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1.
Materials Letters ; : 130824, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1401698

ABSTRACT

Unique characteristics like large surface area, excellent conductivity, functionality, ease of fabrication, etc., of graphene and its derivatives, have been extensively studied as potential candidates in healthcare applications. They have been utilized as a potential nanomaterial in biosensor fabrication for commercialized point-of-care (POC) devices. This review concisely provided innovative graphene and its derivative-based-IoT (Internet-of-Things) integrated electrochemical biosensor for accurate and advanced high-throughput testing of SARS-CoV-2 in POC setting.

2.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4620-4642, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240778

ABSTRACT

Despite significant accomplishments in developing efficient rapid sensing systems and nano-therapeutics of higher efficacy, the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is not under control successfully because the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2, original and mutated) transmits easily from human to -human and causes life-threatening respiratory disorders. Thus, it has become crucial to avoid this transmission through precautions and keep premises hygienic using high-performance anti-viral nanomaterials to trap and eradicate SARS-CoV-2. Such an antiviral nano-system has successfully demonstrated useful significant contribution in COVID-19 pandemic/endemic management effectively. However, their projection with potential sustainable prospects still requires considerable attention and efforts. With this aim, the presented review highlights various severe life-threatening viral infections and the role of multi-functional anti-viral nanostructures with manipulative properties investigated as an efficient precative shielding agent against viral infection progression. The salient features of such various nanostructures, antiviral mechanisms, and high impact multi-dimensional roles are systematically discussed in this review. Additionally, the challenges associated with the projection of alternative approaches also support the demand and significance of this selected scientific topic. The outcomes of this review will certainly be useful to motivate scholars of various expertise who are planning future research in the field of investigating sustainable and affordable high-performance nano-systems of desired antiviral performance to manage not only COVID-19 infection but other targeted viral infections as well.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Models, Biological , Nanostructures/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Int Rev Immunol ; 40(1-2): 126-142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236151

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and highly infectious disease making global public health concern and socio-economic burden. It is caused due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). It has the tendency to spread rapidly through person-to-person. Currently, several molecular diagnostic platforms such as PCR, qRT-PCR, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), CRISPR are utilized for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. These conventional techniques are costly, time consuming and require sophisticated instrumentation facility with well trained personnel for testing. Hence, it is tough to provide testing en-masse to the people in developing countries. On the other hand, several serological biosensors such as lateral flow immunosensor, optical, electrochemical, microfluidics integrated electrochemical/fluorescence is currently utilized for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. In current pandemic situation, there is an urgent need of rapid and efficient diagnosis on mass scale of SARS-CoV-2 for early stage detection. Early monitoring of viral infections can help to control and prevent the spreading of infections in large chunk of population. In this review, the SARS-CoV-2 and their biomarkers in biological samples, collection of samples and recently reported potential electrochemical immunosensors for the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(4): 2974-2995, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157888

ABSTRACT

The current scenario, an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, places a dreadful burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Subsequently, there is a need for a rapid, user-friendly, and inexpensive on-site monitoring system for diagnosis. The early and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in combating the outbreak. Although conventional methods such as PCR, RT-PCR, and ELISA, etc., offer a gold-standard solution to manage the pandemic, they cannot be implemented as a point-of-care (POC) testing arrangement. Moreover, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) having a high enhancement factor provides quantitative results with high specificity, sensitivity, and multiplex detection ability but lacks in POC setup. In contrast, POC devices such as lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) offer rapid, simple-to-use, cost-effective, reliable platform. However, LFIA has limitations in quantitative and sensitive analyses of SARS-CoV-2 detection. To resolve these concerns, herein we discuss a unique modality that is an integration of SERS with LFIA for quantitative analyses of SARS-CoV-2. The miniaturization ability of SERS-based devices makes them promising in biosensor application and has the potential to make a better alternative of conventional diagnostic methods. This review also demonstrates the commercially available and FDA/ICMR approved LFIA kits for on-site diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Viral Proteins/immunology , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(11): 7326-7343, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872634

ABSTRACT

Efficient and rapid detection of viruses plays an extremely important role in disease prevention, diagnosis, and environmental monitoring. Early screening of viral infection among the population has the potential to combat the spread of infection. However, the traditional methods of virus detection being used currently, such as plate culturing and quantitative RT-PCR, give promising results, but they are time-consuming and require expert analysis and costly equipment and reagents; therefore, they are not affordable by people in low socio-economic groups in developing countries. Further, mass or bulk testing chosen by many governments to tackle the pandemic situation has led to severe shortages of testing kits and reagents and hence are affecting the demand and supply chain drastically. We tried to include all the reported current scenario-based biosensors such as electrochemical, optical, and microfluidics, which have the potential to replace mainstream diagnostic methods and therefore could pave the way to combat COVID-19. Apart from this, we have also provided information on commercially available biosensors for detection of SARS-CoV-2 along with the challenges in development of better diagnostic approaches. It is therefore expected that the content of this review will help researchers to design and develop more sensitive advanced commercial biosensor devices for early diagnosis of viral infection, which can open up avenues for better and more specific therapeutic outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pandemics , Point-of-Care Systems , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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