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Pulmonology ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763951


AIM: To determine whether the duration of respiratory distress symptoms in severe COVID-19 pneumonia affects the need for invasive mechanical ventilation and clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational multicentre cohort study of patients hospitalised in five COVID-19-designated ICUs of the University Hospitals of Emilia-Romagna Region. Patients included were adults with pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 with PaO2/FiO2 ratio <300 mmHg, respiratory distress symptoms, and need for mechanical ventilation (invasive or non-invasive). Exclusion criteria were an uncertain time of respiratory distress, end-of-life decision, and mechanical respiratory support before hospital admission. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analysed 171 patients stratified into tertiles according to respiratory distress duration (distress time, DT) before application of mechanical ventilation support. The rate of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly different (p < 0.001) among the tertiles: 17/57 patients in the shortest duration, 29/57 in the intermediate duration, and 40/57 in the longest duration. The respiratory distress time significantly increased the risk of invasive ventilation in the univariate analysis (OR 5.5 [CI 2.48-12.35], p = 0.003). Multivariable regression analysis confirmed this association (OR 10.7 [CI 2.89-39.41], p < 0.001). Clinical outcomes (mortality and hospital stay) did not show significant differences between DT tertiles. DISCUSSION: Albeit preliminary and retrospective, our data raised the hypothesis that the duration of respiratory distress symptoms may play a role in COVID-19 patients' need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Furthermore, our observations suggested that specific strategies may be directed towards identifying and managing early symptoms of respiratory distress, regardless of the levels of hypoxemia and the severity of the dyspnoea itself.

Journal of the Neurological Sciences ; 429, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1466657


Background and aims: The number of cases of encephalitis in COVID-19 pandemic is increasing. We describe characteristics and outcome of encephalitis in COVID-19 (COV-ENC) patients in one of the most affected regions by COVID-19 of the world, Lombardia, during the first pandemic wave. Methods: A multi-center observational study on neurological complications in COVID-19 patients was conducted by the Italian society of Hospital Neuroscience (SNO). Adult patients admitted to 20 Neurological Departments in Lombardia between February-April 2020 with COV-ENC have been included. Results: 30 COV-ENC patients had a mean age of 66.5 years and male frequency of 56.6%. Altered consciousness was characterized by confusion in 86%, coma in 30%, delirium in 37.9% and alteration of personality traits in 27.6%. Epileptic seizures occurred in 74% of cases. One third of cases had hyperproteinorrachia, one third pleocytosis/hyperproteinorrachia, and remaining third had a normal CSF. PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all tested patients. EEG was altered in 82.7% of patients. Brain CT and MRI were normal in 9 patients, and among abnormal findings 9 patients had mesial temporal lesions, one of which confirmed with PET imaging. The course was favorable in 39.2% of patients, sequelae were few in 26.6% and moderate in 19.2%, while 20% of patients died. Conclusions: The outcome tends to be worse in male patients. PCR negativity seems to confirm an autoimmune etiology more than a direct invasion of the virus. However, a temporal lobe involvement, detected in 30% of patients with COV-ENC, suggests usual sites of encephalitis due to herpes virus.

Praxis Educativa ; 15, 2020.
Article in Italian | Scopus | ID: covidwho-916517


Distance (Learning) Didactics - DD, which had a strong impulse after the closing of schools on March 4, 2020 until the end of the school year, reopened the debate on the role of technologies in school. Recent data show that the success or failure of distance learning depends on the intertwining of several factors, including teaching and technological skills of teachers, the availability of technologies and environments, family composition and the role of evaluation in teaching and learning processes. This paper aimed to analyze the responses of Elementary School teachers to the multiple challenges raised by DD in the pandemic phase, through an online questionnaire addressed to teachers. In addition to the description and analysis of the results, the work includes an introduction to the Italian context and a final summary reflection on what was learned from that experience. © 2020 Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Editora. All rights reserved.