health crisis was no exception in attracting the attention of spammers in exploiting the platform with scams and other malicious content. In this study, tweets containing trending hashtags related to COVID-19 were culled from Twitter to investigate the presence of spam tweets and to assess its possible impact on the information credibility of the platform. Though results suggest that the volume of unrelated Twitter expressions was minimal, this research argues that irrelevant tweets were substantial enough to pose implications detrimental to hashtag use and knowledge discovery. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Neurology ; 96(15 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1407847

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aim to characterize this symptom and identify factors associated with headache in COVID-19. Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that headache is an important neurological manifestation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, little is known about the characteristics of COVID-19 patients that exhibit headache. Design/Methods: This retrospective study includes COVID-19 patients with headache hospitalized during March 2020. Controls comprise COVID-19 patients without headache. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the medical records. Headache characteristics were evaluated by semi-structured telephonic interview after discharge. Results: Of a total of 379 COVID-19 patients, 48 (13%) developed headache. Among these, 30 (62%) were men and the median age was 57.9 (47-73) years. Headache was associated with younger age, less comorbidities and reduced mortality, as well as with low levels of C-Reactive Protein, mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and oropharyngeal symptoms. A logistic multiple regression model revealed that headache was directly associated with D-dimer and creatinine levels, the use of high flow nasal cannula and arthromyalgia, while urea levels, beta-lactamic treatment and hypertension were negatively associated with headache. COVID- 19-associated headache characteristics were available in 23/48 (48%) patients. Headache was the onset symptom in 8/20 (40%), of mild or moderate intensity in 17/20 (85%) patients, with oppressive characteristics in 17/18 (94%) and holocranial 8/19 (42%) or temporal 7/19 (37%) localization. Conclusions: Our results show that headache is associated with mild pulmonary disease and inflammation during SARS-CoV-2 infection. COVID-19-associated headache appears in most cases as an early symptom and as a novel headache with characteristics of headache attributed to systemic viral infection. Further research addressing the underlying mechanisms to confirm these findings is warranted.

14.
HemaSphere ; 5(SUPPL 2):381, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1393450

ABSTRACT

Background: Overexpression of the ABCB1 gene has been associated with a poor prognosis in various hemato-oncological diseases due to resistance to different chemotherapy types. Usually, the gene expression is low, but drugs like steroids can stimulate it. The COVID-19 infection has affected much of the world, especially Latin America, where mortality is higher than expected, mostly due to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Since the beginning of the pandemic, different combinations (chloroquine, azithromycin, antivirals) have been used, some with a moderate benefit (Tocilizumab, convalescent plasma) but without establishing a group that could benefit. The ATP flow pump contributes to cell detoxification, including overdosing of drugs;some drugs are substrates of this pump and modify its operation Aims: Describe the impact of ABCB1 drug resistance gene expression on mortality and ventilatory support in critically ill patients with COVID-19 Methods: Sixty-one patients (23 women and 38 men) were diagnosed with COVID-19 and included in the study. Mononuclear cells were isolated by Ficoll-Paque (GE Healthcare).RNA isolation was performed using Trizol ™ reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The RNA obtained's concentration and purity was measured using Nanodrop ™ 2000 (Nanodrop Technologies, Wilmington, ME, USA). cDNA was synthesized from 1 μg of RNA using oligo (dT) and MML-V enzyme from Promega Biotech AB. The expression levels of the ABCB1 gene were determined by qPCR using the TaqMan ™ system (Hs01069047, Applied Biosystems, Inc. Foster City, CA, USA) and normalizing with the endogenous GUSB gene (Hs00939627) (Gene expression = 2 - ΔCT, where ΔCT = CT of the gene of interest - CT of the reference gene.) The expression levels were classified according to the known values in healthy donors. Results: 61 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 with criteria for hospital care and supplemental oxygen. The majority were men (n = 36, 59%), obesity was the most frequent comorbidity (n = 28.45.9%), followed by diabetes (n = 22, 36.1%) and hypertension (n = 18, 29.5%). Treatment for COVID-19 included high-flow oxygen in combination with the best available therapy;8.2% (n = 5) started with hydroxychloroquine, 44.3% (n = 27) were treated with metformin hydrochloride, 36.1% with azithromycin, 55.7% (n = 34) with atorvastatin and 95.2% (n = 58) with low molecular weight heparin. During the hospital period. 49.2% (n = 30) required ventilatory support. When analyzing the expression of ABCB1, 63.9% (n = 39) had a high or absent expression, 36.1% showed a low expression. Cases with high / absent expression showed a worse prognosis compared to low expression (Log Rank = 0.000). When comparing the different risk variables, the high / absent expression of ABCB1 was a significant risk factor for death (OR 3.08, [1.02-9.26], p = 0.045) and ventilatory support (OR 2.8, [0.98-8.5], p = 0.054). Other factors such as male gender (OR 2.54 [0.89-7.27], p = 0.081) and older age (OR 5.19, [1.48-18.2] p = 0.010) were associated with a poor prognosis. Diabetes had low impact (OR 1.11, [0.38-3.22], p=0838) on prognosis Summary/Conclusion: Similar to cancer treatment, the modification of the expression of the ABCB1 gene (high or absent) impacts the prognosis of patients with severe COVID-19 disease due to the overuse of drugs.

15.
HemaSphere ; 5(SUPPL 2):140-141, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1393449

ABSTRACT

Background: From the end of December 2019, the new beta coronavirus named COVID-19 has significantly affected the greater number of countries in the world. The major part of the recommendations for the treatment of ALL in the era of COVID-19 includes delaying as long as possible chemotherapy, except in cases of high risk of complications or disease progression. In Mexico, the number of cases of leukemia has diminished due to hospital conversion such as limited access to treatments. The object of this study was to describe the cases with de novo acute lymphoblastic leukemia in two institutions assigned as COVID-19 hospitals in Mexico City Aims: Describe patients' clinical and prognostic behavior with ALL and COVID-19 infection at diagnosis as at any stage of treatment. Methods: A prospective, observational study in patients de novo diagnosed with ALL according to the WHO criteria, cared for in the Hematology Department of the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca and the Hospital General de México. The clinical records of the patients diagnosed with ALL from April to December 2020 were included;they received treatment based on intermediate intensity program (CALGB-10403) or high-intensity program (Hyper-CVAD), maintaining the majority of patients as outpatients. ALL the confirmed COVID-19 cases with ALL were compared with non-cancer COVID- 19 cases to describe the difference. Support treatment for COVID-19 was based on local considerations. This research was registered on the ClinicalTrials platform (NCT04745416). Results: Thirty patients were studied (April to December 2020);one case was excluded from the analysis (spontaneous remission). Of the 29 cases, 6 (20.7%) were COVID-19 confirmed cases, four at diagnosis and two during the induction period.There were no differences in gender, age (24 vs. 30 years, p=0.261), or mean leukocyte count at diagnosis (156.3 vs. 116.5 x109/L, p=0.564, 95%CI). BCR-ABL was detected in one case with COVID-19;two cases with COVID-19 showed AF4-MLL and ELN-MLL. According to risk, 66.7% (n=4) of the cases with COVID-19 were considered high risk. The treatment for COVID-19 was high-flow oxygen, azithromycin, anticoagulation. Upon analyzing the response to induction, the group negative to COVID-19 showed a higher proportion of response than the cases with a background of COVID-19 (78.3% vs. 66.7%), but without statistical significance (p=0.628). The group with COVID-19 showed a higher proportion of leukemia refractory to induction (33% vs. 17.4%), requiring a second treatment program. There were no deaths in the COVID-19 arm. Comparing the survival with non-cancer COVID-19 patients, the mortality was 51.7% for individuals without leukemia and 16.7% (n=1) for leukemia COVID-19 cases. Two female patients showed ALL patients' morphological remission: (19 years and 38 years of age). Both debuted with fever as the main manifestation, cytopenias (patient 1: WBC 0.5 x 109/L, platelets 13 x109/L;patient 2: 0.7 x109/L, platelets 123 x109/L) without cytogenetic abnormalities. From day 10 of hospital stay, they showed improvement in leukocyte and platelet counts, reaching the normal range by day 21, requiring evaluation of extended bone marrow, which showed an absence of blasts. Patient 1 had a negative finding after beginning an induction program, and patient two is still without treatment. Summary/Conclusion: The prognosis of individuals with COVID-19- ALL is better due to the null development of cytokine storm;similar to other tumors, spontaneous remission can be seen, especially in young individuals, and decreased tumor burden.

16.
HemaSphere ; 5(SUPPL 2):645, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1393448

ABSTRACT

Background: Coagulopathy associated with COVID-19 is one of the main complications, especially in individuals with risk factors. Simultaneously, the use of low molecular weight heparin is the recommended strategy in hospitalized individuals, but the usefulness of other strategies such as DOACs in outpatients is still unknown. Aims: Describe the benefit of the use of rivaroxaban at discharge on the risk of thrombosis in patients discharged from COVID-19.Identify the behavior of Dimero-D at discharge and its modification with anticoagulant therapy. Methods: Randomized 1: 1 study (Rivaroxaban 10mg for 14 days versus observation) at discharge in individuals with COVID-19 who have not required mechanical ventilation. D-dimer was evaluated at 14 and 30 days after discharge in conjunction with a CT angiography at four weeks after hospital discharge. The protocol was developed in the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca, authorized by the ethics committee with registration number NR-19-2020. The study is identified in ClinicalTrials.gov with the following registry NCT04508439 Results: Forty individuals were evaluated (20 in each arm) with follow- up greater than 100 days. Gender distribution was equitable in each arm, with a mean age of 50 years (21 to 74 years), 40% (n = 16) were older than 55 years, 27.5% (n = 11) had hypertension and 20% (n = 8) had diabetes. The mean length of hospital stay was 10.5 days (6 to 23 days) treated with oxygen and low molecular weight heparin. At discharge, treatment was started with rivaroxaban 10mg x 14d vs. observation;in the rivaroxaban group, four events were identified (3 hemorrhages / 1 thrombosis), this difference being significant (Log Rank 0.016). Only one thrombosis event (pulmonary embolism) was identified in the rivaroxaban group at eight treatment days. Compared to the diagnosis, DD levels were lower at both 14 and 30 days (p = 0.000, 95% CI, 440.8-1164.9) without finding a difference in those treated with rivaroxaban or observation (p = 0.721, 95% CI, -68.48 to 241.18). Summary/Conclusion: The use of DOACs at discharge does not benefit from an increased risk of hemorrhagic events;the anticoagulant strategy should be individualized, focused only on those patients at very high risk of thrombosis.

17.
Real-Time Image Processing and Deep Learning 2021 ; 11736, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1304144

ABSTRACT

Since the first quarter of this year, the spread of SARS-CoV-19 virus has been a worldwide health priority. Medical testing consists of Lab studies, PCR tests, CT, PET, which are time-consuming, some countries lack these resources. One medical tool for diagnosis is X-Ray imaging, which is one of the fastest and low-cost resources for physicians to detect and to distinguish among these different diseases. We propose an X-Ray CAD system based on DCNN, using well-known architectures such as DenseNet-201, ResNet-50 and EfficientNet. These architectures are pre-trained on data from Imagenet classification challenge, moreover, using Transfer Learning methods to Fine-Tune the classification stage. The system is capable to visualize the learned recognition patterns applying the GRAD-CAM algorithm aiming to help physicians in seeking hidden features from perceptual vision. The proposed CAD can differentiate between COVID-19, Pneumonia, Nodules and Normal lung X-Ray images. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

19.
Revista Catalana de Dret Ambiental ; 11(2), 2020.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1266994

ABSTRACT

The defense of the autonomy of indigenous peoples in Latin America has a particular manifestation, in the preservation of the territory, often understood, from the relational ontologies of these peoples, as a space for material and symbolic social construction. This particular form is the defense of food sovereignty under the framework of the international standard of the right to the environment and the ontological-epistemic tensions about the notion of territory. The jurisprudence of the inter-american Court of Human Rights provides a floor for discussion on the meaning of territory, based on these ontologies, to discover how it is related to the notion of the environment and the importance of these factors in the preservation of the community existence of the peoples, with special reference to the nahua people of malacachtepec momoxco in mexico city, which has shown, from this framework of understanding, a special resilience to face the covid-19 epidemic. © 2020 Universitat Rovira i Virgili. All rights reserved.

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