Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 27
Filter
1.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 46: e43, 2022.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884926

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe the clinical features of patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome who have recently been discharged from intensive care units (ICUs) included in a chronic care program in Colombia. Methods: Descriptive case series study of a cohort of patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome who entered the Remeo® chronic care program between July 2020 and May 2021. Clinical features, complications, and treatments are described. Results: Among patients in the program discharged from an ICU, 122 cases of post-COVID-19 syndrome were identified. These patients continued in the program. The mean age was 66.9 years (CI 64-68); 62.29% were men, 88.9% (109) had a tracheostomy, 72.8% (90) had a gastrostomy, and 99% required supplemental oxygen. In the first four months, 9,518 interventions were carried out, including physical therapy (x̄:20.7), occupational therapy (x̄:10.9), respiratory therapy (x̄:41.4), and psychology (x̄:4.8). Conclusions: The chronic care program was an option for patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome recently discharged from an ICU, with a view to minimizing ICU occupation rates and facilitating patients' return to their homes.


Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 após internação em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI), acompanhados em um programa de cuidados prolongados na Colômbia. Métodos: Estudo descritivo de série de casos oriundos de uma coorte de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 admitidos no programa de cuidados prolongados Remeo® entre julho de 2020 e maio de 2021. Foram descritas as características clínicas desses pacientes, assim como complicações e tratamentos. Resultados: Foram identificados 122 casos de pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 que foram acompanhados no programa após alta da UTI. A média de idade foi 66,9 anos (IC 64­68), 62,29% pertenciam ao sexo masculino, 88,9% (109) haviam sido submetidos a traqueostomia, 72,8% (90) a gastrostomia e 99% precisavam usar oxigênio suplementar. Ao todo, 9.518 intervenções foram realizadas nos 4 meses iniciais de acompanhamento no programa, incluindo fisioterapia (x̄ 20,7), terapia ocupacional (x̄ 10,9), terapia respiratória (x̄ 41,4) e atendimento psicológico (x̄ 4,8). Conclusões: O programa de cuidados prolongados ofereceu uma alternativa aos pacientes com síndrome pós-COVID-19 após internação em UTI e teve o objetivo de reduzir a ocupação das UTIs e facilitar a transição do paciente da UTI para casa.

2.
Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health ; 46, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1864083

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas de pacientes con síndrome pos-COVID-19 recién egresados de unidades cuidado intensivo (UCI) incluidos en un programa de cuidados crónicos en Colombia. Métodos. Estudio descriptivo de serie de casos procedentes de una cohorte de pacientes con síndrome pos-COVID-19 que ingresaron al programa de cuidados crónicos Remeo® entre julio de 2020 y mayo de 2021. Se describen las características clínicas, las complicaciones y el tratamiento de estos pacientes. Resultados. Se identificaron 122 casos de síndrome pos-COVID-19 dados de alta de la UCI para continuar en el Programa. La media de la edad fue de 66,9 años (IC 64-68);62,29% fueron hombres, 88,9% (109) tenían traqueostomía, 72,8% (90) gastrostomía, y 99% requerían oxígeno suplementario. Se llevaron a cabo 9 518 intervenciones en los primeros 4 meses, inclusive terapia física (x̄:20,7), terapia ocupacional (x̄:10,9), terapia respiratoria (x̄:41,4) y psicología (x̄:4,8). Conclusiones. El Programa de cuidados crónicos representó una alternativa para pacientes con síndrome pos-COVID-19 recién egresados de las UCI, dirigido a minimizar la ocupación de estas y facilitar el paso del paciente desde la UCI al domicilio.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336206

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic prompted a global vaccination effort and the development of numerous COVID-19 vaccines at an unprecedented scale and pace. As a result, current COVID- 19 vaccination regimens comprise diverse vaccine modalities, immunogen combinations and dosing intervals. Here, we compare vaccine-specific antibody and memory B cell responses following two-dose mRNA, single-dose Ad26.COV2.S and two-dose ChAdOx1 or combination ChAdOx1/mRNA vaccination. Plasma neutralizing activity as well as the magnitude, clonal composition and antibody maturation of the RBD-specific memory B cell compartment showed substantial differences between the vaccination regimens. While individual monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells exhibited similar binding affinities and neutralizing potency against Wuhan-Hu-1 SARS-CoV-2, there were significant differences in epitope specificity and neutralizing breadth against viral variants of concern. Although the ChAdOx1 vaccine was inferior to mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S in several respects, biochemical and structural analyses revealed enrichment in a subgroup of memory B cell neutralizing antibodies with distinct RBD-binding properties resulting in remarkable potency and breadth.

4.
Medicina clinica (English ed.) ; 158(7):315-323, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1823708

ABSTRACT

Background Hypertension is a prevalent condition among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Whether renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are beneficial or harmful is controversial. Methods We have performed a national retrospective, nonexperimental comparative study from two tertiary hospitals to evaluate the impact of chronic use of RAAS inhibitors in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed to strengthen our findings. Results Of 849 patients, 422 (49.7%) patients were hypertensive and 310 (73.5%) were taking RAAS inhibitors at baseline. Hypertensive patients were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater incidence of respiratory failure (−0.151 [95% CI −0.218, −0.084]). Overall mortality in hypertensive patients was 28.4%, but smaller among those with prescribed RAAS inhibitors before (−0.167 [95% CI −0.220, −0.114]) and during hospitalization (0.090 [−0.008,0.188]). Similar findings were observed after two propensity score matches that evaluated the benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers among hypertensive patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of hypertensive patients found that age, diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, and renal failure were independently associated with all-cause mortality. On the contrary, ACEIs decreased the risk of death (OR 0.444 [95% CI 0.224–0.881]). Meta-analysis suggested a protective benefit of RAAS inhibitors (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42–0.8]) among hypertensive COVID-19. Conclusion Our data suggest that RAAS inhibitors may play a protective role in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. This finding was supported by a meta-analysis of the current evidence. Maintaining these medications during hospital stay may not negatively affect COVID-19 outcomes.

5.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 158(7): 315-323, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821410

ABSTRACT

Background: Hypertension is a prevalent condition among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are beneficial or harmful is controversial. Methods: We have performed a national retrospective, nonexperimental comparative study from two tertiary hospitals to evaluate the impact of chronic use of RAAS inhibitors in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed to strengthen our findings. Results: Of 849 patients, 422 (49.7%) patients were hypertensive and 310 (73.5%) were taking RAAS inhibitors at baseline. Hypertensive patients were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater incidence of respiratory failure (-0.151 [95% CI -0.218, -0.084]). Overall mortality in hypertensive patients was 28.4%, but smaller among those with prescribed RAAS inhibitors before (-0.167 [95% CI -0.220, -0.114]) and during hospitalization (0.090 [-0.008,0.188]). Similar findings were observed after two propensity score matches that evaluated the benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers among hypertensive patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of hypertensive patients found that age, diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, and renal failure were independently associated with all-cause mortality. On the contrary, ACEIs decreased the risk of death (OR 0.444 [95% CI 0.224-0.881]). Meta-analysis suggested a protective benefit of RAAS inhibitors (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42-0.8]) among hypertensive COVID-19. Conclusion: Our data suggest that RAAS inhibitors may play a protective role in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. This finding was supported by a meta-analysis of the current evidence. Maintaining these medications during hospital stay may not negatively affect COVID-19 outcomes.


Introducción: La hipertensión es una condición prevalente entre los pacientes infectados por el SARS-CoV-2. Es controvertido si los inhibidores del sistema renina-angiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA) son beneficiosos o perjudiciales. Métodos: Hemos desarrollado un estudio comparativo nacional retrospectivo y no experimental en 2 hospitales terciarios para evaluar el impacto del uso crónico de inhibidores del SRAA en pacientes hipertensos con COVID-19. Se realizó un metaanálisis para reforzar los hallazgos. Resultados: De 849 pacientes, 422 (49,7%) eran hipertensos y 310 (73,5%) tomaban inhibidores del SRAA al inicio del estudio. Los pacientes hipertensos eran mayores, tenían más comorbilidades y una mayor incidencia de insuficiencia respiratoria (−0,151; IC 95%: [−0,218; −0,084]). La mortalidad global en los pacientes hipertensos fue del 28,4%, pero fue menor entre los que tenían prescritos inhibidores del SRAA antes (−0,167; IC 95%: [−0,220; −0,114]) y durante la hospitalización (0,090; [−0,008; 0,188]). Se observaron hallazgos similares tras 2 emparejamientos de puntuación de propensión que evaluaron el beneficio de los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina y los bloqueadores de los receptores de angiotensina entre los pacientes hipertensos. El análisis de regresión logística multivariante de los pacientes hipertensos reveló que la edad, la diabetes mellitus, la proteína C reactiva y la insuficiencia renal se asociaban de forma independiente con la mortalidad por todas las causas. Por el contrario, los inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina disminuyeron el riesgo de muerte (OR 0,444; IC 95%: 0,224-0,881). El metaanálisis indicó un beneficio protector de los inhibidores del SRAA (OR 0,6; IC 95%: 0,42-0,8) entre los hipertensos con COVID-19. Conclusión: Nuestros datos indican que los inhibidores del SRAA pueden desempeñar un papel protector en los pacientes hipertensos con COVID-19. Este hallazgo fue apoyado por un metaanálisis de la evidencia actual. Su mantenimiento durante la estancia hospitalaria puede no afectar negativamente a los resultados de la COVID-19.

6.
Nature ; 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805634

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected many vaccinated and convalescent individuals1-3. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals who received three doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from more serious consequences of infection4. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving three mRNA vaccine doses5,6. We find that the third dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the second dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared with antibodies obtained after the second dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells, which differed from persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analysed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment after the third mRNA vaccine dose neutralized the Omicron variant. Thus, individuals receiving three doses of an mRNA vaccine have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help to explain why a third dose of a vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.

7.
Immunity ; 55(6): 998-1012.e8, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778212

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination produces neutralizing antibody responses that contribute to better clinical outcomes. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike trimer (S) constitute the two major neutralizing targets for antibodies. Here, we use NTD-specific probes to capture anti-NTD memory B cells in a longitudinal cohort of infected individuals, some of whom were vaccinated. We found 6 complementation groups of neutralizing antibodies. 58% targeted epitopes outside the NTD supersite, 58% neutralized either Gamma or Omicron, and 14% were broad neutralizers that also neutralized Omicron. Structural characterization revealed that broadly active antibodies targeted three epitopes outside the NTD supersite including a class that recognized both the NTD and SD2 domain. Rapid recruitment of memory B cells producing these antibodies into the plasma cell compartment upon re-infection likely contributes to the relatively benign course of subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317520

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Deterioration is sometimes unexpected in SARS-CoV2 infection. The aim of our study is to establish laboratory predictors of mortality in COVID-19 disease which can help to identify high risk patients. Methods: : All patients admitted to hospital due to Covid-19 disease were included. Laboratory biomarkers that contributed with significant predictive value for predicting mortality to the clinical model were included. Cut-off points were established, and finally a risk score was built. Results: : 893 patients were included. Median age was 68.2 years(CI 95% 53.0-83.4). 87(9.7%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit(ICU) and 72(8.1%) also needed mechanical ventilation support. 171(19.1%) patients died. A Covid-19 Lab score ranging from 0 to 30 points was calculated on the basis of a multivariate logistic regression model in order to predict mortality with a weighted score that included haemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, creatinine, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer. Three groups were established. Low mortality risk group under 12 points, 12 to 18 were included as moderate risk, and high risk group were those with 19 or more points. Low risk group as reference, moderate and high patients showed mortality OR 4.75(CI95% 2.60-8.68) and 23.86(CI 95% 13.61-41.84), respectively. C-statistic was 0-85(0.82-0.88) and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value 0.63. Conclusion: Covid-19 Lab score can very easily predict mortality in patients at any moment during admission secondary to SARS-CoV2 infection. It is a simple and dynamic score, and it can be very easily replicated. It could help physicians to identify high risk patients to foresee clinical deterioration.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327676

ABSTRACT

The omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 infected very large numbers of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated and convalescent individuals. The penetrance of this variant in the antigen experienced human population can be explained in part by the relatively low levels of plasma neutralizing activity against Omicron in people who were infected or vaccinated with the original Wuhan-Hu-1 strain. The 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose produces an initial increase in circulating anti-Omicron neutralizing antibodies, but titers remain 10-20-fold lower than against Wuhan-Hu-1 and are, in many cases, insufficient to prevent infection. Despite the reduced protection from infection, individuals that received 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine were highly protected from the more serious consequences of infection. Here we examine the memory B cell repertoire in a longitudinal cohort of individuals receiving 3 mRNA vaccine doses. We find that the 3 rd dose is accompanied by an increase in, and evolution of, anti-receptor binding domain specific memory B cells. The increase is due to expansion of memory B cell clones that were present after the 2 nd vaccine dose as well as the emergence of new clones. The antibodies encoded by these cells showed significantly increased potency and breadth when compared to antibodies obtained after the 2 nd vaccine dose. Notably, the increase in potency was especially evident among newly developing clones of memory cells that differed from the persisting clones in targeting more conserved regions of the RBD. Overall, more than 50% of the analyzed neutralizing antibodies in the memory compartment obtained from individuals receiving a 3 rd mRNA vaccine dose neutralized Omicron. Thus, individuals receiving 3 doses of an mRNA vaccine encoding Wuhan-Hu-1, have a diverse memory B cell repertoire that can respond rapidly and produce antibodies capable of clearing even diversified variants such as Omicron. These data help explain why a 3 rd dose of an mRNA vaccine that was not specifically designed to protect against variants is effective against variant-induced serious disease.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327330

ABSTRACT

Summary SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination produces neutralizing antibody responses that contribute to better clinical outcomes. The receptor binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike trimer (S) constitute the two major neutralizing targets for the antibody system. Neutralizing antibodies targeting the RBD bind to several different sites on this domain. In contrast, most neutralizing antibodies to NTD characterized to date bind to a single supersite, however these antibodies were obtained by methods that were not NTD specific. Here we use NTD specific probes to focus on anti-NTD memory B cells in a cohort of pre-omicron infected individuals some of which were also vaccinated. Of 275 NTD binding antibodies tested 103 neutralized at least one of three tested strains: Wuhan-Hu-1, Gamma, or PMS20, a synthetic variant which is extensively mutated in the NTD supersite. Among the 43 neutralizing antibodies that were further characterized, we found 6 complementation groups based on competition binding experiments. 58% targeted epitopes outside the NTD supersite, and 58% neutralized either Gamma or Omicron, but only 14% were broad neutralizers. Three of the broad neutralizers were characterized structurally. C1520 and C1791 recognize epitopes on opposite faces of the NTD with a distinct binding pose relative to previously described antibodies allowing for greater potency and cross-reactivity with 7 different variants including Beta, Delta, Gamma and Omicron. Antibody C1717 represents a previously uncharacterized class of NTD-directed antibodies that recognizes the viral membrane proximal side of the NTD and SD2 domain, leading to cross-neutralization of Beta, Gamma and Omicron. We conclude SARS-CoV-2 infection and/or Wuhan-Hu-1 mRNA vaccination produces a diverse collection of memory B cells that produce anti-NTD antibodies some of which can neutralize variants of concern. Rapid recruitment of these cells into the antibody secreting plasma cell compartment upon re-infection likely contributes to the relatively benign course of subsequent infections with SARS-CoV-2 variants including omicron.

11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296284

ABSTRACT

Over one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several excellent vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies 1,2 . Here we report on a cohort of 63 COVID-19-convalescent individuals assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines 3,4 . In the absence of vaccination antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable from 6 to 12 months. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response, and as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern that are comparable to or greater than neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 achieved by vaccination of naïve individuals 2,5-8 . The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover, and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in variants of concern 4,9 . In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand dramatically after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.

12.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294471

ABSTRACT

Summary Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B-cell responses that continue to evolve for at least one year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern 1 . As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested 1, 2 . Here, we examine memory B cell evolution 5 months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer- BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccines in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge 5 months after vaccination of naïve individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with breadth equivalent to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.

13.
Nature ; 600(7889): 517-522, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454790

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection produces B cell responses that continue to evolve for at least a year. During that time, memory B cells express increasingly broad and potent antibodies that are resistant to mutations found in variants of concern1. As a result, vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines produces high levels of plasma neutralizing activity against all variants tested1,2. Here we examine memory B cell evolution five months after vaccination with either Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine in a cohort of SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals. Between prime and boost, memory B cells produce antibodies that evolve increased neutralizing activity, but there is no further increase in potency or breadth thereafter. Instead, memory B cells that emerge five months after vaccination of naive individuals express antibodies that are similar to those that dominate the initial response. While individual memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination, the overall neutralizing potency of plasma is greater following vaccination. These results suggest that boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines will increase plasma neutralizing activity but may not produce antibodies with equivalent breadth to those obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Evolution, Molecular , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , /immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity , Cohort Studies , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Young Adult
14.
EPMA J ; : 1-17, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The bacteraemia prediction is relevant because sepsis is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality. Bacteraemia prognosis primarily depends on a rapid diagnosis. The bacteraemia prediction would shorten up to 6 days the diagnosis, and, in conjunction with individual patient variables, should be considered to start the early administration of personalised antibiotic treatment and medical services, the election of specific diagnostic techniques and the determination of additional treatments, such as surgery, that would prevent subsequent complications. Machine learning techniques could help physicians make these informed decisions by predicting bacteraemia using the data already available in electronic hospital records. OBJECTIVE: This study presents the application of machine learning techniques to these records to predict the blood culture's outcome, which would reduce the lag in starting a personalised antibiotic treatment and the medical costs associated with erroneous treatments due to conservative assumptions about blood culture outcomes. METHODS: Six supervised classifiers were created using three machine learning techniques, Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and K-Nearest Neighbours, on the electronic health records of hospital patients. The best approach to handle missing data was chosen and, for each machine learning technique, two classification models were created: the first uses the features known at the time of blood extraction, whereas the second uses four extra features revealed during the blood culture. RESULTS: The six classifiers were trained and tested using a dataset of 4357 patients with 117 features per patient. The models obtain predictions that, for the best case, are up to a state-of-the-art accuracy of 85.9%, a sensitivity of 87.4% and an AUC of 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide cutting-edge metrics of interest in predictive medical models with values that exceed the medical practice threshold and previous results in the literature using classical modelling techniques in specific types of bacteraemia. Additionally, the consistency of results is reasserted because the three classifiers' importance ranking shows similar features that coincide with those that physicians use in their manual heuristics. Therefore, the efficacy of these machine learning techniques confirms their viability to assist in the aims of predictive and personalised medicine once the disease presents bacteraemia-compatible symptoms and to assist in improving the healthcare economy.

15.
Immunity ; 54(8): 1853-1868.e7, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330891

ABSTRACT

Antibodies elicited by infection accumulate somatic mutations in germinal centers that can increase affinity for cognate antigens. We analyzed 6 independent groups of clonally related severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibodies from 5 individuals shortly after infection and later in convalescence to determine the impact of maturation over months. In addition to increased affinity and neutralization potency, antibody evolution changed the mutational pathways for the acquisition of viral resistance and restricted neutralization escape options. For some antibodies, maturation imposed a requirement for multiple substitutions to enable escape. For certain antibodies, affinity maturation enabled the neutralization of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and heterologous sarbecoviruses. Antibody-antigen structures revealed that these properties resulted from substitutions that allowed additional variability at the interface with the RBD. These findings suggest that increasing antibody diversity through prolonged or repeated antigen exposure may improve protection against diversifying SARS-CoV-2 populations, and perhaps against other pandemic threat coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virulence/genetics
16.
Nature ; 595(7867): 426-431, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267998

ABSTRACT

More than one year after its inception, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains difficult to control despite the availability of several working vaccines. Progress in controlling the pandemic is slowed by the emergence of variants that appear to be more transmissible and more resistant to antibodies1,2. Here we report on a cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, 41% of whom also received mRNA vaccines3,4. In the absence of vaccination, antibody reactivity to the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing activity and the number of RBD-specific memory B cells remain relatively stable between 6 and 12 months after infection. Vaccination increases all components of the humoral response and, as expected, results in serum neutralizing activities against variants of concern similar to or greater than the neutralizing activity against the original Wuhan Hu-1 strain achieved by vaccination of naive individuals2,5-8. The mechanism underlying these broad-based responses involves ongoing antibody somatic mutation, memory B cell clonal turnover and development of monoclonal antibodies that are exceptionally resistant to SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutations, including those found in the variants of concern4,9. In addition, B cell clones expressing broad and potent antibodies are selectively retained in the repertoire over time and expand markedly after vaccination. The data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting and that convalescent individuals who receive available mRNA vaccines will produce antibodies and memory B cells that should be protective against circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259519

ABSTRACT

Last year, the COVID-19 pandemic had severe consequences on the health and well-being of millions of people. Different studies try to identify the main effects that the crisis and several lockdowns have had on the citizens' mental health. This research analyses the coping strategies generated by students from a community group and a clinical group in response to this crisis, using the Coping Responses Inventory-Adult Form (CRI-A) by Moos with a sample of 1074 students of Universidad de Extremadura. Multivariate analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis have been carried out, revealing, amongst other things, a greater predisposition of the clinical sample towards factors such as seeking guidance and support, cognitive avoidance or emotional discharge. Results show that students with prior mental health problems perform an unhealthy coping response based on avoidance strategies. This group of students suffers a double source of distress and anxiety, one derived from their prior psychopathologic problems and the stress of the lockdown and another one originating from an inefficient coping response, which makes coping strategies raise levels of distress and anxiety.

18.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 158(7): 315-323, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a prevalent condition among SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors are beneficial or harmful is controversial. METHODS: We have performed a national retrospective, nonexperimental comparative study from two tertiary hospitals to evaluate the impact of chronic use of RAAS inhibitors in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. A meta-analysis was performed to strengthen our findings. RESULTS: Of 849 patients, 422 (49.7%) patients were hypertensive and 310 (73.5%) were taking RAAS inhibitors at baseline. Hypertensive patients were older, had more comorbidities, and a greater incidence of respiratory failure (-0.151 [95% CI -0.218, -0.084]). Overall mortality in hypertensive patients was 28.4%, but smaller among those with prescribed RAAS inhibitors before (-0.167 [95% CI -0.220, -0.114]) and during hospitalization (0.090 [-0.008,0.188]). Similar findings were observed after two propensity score matches that evaluated the benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers among hypertensive patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of hypertensive patients found that age, diabetes mellitus, C-reactive protein, and renal failure were independently associated with all-cause mortality. On the contrary, ACEIs decreased the risk of death (OR 0.444 [95% CI 0.224-0.881]). Meta-analysis suggested a protective benefit of RAAS inhibitors (OR 0.6 [95% CI 0.42-0.8]) among hypertensive COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that RAAS inhibitors may play a protective role in hypertensive COVID-19 patients. This finding was supported by a meta-analysis of the current evidence. Maintaining these medications during hospital stay may not negatively affect COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aldosterone/pharmacology , Aldosterone/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensins/pharmacology , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Registries , Renin/pharmacology , Renin/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9361, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208750

ABSTRACT

Deterioration is sometimes unexpected in SARS-CoV2 infection. The aim of our study is to establish laboratory predictors of mortality in COVID-19 disease which can help to identify high risk patients. All patients admitted to hospital due to Covid-19 disease were included. Laboratory biomarkers that contributed with significant predictive value for predicting mortality to the clinical model were included. Cut-off points were established, and finally a risk score was built. 893 patients were included. Median age was 68.2 ± 15.2 years. 87(9.7%) were admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and 72(8.1%) needed mechanical ventilation support. 171(19.1%) patients died. A Covid-19 Lab score ranging from 0 to 30 points was calculated on the basis of a multivariate logistic regression model in order to predict mortality with a weighted score that included haemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, creatinine, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer. Three groups were established. Low mortality risk group under 12 points, 12 to 18 were included as moderate risk, and high risk group were those with 19 or more points. Low risk group as reference, moderate and high patients showed mortality OR 4.75(CI95% 2.60-8.68) and 23.86(CI 95% 13.61-41.84), respectively. C-statistic was 0-85(0.82-0.88) and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-value 0.63. Covid-19 Lab score can very easily predict mortality in patients at any moment during admission secondary to SARS-CoV2 infection. It is a simple and dynamic score, and it can be very easily replicated. It could help physicians to identify high risk patients to foresee clinical deterioration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
20.
Cardiol J ; 28(3): 360-368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1178544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk factors and usage of cardiovascular medication are prevalent among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Little is known about the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The goal herein, was to evaluate the prognostic impact of having heart disease (HD) and taking cardiovascular medications in a population diagnosed of COVID-19 who required hospitalization. Also, we studied the development of cardiovascular events during hospitalization. METHODS: Consecutive patients with definitive diagnosis of COVID-19 made by a positive real time- -polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs who were admitted to the hospital from March 15 to April 14 were included in a retrospective registry. The association of HD with mortality and with mortality or respiratory failure were the primary and secondary objectives, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 859 patients were included in the present analysis. Cardiovascular risk factors were related to death, particularly diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio in the multivariate analysis: 1.810 [1.159- -2.827], p = 0.009). A total of 113 (13.1%) patients had HD. The presence of HD identified a group of patients with higher mortality (35.4% vs. 18.2%, p < 0.001) but HD was not independently related to prognosis; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and beta-blockers did not worsen prognosis. Statins were independently associated with decreased mortality (0.551 [0.329-0.921], p = 0.023). Cardiovascular events during hospitalization identified a group of patients with poor outcome (mortality 31.8% vs. 19.3% without cardiovascular events, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of HD is related to higher mortality. Cardiovascular medications taken before admission are not harmful, statins being protective. The development of cardiovascular events during the course of the disease is related to poor outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL