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1.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1280-1285, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526937

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is strong evidence for the use of corticosteroid in the management of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still uncertainty about the timing of corticosteroids. We undertook a modified Delphi study to develop expert consensus statements on the early identification of a subset of patients from non-severe COVID-19 who may benefit from using corticosteroids. METHODS: A modified Delphi was conducted with two anonymous surveys between April 30, 2021, and May 3, 2021. An expert panel of 35 experts was selected and invited to participate through e-mail. The consensus was defined as >70% votes in multiple-choice questions (MCQ) on Likert-scale type statements, while strong consensus as >90% votes in MCQ or >50% votes for "very important" on Likert-scale questions in the final round. RESULTS: Twenty experts completed two rounds of the survey. There was strong consensus for the increased work of breathing (95%), a positive six-minute walk test (90%), thorax computed tomography severity score of >14/25 (85%), new-onset organ dysfunction (using clinical or biochemical criteria) (80%), and C-reactive protein >5 times the upper limit of normal (70%) as the criteria for patients' selection. The experts recommended using oral or intravenous (IV) low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days and monitoring of oxygen saturation, body temperature, clinical scoring system, blood sugar, and inflammatory markers for any "red-flag" signs. CONCLUSION: The experts recommended against indiscriminate use of corticosteroids in mild to moderate COVID-19 without the signs of clinical worsening. Oral or IV low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days are recommended for patients with features of disease progression based on clinical, biochemical, or radiological criteria after 5 days from symptom onset under close monitoring. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: How to cite this article: Nasa P, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Daga MK, Jain R, Chhallani AA, et al. Expert Consensus Statements on the Use of Corticosteroids in Non-severe COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1280-1285.

2.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1288-1291, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512930

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has become a major pandemic in recent times. The exact pathophysiology and understanding of cytokine storm and immunomodulation are evolving. Various cytokines have been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. Immunosuppressant immunomodulators like steroids, canakinumab, anakinra, tocilizumab, sarilumab, baricitinib, ruxolitinib, bevacizumab, and itolizumab have been tried. Immunostimulant immunomodulators like interferons (IFNs) and Mycobacterium w (Mw) have also been repurposed. Considering the role of multiple cytokines implicated in COVID-19, molecules working on the majority of the targets, may hold a promising future prospect. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Rangappa P. Cytokine Storm and Immunomodulation in COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1288-1291.

3.
Surg Neurol Int ; 12: 408, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of the COVID-19 vaccines Vaxzevria from AstraZeneca and Covishield from Janssen has been associated with sporadic reports of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia, a complication referred to as vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) or vaccine-induced prothrombotic immune thrombocytopenia. It presents commonly as cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CSVT), within 4-30 days of vaccination. Females under 55 years of age are considered to be especially at high risk. Mortality up to 50% has been reported in some countries. Identification of early warning signs and symptoms with prompt medical intervention is crucial. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report here a case of VITT in a young female who presented 11 days after receiving the first dose of the Covishield vaccine, with severe headache and hemiparesis. She was diagnosed with CSVT with a large intraparenchymal bleed, requiring decompressive craniectomy and extended period on mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSION: The patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and discharged after 19 days in ICU. Although she was left with long-term neurological deficits, an early presentation and a multidisciplinary approach to management contributed toward a relatively short stay in hospital and avoided mortality.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 106, 2021 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused unprecedented pressure on healthcare system globally. Lack of high-quality evidence on the respiratory management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory failure (C-ARF) has resulted in wide variation in clinical practice. METHODS: Using a Delphi process, an international panel of 39 experts developed clinical practice statements on the respiratory management of C-ARF in areas where evidence is absent or limited. Agreement was defined as achieved when > 70% experts voted for a given option on the Likert scale statement or > 80% voted for a particular option in multiple-choice questions. Stability was assessed between the two concluding rounds for each statement, using the non-parametric Chi-square (χ2) test (p < 0·05 was considered as unstable). RESULTS: Agreement was achieved for 27 (73%) management strategies which were then used to develop expert clinical practice statements. Experts agreed that COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is clinically similar to other forms of ARDS. The Delphi process yielded strong suggestions for use of systemic corticosteroids for critical COVID-19; awake self-proning to improve oxygenation and high flow nasal oxygen to potentially reduce tracheal intubation; non-invasive ventilation for patients with mixed hypoxemic-hypercapnic respiratory failure; tracheal intubation for poor mentation, hemodynamic instability or severe hypoxemia; closed suction systems; lung protective ventilation; prone ventilation (for 16-24 h per day) to improve oxygenation; neuromuscular blocking agents for patient-ventilator dyssynchrony; avoiding delay in extubation for the risk of reintubation; and similar timing of tracheostomy as in non-COVID-19 patients. There was no agreement on positive end expiratory pressure titration or the choice of personal protective equipment. CONCLUSION: Using a Delphi method, an agreement among experts was reached for 27 statements from which 20 expert clinical practice statements were derived on the respiratory management of C-ARF, addressing important decisions for patient management in areas where evidence is either absent or limited. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered with Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT04534569.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Consensus , Delphi Technique , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Humans
5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(9): 838-846, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883959

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide. As our understanding of the disease is evolving, our approach to the patient management is also changing swiftly. Available new evidence is helping us take radical decisions in COVID-19 management. We searched for inclusion of the published literature on treatment of COVID-19 from around the globe. All relevant evidences available till the time of submission of this article were briefly discussed. Once advised as blanket therapy for all patients, recent reports of hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin indicated no potential benefit and use of such combination may increase the risk of arrhythmias. Clinical evidence with newer antivirals such as remdesivir and favipiravir is promising that can hasten the patient recovery and reduce the mortality. With steroids, evidence is much clear in that it should be used in low dose and for short period not extending beyond 7 days in moderate to severe hospitalized patients. Low-molecular-weight heparin should be initiated in all hospitalized COVID-19 patients and dose should be based on the coagulation profile and risk of thromboembolism. Immunomodulatory drugs such tocilizumab may be considered for severe and critically ill patients to improve the outcomes. Though ulinastatin can be a potential alternative immunomodulator, there is lack of clinical evidence on its usage in COVID-19. Convalescent plasma therapy can be potentially lifesaving in critically ill patients. However, there is need to generate further evidence with various such therapies. Though availability of a potent vaccine is awaited, current treatment of COVID-19 is based on available therapies, which is guided by the evidence. In this review, we discuss the potential treatments available around the globe with current evidence on each of such treatments. How to cite this article: Dixit SB, Zirpe KG, Kulkarni AP, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Mehta Y, et al. Current Approaches to COVID-19: Therapy and Prevention. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(9):838-846.

6.
Indian J Anaesth ; 64(10): 835-841, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854312

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). Although 85% of infected patients remain asymptomatic, 5% show severe symptoms such as hypoxaemic respiratory failure and multiple end organ dysfunction (MODS) requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission with a mortality rate of about 2.8%. Since a definitive treatment is yet to be identified, preventive and supportive strategies remain the mainstay of management. Supportive measures such as oxygen therapy with nasal cannula, face mask, noninvasive ventilation, mechanical ventilation and even extreme measures such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) fail to improve oxygenation in some patients. Hence, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been proposed as a supportive strategy to improve oxygenation in COVID-19 patients. HBOT is known to increase tissue oxygenation by increasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in plasma. HBOT also mitigates tissue inflammation thus reducing the ill effects of cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Though there is limited literature available on HBOT in COVID-19 patients, considering the present need for additional supportive therapy to improve oxygenation, HBOT has been proposed as a novel supportive treatment in COVID-19 patients.

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