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1.
Chem Biol Interact ; : 110161, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2031178

ABSTRACT

Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an antiparasitic, is an ACE2 activator, and studies show that activators of this enzyme may be beneficial for COVID-19, disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the in silico and in vitro affinity of diminazene aceturate against molecular targets of SARS-CoV-2. 3D structures from DIZE and the proteases from SARS-CoV-2, obtained through the Protein Data Bank and Drug Database (Drubank), and processed in computer programs like AutodockTools, LigPlot, Pymol for molecular docking and visualization and GROMACS was used to perform molecular dynamics. The results demonstrate that DIZE could interact with all tested targets, and the best binding energies were obtained from the interaction of Protein S (closed conformation -7.87kcal/mol) and Mpro (-6.23kcal/mol), indicating that it can act both by preventing entry and viral replication. The results of molecular dynamics demonstrate that DIZE was able to promote a change in stability at the cleavage sites between S1 and S2, which could prevent binding to ACE2 and fusion with the membrane. In addition, in vitro tests confirm the in silico results showing that DIZE could inhibit the binding between the spike receptor-binding domain protein and ACE2, which could promote a reduction in the virus infection. However, tests in other experimental models with in vivo approaches are needed.

2.
The Economics of Women and Work in the Global Economy ; : 13-39, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024961
3.
European journal of preventive cardiology ; 29(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998520

ABSTRACT

Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Other. Main funding source(s): Carlos III Health Institute and the European Regional Development Fund Government of Catalonia through the Agency for Management of University and Research Grants Crue-CSIC-Santander FONDO SUPERA COVID-19 Background The disease presentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors or overt cardiovascular disease are at particular risk of severe disease. We hypothesised that a specific genetic risk score (GRS) based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allele count to score COVID-19 severity might include SNPs counts related to CAD incidence and to thrombosis, inflammation, and viral infectivity determinants involved in the severity of SARS-CoV-2. Such GRS could improve the early risk stratification of COVID-19 patients and optimize treatment strategies. Purpose To evaluate the capacity of a genetic risk score (GRS) with candidate genes to predict COVID-19 severity. Methods We conducted an age- and sex-matched case-control study with 1:2 ratio recruitment involving 2454 patients from Catalan hospitals and primary care. Cases were hospitalized severe (requiring at least oxygen treatment) or fatal COVID-19 patients;and controls were moderate-symptom and asymptomatic patients treated at home. Standard parametric and non-parametric methods, as required, were used to compare patient characteristics by severity. Individual genotypes for 33 CAD, 14 thrombosis, 22 inflammation, 15 viral infectivity SNPs and 2 COVID-19 SNPs already published were tested for association with severity with Cochran-Armitage statistics and p-values corrected for multiple comparisons. GRS was computed as the unweighted count of adverse alleles (0, 1 or 2). The odds ratio of severe COVID-19 was analysed for GRS (and its component SNPs) with logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Area under the curve (AUC) improvement and net reclassification index (NRI) for GRS was estimated from a basic model including CAD and COVID-19 severity risk factors. Models’ performance was measured with the Akaike information criterion. Results SNPs identifications are not shown to prevent patent conflict. Cases and control characteristics are compared in Table 1. Cases had a more adverse cardiovascular and anthropometric risk profile. After correcting for multiple testing by Benjamini-Hochberg criteria, we observed 13 SNPs to be significantly associated with severity. After excluding the close SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 7 were retained in the GRS model, which yielded the discrimination and reclassification characteristics described in Table 2. Conclusion A GRS with 7 SNPs related to CAD, thrombosis and inflammation significantly improves the severe COVID-19 risk assessment done with age, sex, comorbidity, and anthropometry alone. CV and anthropometric risk profile OR of COVID-19 severity for a 7-SNP GRS

5.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology ; 29(SUPPL 1):i462-i463, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1915611

ABSTRACT

Background: The disease presentation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. COVID-19 patients with pre-existing coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors or overt cardiovascular disease are at particular risk of severe disease. We hypothesised that a specific genetic risk score (GRS) based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) allele count to score COVID-19 severity might include SNPs counts related to CAD incidence and to thrombosis, inflammation, and viral infectivity determinants involved in the severity of SARS-CoV-2. Such GRS could improve the early risk stratification of COVID-19 patients and optimize treatment strategies. Purpose: To evaluate the capacity of a genetic risk score (GRS) with candidate genes to predict COVID-19 severity. Methods: We conducted an age- and sex-matched case-control study with 1:2 ratio recruitment involving 2454 patients from Catalan hospitals and primary care. Cases were hospitalized severe (requiring at least oxygen treatment) or fatal COVID-19 patients;and controls were moderate-symptom and asymptomatic patients treated at home. Standard parametric and non-parametric methods, as required, were used to compare patient characteristics by severity. Individual genotypes for 33 CAD, 14 thrombosis, 22 inflammation, 15 viral infectivity SNPs and 2 COVID-19 SNPs already published were tested for association with severity with Cochran-Armitage statistics and p-values corrected for multiple comparisons. GRS was computed as the unweighted count of adverse alleles (0, 1 or 2). The odds ratio of severe COVID-19 was analysed for GRS (and its component SNPs) with logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Area under the curve (AUC) improvement and net reclassification index (NRI) for GRS was estimated from a basic model including CAD and COVID-19 severity risk factors. Models' performance was measured with the Akaike information criterion. Results: SNPs identifications are not shown to prevent patent conflict. Cases and control characteristics are compared in Table 1. Cases had a more adverse cardiovascular and anthropometric risk profile. After correcting for multiple testing by Benjamini-Hochberg criteria, we observed 13 SNPs to be significantly associated with severity. After excluding the close SNPs in linkage disequilibrium, 7 were retained in the GRS model, which yielded the discrimination and reclassification characteristics described in Table 2. Conclusion: A GRS with 7 SNPs related to CAD, thrombosis and inflammation significantly improves the severe COVID-19 risk assessment done with age, sex, comorbidity, and anthropometry alone. (Figure Presented).

6.
Humanidades & Inovacao ; 8(68):130-141, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1893913

ABSTRACT

This text portrays the research that aimed to map contemporary strategies, research and policies that ensured the place of the right to play in childhood in the contemporary context of the Covid-19 pandemic. An exploratory qualitative approach was used, through bibliographic and documentary research, and digital communications. The analysis consisted of data collection and analysis of the strategies found on digital platforms and social networks. This interlocution evidenced epistemological and political reflections of recognition of childhood as a social category, of children as active members of society and as subjects of the different institutions in which they participate. In addition, it presented playful practices, guided and developed by educators and families, occurred in the contemporary pandemic context that somehow guaranteed the right to play. It revealed the need to develop public policies, research, diverse strategies and training processes that reposition the place of play within society, for teachers and families.

7.
Ansiedad y Estres ; 28(2):108-114, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879587

ABSTRACT

The distribution of teletreatment carried out by psychologists during the COVID-19 pandemic for GAD, specific phobia, agoraphobia, social anxiety, panic, OCD and PTSD, and whether experience in teletherapy has an significant effect on demand have not been studied. The results indicate that GAD with 69.2% has been the disorder that has received the most teletherapy and phobia with 60.5%, the least. Panic, social anxiety, PTSD, OCD, and agoraphobia had a demand of 67.2%, 66.8%, 64.0%, 63.5%, and 62.2%, respectively. The experience in teletherapy was significant. Tele-treatment for experienced psychologists increased an average of 93.9% compared to 35.7% for those without experience. 22.8% of psychologists did not carry out anxiety teletherapy. These results may be useful to develop specific prevention and telematic intervention programs for anxiety disorders in the face of future coronavirus pandemics. © 2022. Sociedad Española para el Estudio de la Ansiedad y el Estrés - SEAS. Colegio de la Psicología de Madrid. Todos los derechos reservados. All Rights Reserved.

8.
13th International Conference on E-Education, E-Business, E-Management, and E-Learning, IC4E 2022 ; : 330-336, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840641

ABSTRACT

The world is in the midst of a COVID-19 education crisis, and schools need to urgently overcome this and emerge stronger. It is in times of crisis that good leaders emerge. As such, De La Salle Santiago Zobel School (DLSZ) is in the process of revisiting its leadership practices regarding the selection of administrators. The major purpose of this study was to gather the perspectives of the employees about leadership appointments, taking on administration roles, and succession planning and development. This collaborative action research employed a descriptive mixed method approach. Employees (N=174) from different departments and offices were the research participants. Quantitative data were extracted from the online survey questionnaire. The qualitative data, subjected to thematic analysis, were gathered from document review, open-ended questions from the survey, and future creating workshops. The guidelines, criteria for selection and screening process are described in its Administrators Manual. While findings revealed that the majority of the respondents are knowledgeable about and in favor of the DLSZ's appointment practices, less than half of them expressed willingness to be administrators. Those who favorably considered assuming school leadership roles had similar opinions about acquiring graduate degrees and corresponding certifications. Results showed that almost all of the employees regarded that succession planning initiatives can bring forth a positive impact in honing future leaders. Based on this study, DLSZ may prioritize implementing a succession planning and development program which will facilitate the effective identification, selection, and development of its leaders. © 2022 ACM.

10.
Fisioterapia ; 2022.
Article in Spanish | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755873

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Determinar el grado de satisfacción de los cuidadores y de los pacientes con ictus que han recibido fisioterapia en formato de telerrehabilitación (TR) durante la primera oleada de la pandemia de SARS-CoV-2. Material y métodos Se elaboró un estudio descriptivo mediante un cuestionario. El cuestionario incluía preguntas sobre la experiencia general, los problemas encontrados, los resultados subjetivos obtenidos y las sugerencias para futuras ediciones. Resultados Se seleccionaron 26 sujetos: 16 pacientes (9 hombres y 7 mujeres) con diagnóstico de ictus y 10 cuidadores (3 hombres y 7 mujeres). El 87,6% de los pacientes y el 90% de los cuidadores consideraron que el sistema de conexión era fácil de usar, aunque el 30% dijeron que elegirían otro sistema de conexión en el futuro. Además, el 87,6% de los pacientes estaban de acuerdo o muy de acuerdo en repetir el tratamiento de TR. Conclusión Los pacientes con ictus y los cuidadores que participan en el programa TR han mostrado un grado de satisfacción aceptable con su participación.

12.
Revista Cubana de Estomatologia ; 58(4), 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1733360

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the International Congress programmed to mark the 120th anniversary of the Dental School of Havana had to change its format and was held virtually in November 2020. Objective: Characterize the virtual International Congress Dentistry 2020, held in the time of COVID-19. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted based on the final statistical reports provided by the Congress website and applying historical-logical and document review methods. Results: A total 970 users were registered in the Congress page. Of these, 899 were Cuban and 71 were foreign. All the provinces were represented. 81% of the users were professionals and 16.8% were students. 391 papers were accepted and published, for 82.8%;373 papers were written by Cuban authors and 18 by foreign authors. 18% of the papers dealt with general comprehensive dentistry in primary health care, followed by orthodontics (14.3%). 2 405 comments were made, with 92.3% of the published papers receiving comments. 354 papers were recorded in the Congress Proceedings. Conclusions: Most of the users registered were Cuban, female and professionals. All the provinces were represented. Most of the papers received met the publication requirements and almost one fifth dealt with general comprehensive dentistry in primary health care. Students had an outstanding participation. © 2021, Editorial Ciencias Medicas. All rights reserved.

13.
Rev Neurol ; 74(5): 156-162, 2022 03 01.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716464

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients who have suffered a chronic cerebrovascular accident or a stroke need long-term physiotherapy treatments. However, they have had to be stopped due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To be able to offer these patients an online functional assessment, a proposal was put forward to design an adaptation of the Spanish version of the Fugl Meyer assessment scale and to test its viability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The adapted online scale, based on the Fugl Meyer assessment scale. The motor function, balance and pain domains were kept, and items requiring assistance for the patient were removed. This scale was administered to 13 patients with a chronic cerebrovascular accident from the Salamanca Acquired Brain Injury Association (Asociacion de Dano Cerebral Adquirido) via different web platforms. The procedure followed was the same as for the original scale and lasted from 30 to 45 minutes. RESULTS: All the patients completed the Fugl Meyer assessment scale, online version. The greatest difficulty was encountered in the assessment of the lower limbs. Patients and physiotherapists highlighted how easy it was to complete the items in the scale. On comparing the versions, statistically significant positive correlations were found with the original version (p < 0.001) and the correlation coefficients indicated a strong association. The difference between the equivalent sections of the scale in each instrument was no greater than 5%, except for balance. CONCLUSION: The Fugl Meyer assessment scale, online version, is a feasible, useful and easy to apply scale that allows assessment of the functional status of stroke patients and can help meet the current needs during the COVID-19 pandemic.


TITLE: Adaptación y viabilidad de la versión telemática de la escala Fugl Meyer para la evaluación de pacientes tras accidentes cerebrovasculares.Introducción. Los pacientes que han sufrido un accidente cerebrovascular crónico o un ictus necesitan tratamientos de fisioterapia a largo plazo. Sin embargo, la pandemia de COVID-19 ha obligado a detenerlos. Con el objetivo de poder ofrecer una evaluación funcional de forma telemática a estos pacientes, se propuso diseñar una adaptación de la escala de evaluación Fugl Meyer-versión española y comprobar su viabilidad. Pacientes y métodos. Escala telemática adaptada, basada en la escala de evaluación Fugl Meyer. Se mantuvieron los dominios de función motora, equilibrio y dolor, y se eliminaron ítems que requerían ayuda para el paciente. Dicha escala se administró a 14 pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular crónico de la Asociación de Daño Cerebral Adquirido de Salamanca, a través de diferentes plataformas web, siguiendo el mismo procedimiento que la escala original y con una duración de 30 a 45 minutos. Resultados. Todos los pacientes completaron la escala de evaluación Fugl Meyer-versión telemática. La mayor dificultad se encontró para la evaluación de las extremidades inferiores. Los pacientes y los fisioterapeutas destacaron la facilidad de realización de los ítems de la escala. Al comparar las versiones se encontraron correlaciones positivas estadísticamente significativas con la versión original (p menor de 0,001) y los coeficientes de correlación indicaron una fuerte asociación. La diferencia entre las secciones de la escala equivalentes en cada instrumento no fue mayor que el 5%, excepto en el equilibrio. Conclusión. La escala de evaluación Fugl Meyer-versión telemática, es una escala viable, útil y fácil de aplicar que permite la evaluación del estado funcional de los pacientes con ictus y que puede responder a las necesidades actuales durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Disability Evaluation , Stroke/diagnosis , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
14.
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 135:e9-e10, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1683002

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications associated with COVID-19 are a significant cause of morbidity, affecting both central and peripheral nervous systems. We aim to assess the electrophysiological features of peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We included 31 patients between March 2020 and April 2021 with a suspected diagnosis of PNI with COVID-19. We performed motor and sensory nerve conduction studies and electromyography (EMG) in the upper and lower extremities. Results: The mean age was 66.8±3.1 years (21 males, 10 females). A 96.7% (30 patients) were admitted to ICU, with a mean stay of 32.9±5.1 days. The neurophysiological examination showed, in descending order: mixed polyneuropathies 22.6% (7 patients), motor axonal polyneuropathies 19.4% (6 patients), sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathies 19.4% (6 patients), peroneal mononeuropathies 12.9% (4 patients), brachial plexopathies 12.9% (4 patients), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) 6.4% (2 patients), Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) 3.2% (1 patient) and femoral mononeuropathy 3.2% (1 patient). The low amplitude in both motor and sensory conduction studies was the most common neurophysiological finding except in GBS and MFS that showed prolonged distal latency and slow conduction velocity. EMG showed spontaneous activity in all patients. Conclusion: Our study shows the main neuropathy damage related to COVID-19 was critical illness polyneuropathy;however, we must consider mononeuropathies in these patients. There is broad evidence concerning the peripheral nervous system injury as a complication in patients hospitalized by COVID-19, being the neurophysiological tests a valuable tool to assess the peripheral nerve function. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Neurophysiology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

15.
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 135:e9-e9, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1683001

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The coronavirus SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) could cause damage to neural tissue. This injury is responsible for neuromuscular disturbance after the onset of respiratory symptoms in these patients. Objective: is to analyze the characteristics of all patients diagnosed with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) reported from March 2020 to March 2021 in the Clinical Neurophysiology Department from La Princesa University Hospital. Methods: Patients were classified into two groups 17 patients admitted to the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 (Cases Group, CaG) and 12 patients without COVID-19 infection (Control Group, CoG). We performed both electroneurography and electromyography. Results: The distribution of the subtypes of the CIP was as follows: axonal motor polyneuropathy (24% in CaG vs 25% in CoG), axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy (35% in CaG vs 58% in CoG), and mixed sensorimotor polyneuropathy (41% in CaG vs 16% in CoG). Needle EMG showed spontaneous activity in 100% in CaG vs 75% in CoG. The days of hospitalisation were 64.8 ± 7.9 in the CaG and 54.5 ± 9.9 in the CoG. Favourable evolution was observed in the 35% in CaG vs 42% in CoG, and unfavourable evolution was observed in the 41% in CaG vs 33% in CoG. Conclusion: We highlighted the nerves damaged in patients infected by COVID-19 and admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Viral neuropathy is thought to be primarily axonal;however, we observe a high prevalence of demyelinating injuries in patients affected with this infection. Considering these results, we focus on the importance of early neurorehabilitation to improve nerve function. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Neurophysiology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

16.
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 135:e9-e9, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1683000

ABSTRACT

Objective: Physicians have observed ventilation disorders in patients with COVID-19. The possible impairment of the diaphragm could be related to the systemic inflammatory response that typifies this infection. We aimed to assess the diaphragmatic function in patients with severe COVID-19. Methods: We recruited patients admitted with pneumonia and positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2, differentiating two groups according to their respiratory symptoms. The cases group consisted of 9 inpatients with moderate-severe dyspnea, pain with diaphragmatic origin or hiccup. The control group consisted of 10 inpatients who suffered from mild dyspnea. We performed phrenic nerve electroneurogram and diaphragmatic ultrasound to assess the diaphragmatic function. Results: We observed differences in the amplitude of evoked potentials, being 25.92% (SEM:7.22) in the cases group vs 19.81% (SEM:5.27) in the control group (p = 0.711). The right diaphragm thickness mean was 46.67% (SEM:8.86) in the cases group vs 62.15% (SEM:5.58) in the control group (p = 0.432), the left diaphragm thickness mean was 57.89% (SEM:15.36) in the cases group vs 73.34% (SEM:6.74) in the control group (p = 0.730), the right expiratory fraction mean was 0.53 (SEM:0.11) in the cases group vs 0.59 (SEM:0.05) in the control group (p = 0.674), and the left expiratory fraction mean was 0.58 (SEM:0.15) in the cases group vs 0.73 (SEM:0.07) in the control group (p = 0.195). Conclusion: Although diaphragmatic dysfunction is difficult to detect, our combined functional and morphological approach with electroneurograms and ultrasounds could improve diagnostic sensitivity. We suggest that diaphragmatic dysfunction could play a relevant role in respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Neurophysiology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

17.
Clinical Neurophysiology ; 135:e2-e2, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1682999

ABSTRACT

Objective: One of the most relevant findings of COVID-19 is the respiratory damage that leads to an impairment in tissue oxygenation during the course of the disease. To study this disease's physiopathology, we have analyzed the respiratory patterns and the hemodynamic variations related to postural changes in inpatients with COVID-19. Methods: We performed a prospective study including 11 polygraph and hemodynamic studies from inpatients admitted for COVID-19 who benefited from positional changes. To assess the respiratory parameters, we conducted polygraph studies. To evaluate the hemodynamic variables, we used a thoracic electrical bioimpedance. Results: We observed a minimum oxygen saturation median of 85.00% (IQR: 7.00) in the supine position vs 91.00% (IQR: 8.00) in the prone position (p=0.173). The airflow restriction in the supine position was 2.70% (IQR: 6.55) vs 1.55% (IQR: 2.80) in the prone position (p=0.383). We observed a slight tendency to decrease in all parameters in the prone position concerning the hemodynamic variables, although they were no statistically significant. We show a decrease in vascular resistance mean in the prone position, being 18.2% vs 36.4% in the supine position (p=0.871). Conclusion: Our report shows an improvement in oxygen saturation and airflow restriction related to the placement of the patient in the prone position. Also, we observed a mild enhancement in hemodynamic variables. The data shown is relevant because early identification of the more severe cases could help anticipate the clinical progression using the therapeutic oxygen measures necessary to avoid the disease's fatal progression. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Clinical Neurophysiology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

18.
Safety and Health at Work ; 13:S169-S170, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677042

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This project arose to suggest in-depth research on key topics to give our health system better tools to face future outbreaks. And in order to determine the flaws in the response given to the COVID-19 pandemic and what led to them, all to prevent them from happening in future outbreaks. MATERIAL AND METHODS: WHO’s tuberculosis laboratory biosafety manual and the tuberculosis patient insulation procedure from the Bellvitge hospital as examples of protocols before the pandemic and V2, V2.3 and V3 of Pla EPI as examples implemented during the outbreak have been used. Pla EPI was created to help distribute PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) among healthcare personnel based on their tasks and taking into consideration the lack of it due to the collapse in the supply chain faced during the first wave. By summarizing the documents of interest using data tables. A comparative between the PPE proposed in the different published versions of ‘’Pla EPI’’ has been made. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This comparison has led to the conclusion that new protocols offer a more bilateral healthcare worker/patient protection instead of only focusing on protecting the worker from patients' pathogens. In relation to pla EPI, considering the now demonstrated importance of aerosols in transmission of COVID-19, we conclude that PPE available at the moment isn’t enough to protect against this type of diseases and that more research should be done towards better PPE. We should stop relying on a few countries to provide the whole healthcare system with PPE, after all, that was the main cause of PPE shortage during the first wave.

19.
Value in Health ; 25(1):S128, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1650264

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With over 172 million cases and 3.7 million deaths worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed health systems forcing governments to implement non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) to control the spread of the disease. Spain was one of the first and most severely impacted countries by the COVID-19 pandemic. The models developed herein aim to assess the clinical and economic consequences of such NPI, based on the Spanish case. Methods: Two separate models were developed to assess the epidemiological and economic impacts of different NPI (i.e. social restrictions and testing) on the COVID-19 pandemic. First, a dynamic, modified, Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed (SEIR) model was developed. Then, the output from the SEIR model was used in the second model to estimate direct healthcare costs and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) changes using a regression model which correlated different NPI and GDP changes observed across 42 countries. Overall, 13 scenarios combining different NPIs based on social restrictions and testing rates were simulated through both models. Results: Based on the results from the SEIR simulation both increased social restrictions (Composite COVID-19 Stringency Index≥73) and increased testing rates (positivity≤1%) would manage to control the COVID-19 spread. However, notable differences are observed in terms of direct healthcare costs and GDP impact. Policies entailing increased testing rates translated into higher healthcare costs and lower GDP decline (vs. same quarter from previous year), whereas increased social restrictions are correlated with greater GDP declines, with differences of up to 4.4% points among scenarios. Increased test sensitivity also leads to higher reductions on cases, hospitalizations and deaths. Conclusions: Increased testing appears to be able to control the COVID-19 pandemic while minimizing the GDP impact. These models may provide evidence for decision makers during future pandemics and in countries where vaccination rates are still low helping to better balance health and socioeconomic concerns.

20.
2021 Philippine Geomatics Symposium 2021 ; 46:57-63, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1622757

ABSTRACT

Manual vehicle counting is often tedious, expensive, and time-consuming. While automatic counting from CCTV allows for annual average daily traffic estimation, CCTV files in the Philippines are not available to the public and do not fully cover all road extents. In this study, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are employed to use readily available satellite images to obtain vehicle count in selected road segments in the Central Business Districts of Quezon City before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. Using the existing Google Earth Images, a segmentation algorithm using ENVI Feature Classification was developed to allow remote counting of vehicles from the earliest image in 2018. The devised algorithm was able to delineate, identify, and classify according to the types of vehicles that are visible on the image. An average error rate of 12.24% was found by comparison of automated counts and manual counts on the images, while a regression analysis yielded a value of R2 Combining double low line 0.9227 that denoted a strong relationship between automated and manual counts. Vehicle density was calculated, and percent differences were obtained to determine the relative differences of the vehicle counts from the vehicle count of the earliest image taken in 2018. It was found that the vehicle density declined by at least 81% by March 25, 2020. The methodological framework presented in this study provides estimates of vehicle counts and vehicle density. It can be further improved if vehicle counts, on the same location and period, from field validation surveys are available. © International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives

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