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1.
Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2100700

ABSTRACT

Prior to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Disease 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, the rise in antimicrobial resistance was a major source of concern in public health. However, due to the novelty of SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic, antibiotics were administered prior to laboratory testing for secondary gram-negative bacteria (SGNB) in order to avoid or reduce the occurrence of SGNB infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the etiology, prevalence, and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of gram-negative bacteria (GNB) isolated from SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Respiratory and blood samples were collected from confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. They were subsequently cultured and bacterial isolates identified according to standard microbiological protocols. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed and interpreted according to Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) 2021 guidelines. A total of sixty-four non-repetitive GNB were isolated from respiratory samples and twenty-two GNB from blood samples. K. pneumoniae was the major cause of SGNB, followed byAcinetobacter species. K. pneumoniae had over 60% resistance to beta-Lactam combination agents, cephalosporin, and the carbapenem group of antibiotics. In the current study, we observed that K. pneumoniae was the major cause of SGNB and had high resistance to the antimicrobial agents. Hence, it is important that the epidemiology and susceptibility patterns of circulating organisms causing SGNB infection are always monitored to inform clinical treatment and decrease the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

2.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 12(4-s):101-111, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2056786

ABSTRACT

In-silico Computer-Aided Drug Design (CADD) often comprehends virtual screening (VS) of datasets of natural pharmaco-active compounds for drug discovery protocols. Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) still, remains to be a prime source of pharmaco-active compounds due to their unique chemical structural scaffolds and functionalities with distinct chemical characteristic feature from natural source that are much acquiescent to drug metabolism and kinetics. In the Post-COVID-Era number of publications pertaining to PBNPs and publicly accessible plant based natural product databases (PBNPDBs) has significantly increased. Moreover, PBNPs are important sources of inspiration or starting points to develop novel therapeutic agents. However, a well-structured, indepth ADME/Tox profile of PBNPs has been limited or lacking for many of such compounds, this hampers the successful exploitation of PBNPs by pharma industries. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) properties play key roles in the discovery/ development of drugs, pesticides, food additives, consumer products, and industrial chemicals. In the present study, ADMET-informatics of Tetradecanoic Acid (Myristic Acid) from ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera leaves to predict drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) outcomes has been taken up. This work contributes to the deeper understanding of Myristic acid as major source of drug from commonly available medicinal plant - Moringa oleifera with immense therapeutic potential. The data generated herein could be useful for NP based lead generation programs.

3.
Employee Relations: The International Journal ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2032215

ABSTRACT

Purpose This research aims to study employees' pandemic-induced work-home boundary violations using the work-home boundary model. Boundary theory and social theories provide the theoretical underpinnings for this study. The authors study the role of gender, gender role ideology, and fear of COVID-19 in explaining the relationship between work-home boundary violations, work-family conflict (WFC), and subjective well-being (SWB) among working professionals. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered using an online survey on married and working individuals (N = 354) and analyzed using the multi-group analysis technique in structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings Results show that men faced higher WFC due to job insecurity, while women reported higher WFC due to traditional gender role ideology. Surprisingly, men reported lower subjective well-being due to WFC compared to women, when fear of COVID-19 was low. One promising finding is the potential in using problem-focused coping strategy (PCS) as a boundary-work tactic for both men and women to ensure boundary control (BC) to reduce WFC and improve SWB during the new normal. Practical implications This study contributes to boundary theory, social role theory, and social support resource theory, along with practical implications for employees, organizations, and policymakers. Originality/value This study dissects the primary role of problem-focused coping as a valid coping mechanism for managing the issues arising from the pandemic-induced unfavorable working conditions.

4.
Journal of Neonatology ; : 09732179221100506, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1883430

ABSTRACT

Introduction:In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, studies on perinatal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection play an essential role in the understanding of the disease which in turn is necessary for optimal management of affected neonates.Aim and Objective:To determine the clinical outcomes in neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and to identify possible risk factors in perinatal transmission.Materials and Methods:This was a retrospective cohort study performed at level-3 teaching Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in South India. Medical records of all mothers who delivered in the COVID-19 facility and neonates born to COVID-19 confirmed mothers from April 15, 2020, to September 15, 2021, were collected and analyzed.Results:Of 15,720 deliveries, 556 mothers who tested positive for COVID-19 delivered 563 babies (7 twins), of which 6.3% were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Out of 563 babies, 14.5% were preterm and 95% were asymptomatic. Among COVID-19 positive mothers, cesarean was the most common mode of delivery (73.5% and 88% in COVID-19 positive and negative neonates respectively;P value = .01) and most of the babies were roomed-in (85.2% in COVID-19 positive and 94.6% in COVID-19 negative neonates;P value = .02). COVID-19 positive neonates had significantly high probability of pneumonia (P value = .003), sepsis (P value = .03), septic shock (P value = .01), and abnormal CXR (P value = .01). There was no significant difference in the mortality rate.Conclusion:COVID-19 positive status of the mother is not associated with increased risk of preterm birth, neonatal admission, morbidity, or mortality. The risk of transmission was not found to be associated with direct breastfeeding or rooming-in.

5.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 12(2):87-99, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1841785

ABSTRACT

Plant Based Natural Products (PBNPs) have been subject of interest since ancient time due to their use in food, industrial and biomedical applications. Research attention has further augmented to explore their phytochemical composition, properties, and potential application in the post-COVID era. In the present study phytochemical screening has been carried out with Methanolic Leaf Extracts of Moringa oleifera (MLEMO) followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) analysis. Phytochemical analysis of MLEMO revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Coumarins, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Phenol, Proteins, Quinones, Saponins, Steroids, Tannins and Terpenoids. Further, GCMS analysis revealed the presence of 41 compounds of which Dihydroxyacetone;Monomethyl malonate;4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro- 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl;1,3-Propanediol, 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl);Propanoic acid, 2- methyl-, octyl ester;3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone;Sorbitol;Inositol;Cyclohexanemethanol, alpha-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl), Hexadecanoic acid, Methyl palmitate;n-Hexadecanoic acid (Palmitic acid);9-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester;Phytol;9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid;Octadecanoic acid;9-Octadecenamide were prominent. Most of the compounds in the list are bioactive and possess medicinal properties that are expected to serve as a baseline lead for the development of therapeutic agents.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335437

ABSTRACT

In 2019, a new virus named corona virus had changed the life of every individual in the world. As the number of covid positive cases had been increased, it causes a very big pressure in the medical field. To overcome this situation, we are in need of some algorithm which predicts whether the person is affected by COVID-19 or not. The most known deep learning method is used to detect whether the person’s lung is affected by covid or not. In this project, lung CT images are segmented and then it is given into the simple convolutional neural network. The image segmentation techniques followed are canny edge detection, thresholding technique and U-Net algorithm. From these techniques the better one is chosen and its result is pushed into the convolutional neural network. By segmenting the image and then predicting whether the lung is affected by covid or not increases the accuracy rate and the accuracy value is 95%.

7.
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics ; 11(5-s):77-84, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1603047

ABSTRACT

Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-Pentahydroxyflavone) is the one among the bioactive secondary metabolite (BASM) in neem seed of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Quercetin (Que) and its derivatives hold promising pharmacological effects. Antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-Alzheimer's, antiarthritic, cardiovascular, and wound-healing effects of Que have been extensively investigated, recently lot of work has been carried out on its anticancer activity against different cancer cell lines. Recently, in silico/in vitro studies have demonstrated that Que interferes with different stages of coronavirus entry and replication cycle (PLpro, 3CLpro, and NTPase/helicase). Due to its pleiotropic effects in human health and disease and lack of systemic toxicity, Que and its derivatives could be tested for their efficacy on human target system in future clinical trials. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the physicochemical, druggable properties of Que from A. indica to prospect its ADMET properties.

8.
Corporate Governance (Bingley) ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1268089

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to explore the immediate proactive corporate social responsibility (CSR) efforts undertaken by select organizations in India in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the approach they have adopted toward it. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 senior managers across top Bombay Stock Exchange indexed organizations from the manufacturing and services sector in India during the national COVID-19 pandemic lockdown between March and June 2020. Manual content analysis and the Gioia method were used to arrive at the insights. Findings: Results of the analysis showcase the spirited immediate CSR measures undertaken by the select organizations in the broader interests of the community at large. The study also highlights the need for a paradox approach toward CSR strategy. Research limitations/implications: Given that the present study adopts an exploratory qualitative research design, the scope for generalization is rather limited. Practical implications: This paper classifies COVID-19 related initiatives undertaken by selected few top organizations in India and attempts to justify the need to opt for a paradox approach toward CSR strategy. Originality/value: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is one of the first few studies to have attempted to put forth a dialog at the intersection of COVID-19 and CSR with rich insights gained from qualitative data collected during India’s intense lockdown period and offering a different perspective with the inclusion of paradox theory into the discussion. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

9.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 73(4): 494-498, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225058

ABSTRACT

The symptomatology of novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus type 2 infection runs the entire gamut of mild to moderate and serious illness among the affected individuals. As listed in recent literature, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, olfactory and gustatory systems are commonly involved. With the growing knowledge about the disease, varied manifestations have been identified and lately, otorhinolaryngology dysfunctions in COVID 19 have been described. Hearing loss in COVID era is one of the emerging areas of concern and calls for further research in the field for the better understanding and treatment of this entity. This study was designed to assess the audiological profile among 100 mild to moderately affected COVID-19 individuals, so as to make a contribution to the emerging literature on otologic manifestations in COVID 19. In our case series, high frequency hearing loss and referred OAE was noted among significant number of COVID 19 positive patients. This was even observed in patients without any otologic symptoms. Hence, early identification and intervention if required helps to give a better quality of life to the patient.

10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(6): 2748-2751, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173126

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-COV 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) that has become a global pandemic. COVID-19 mainly causes the respiratory complications of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and severe immune disruptions. The assays depict that though people recuperate from COVID-19, there are still symptoms that persists in the body causing discomfort, which is the consequence of the viral infection due to severe immune disruptions. Upon various difficulties of post COVID-19, the pulmonary fibrosis is the stumbling block in the lungs causing severe damage. In this review, we have shown the effectiveness and importance of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) secreted by Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy on selective stoppage of the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-ß) signalling pathway by causing immunomodulatory effects that ameliorate the pulmonary fibrosis through paracrine signalling. However, more pilot studies have to be carried out to determine the efficacy and outcomes of the re-emerging complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Global Health , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 7(1): 6-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as one of the comorbidities that predict the severity of illness in patients infected with COVID-19. The characteristics of patients presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and COVID-19 infection have not been described. METHODS: We describe 5 patients with DKA and concomitant COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit of an academic medical center. Three patients had type 1 diabetes mellitus, and 2 patients had type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: While DKA with an infectious etiology is a common presentation, we observed that the patients with DKA precipitated by COVID-19 presented with atypical symptoms. COVID-19 infection was revealed during search for an etiology of DKA. CONCLUSION: It is prudent to have a low threshold to screen for COVID-19 infection in patients with DKA.

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