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1.
Bioinorg Chem Appl ; 2022: 2311910, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741724

ABSTRACT

Orodental problems have long been managed using herbal medicine. The development of nanoparticle formulations with herbal medicine has now become a breakthrough in dentistry because the synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles (MNPs) using plant extracts can address the drawbacks of herbal treatments. Green production of MNPs such as Ag, Au, and Fe nanoparticles enhanced by plant extracts has been proven to be beneficial in managing numerous orodental disorders, even outperforming traditional materials. Nanostructures are utilized in dental advances and diagnostics. Oral disease prevention medicines, prostheses, and tooth implantation all employ nanoparticles. Nanomaterials can also deliver oral fluid or pharmaceuticals, treating oral cancers and providing a high level of oral healthcare. These are also found in toothpaste, mouthwash, and other dental care products. However, there is a lack of understanding about the safety of nanomaterials, necessitating additional study. Many problems, including medication resistance, might be addressed using nanoparticles produced by green synthesis. This study reviews the green synthesis of MNPs applied in dentistry in recent studies (2010-2021).

2.
Electronic Journal of General Medicine ; 19(2):1-5, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1687826

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: The severity and mortality of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 are positively associated with underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this regard, the current study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients with and without CKD. Methods: This cross-sectional matched study was conducted on hospitalized confirmed COVID-19 patients with and without CKD admitted to Baqiyatallah Hospital in Tehran, Iran, from February 26, 2020 to March 26, 2020. The patients were homogenized in terms of age, gender, body mass index, and underlying diseases such as hypertension and diabetes. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, and laboratory and radiological findings were collected from patients' medical records and compared between the patients based on their CKD status. Results: Among the COVID-19 patients, 56 and 97 cases with and without CKD were investigated, respectively. In general, 111 (72.5%) patients with a mean age of 55 years were males. Patients with CKD had higher levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and red cell distribution width (p<0.05). No differences were found regarding chest computed tomography findings, ICU admission, and death among COVID-19 patients with and without CKD. Conclusions: Overall, the findings support the use of red cell distribution width, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine for monitoring the COVID-19 patients with CKD and assessing the risk of disease progression. Eventually, managing comorbidities including hypertension and diabetes will reduce COVID-19 severity in CKD patients. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Electronic Journal of General Medicine is the property of Modestum Publications and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Iran J Public Health ; 49(Suppl 1): 18-29, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502944

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered as the third human coronavirus and has a high potential for transmission. Fast public health interventions through antibodies, anti-virals or novel vaccine strategies to control the virus and disease transmission have been extremely followed. SARS-CoV-2 shares about 79% genomic similarity with SARS-CoV and approximately 50% with MERS-CoV. Based on these similarities, prior knowledge in treating SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV can be used as the basis of majority of the alternatives for controlling SARS-CoV-2. Immunotherapy is an effective strategy for clinical treatment of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2. Passive antibody therapy, which decreases the virus replication and disease severity, is assessed as an effective therapeutic approach to control SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. The close similarity between SARS-CoV-2 genome with the SARS-CoV genome caused both coronaviruses to bind to the same angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors that found in the human lung. There are several strategies to develop SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, which the majority of them are based on those developed previously for SARS-CoV. The interaction between the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 on the host cell surface leads to the initiation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. S protein, which is the main inducer of neutralizing antibodies, has been targeted by most of these strategies. Vaccines that induce an immune response against the S protein to inhibit its binding with the host ACE2 receptor, can be considered as effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we aimed to review frontier therapeutics and vaccination strategies for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19).

4.
J Res Med Sci ; 26: 82, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472459

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a zoonotic infection, is responsible for COVID-19 pandemic and also is known as a public health concern. However, so far, the origin of the causative virus and its intermediate hosts is yet to be fully determined. SARS-CoV-2 contains nearly 30,000 letters of RNA that allows the virus to infect cells and hijack them to make new viruses. On the other hand, among 14 detected mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein that provide advantages to virus for transmission and evasion form treatment, the D614G mutation (substitution of aspartic acid [D] with glycine [G] in codon 614 was particular which could provide the facilitation of the transmission of the virus and virulence. To date, in contrary to the global effort to come up with various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, there are still great pitfalls in the knowledge of this disease and many angles remain unclear. That's why, the monitoring and periodical investigation of this emerging infection in an epidemiological study seems to be essential. The present study characterizes the current epidemiological status (i.e., possible transmission route, mortality and morbidity risk, emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, and clinical feature) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world during these pandemic.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 106985, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a global issue now, can have a variety of clinical manifestations. Hundreds of articles have discussed different aspects of this infectious disease, such as physiopathology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and treatment protocols. Recently, neurological manifestations of the disease have been found to be pretty common among COVID-19 patients. Here, neurological symptoms of COVID-19 infection with a focus on non-cerebrovascular complications are discussed in a large study population. METHODS: Neurological symptoms of 891hospitalized COVID-19 patients from March to June 2020 in a major Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were reviewed. Demographic characteristics and neurological manifestations were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 891 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, the following symptoms were observed: headache (63.9%), sleeping problems (51.3%), hyposmia/anosmia (46%), dizziness (45.4%), hypogeusia (42.1%), memory issues (31.5%), auditory disturbances (17.5%), paralysis (3.7%) and seizures (1.7%). In 29.7% of the patients, a neurological symptom was the initiating symptoms of the infection. Females were more likely to show headache and dizziness compared to males (p value<0.05). Headache intensity was also higher in females compared to males (p value<0.05). Headache prevalence was lower in older patients (p value<0.05), while memory loss and impaired consciousness were higher by increasing age (p values=0.002 and 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: Neurological manifestations were common among COVID-19 patients under study. Headache, as the most common neurological symptom among COVID-19 patients, was the most prevalent and intense among the female population. Headache, dizziness, sleeping problems, hyposmia/anosmia and hypogeusia were common COVID-19 neurological manifestations, while memory issues, auditory disturbances, paralysis, and seizures were less common.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dizziness/diagnosis , Dizziness/epidemiology , Dizziness/therapy , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/diagnosis , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/therapy , Young Adult
6.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 691-701, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1427439

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) sparked a global pandemic that continues to affect various facets of human existence. Many sources reported virus-induced acute cerebrovascular disorders. Systematically, this paper reviews the case studies of COVID-19-related acute cerebrovascular diseases such as ischaemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral sinus thrombosis. We also spoke about how SARS-CoV-2 can infect the brain and trigger the aforementioned disorders. We stated that SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and BBB dysfunction could cause the observed disorders; however, further research is required to specify the mechanisms and pathogenesis of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Humans
7.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 802-805, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245766

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present fever, cough, and respiratory illnesses. It has been revealed that the comorbidities can turn it into severe types, and the managements meet unpredicted complications. Here, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coincidence with confirmed acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ten days after admission and therapeutic process, the patient developed autonomic dysfunction. Despite respiratory support and receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died due to cardiac arrest. Albeit it is yet scientifically doubtful, there are raising concerns toward a possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating potential neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 504-506, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202860

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 encephalitis is a rare condition usually presenting with altered mental status. Simultaneous presence of anti-NMDAR antibody and SARS-CoV-2 virus in CSF is a very rare condition described in a few case reports so far. On the other hand, brain edema is an unusual presentation of anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Herein, we reported a case with simultaneous detection of anti-NMDAR antibody and SARS-CoV-2 virus in her cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presenting with brain edema, altered mental status, seizures, and respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 507-509, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193170

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents respiratory symptoms as the most common clinical manifestations. Similar to some other viral infections, it can cause severe neurological damages. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man case who initially was admitted to a major hospital with presenting 7 days with weak flu-like symptoms (cough) and fever then presented neurology signs for 3 days. Physical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral vasculopathy. Molecular testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received supportive cares and was treated with routine antiplatelet therapy. He was improved and discharged 10 days after admission with no symptoms. Our findings report a 40-year-old man with flu-like symptoms that indicate cerebral vasculopathy that was discharged with no symptoms. Therefore, physicians should be monitor patients with worsening or progressive central nervous system results. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known; therefore, extensive studies are needed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 on the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/virology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1321: 81-96, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114238

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), turned into a pandemic affecting more than 200 countries. Due to the high rate of transmission and mortality, finding specific and effective treatment options for this infection is currently of urgent importance. Emerging technologies have created a promising platform for developing novel treatment options for various viral diseases such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we have described potential novel therapeutic options based on the structure and pathophysiological mechanism of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, as well as the results of previous studies on similar viruses such as SARS and MERS. Many of these approaches can be used for controlling viral infection by reducing the viral damage or by increasing the potency of the host response. Owing to their high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, siRNAs, aptamers, nanobodies, neutralizing antibodies, and different types of peptides can be used for interference with viral replication or for blocking internalization. Receptor agonists and interferon-inducing agents are also potential options to balance and enhance the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2. Solid evidence on the efficacy and safety of such novel technologies is yet to be established although many well-designed clinical trials are underway to address these issues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(1): 23-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066152

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: With the development of various branches of sciences, we will be able to resolve different clinical aspects of various diseases better. The convergence of these sciences can potentially tackle the new corona crisis. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we attempted to explore and describe various scientific branches studying COVID-19. We have reviewed the literature focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19. The primary databases targeted were Science Direct, Scopus and PubMed. The most relevant reports from the recent two decades were collected utilizing keywords including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, COVID-19, epidemiology, therapeutics and diagnosis. EXPERT OPINION: Based on this literature review, both traditional and emerging approaches are vital for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. The traditional sciences play an essential role in the preventive and supportive care of corona infection, and modern technologies appear to be useful in the development of precise diagnosis and powerful treatment approaches for this disease. Indeed, the integration of these sciences will help us to fight COVID-19 disease more efficiently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Computational Biology , Humans , Life Style , Medicine, Traditional , Nutritional Support
12.
Mol Cell Probes ; 53: 101636, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621879

ABSTRACT

The recently known coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has turn into the greatest global health challenge, affecting a large number of societies. The lack of specific treatment and gold-standard diagnostic system has made the situation more complicated. Efforts have led to production of several diagnostic kits that are associated with limitations such as inadequate sensitivity and accuracy. Aptamers as multipotent biological probes could be promising candidates to design sensitive and specific biosensors. Although few studies have introduced specific aptamer types of coronavirus, they may help us select the best approach to obtain specific aptamers for this virus. On the other hand, some of already-introduced aptamers have shown the inhibitory effects on coronavirus that could be applied as therapeutics. The present study has provided a systematic overview on use of aptamer-based biosensors and drugs to diagnose and treat coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aptamers, Nucleotide/therapeutic use , Biosensing Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(7): 5365-5376, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617279

ABSTRACT

Emerging of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised interests in the field of biology and pathogenesis of coronaviruses; including interactions between host immune reactions specific, and viral factors. Deep knowledge about the interaction between coronaviruses and the host factors could be useful to provide a better support for the disease sufferers and be advantageous for managing and treatment of the lung infection caused by the virus. At this study, we reviewed the updated information on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 and the immune responses toward it, with a special focus on structure, genetics, and viral accessory proteins, viral replication, viral receptors, the human immune reactions, cytopathic effects, and host-related factors.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Autoimmunity , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferons/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Coronavirus , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
14.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 40: 101214, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601315

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a life-threatening disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that is accounted as global public health concern. Treatment of COVID-19 is primarily supportive and the role of antiviral agents is yet to be established. However, there are no specific anti-COVID-19 drugs and vaccine until now. This review focuses on traditional medicine such as medicinal plant extracts as promising approaches against COVID-19. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. Although, inhibition of viral replication is considered as general mechanism of herbal extracts, however some studies demonstrated that traditional herbal extracts can interact with key viral proteins which are associated with virus virulence. Chinese, Indian and Iranian traditional medicine, suggests some herbs for prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases including COVID-19. However the beneficial effects of these traditional medicines and their clinical trials remained to be known. Herein, we reviewed the latest updates on traditional medicines proposed for treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Iran , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(suppl 1):17-Jun, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-599175

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported unexpectedly in Wuhan, China, with staggering infection speed across China and around the world. To date, seven known strains of HCoVs belonging to four genera (i.e., alpha?, beta?, gamma, and delta-CoV) have been recognized;the latest one has been identified as the SARS-CoV-2. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. Although there are no biological markers to predict the susceptibility of humans to COVID-19, several risk factors have been identified to predict the susceptibility of patients to COVID-19. Initial data revealed that males, pregnant women, elderly, and underlying conditions predispose patients to higher morbidity or mortality and also might be at risk for a severe infection of COVID-19. There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. To date, despite the whole world effort to review various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options, there are still gaps in the knowledge of this disease and many issues remain unclear. Therefore, there is an urgent need for update data on SARS-CoV-2. Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020.

16.
J Cell Physiol ; 236(1): 49-54, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599315

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in human populations sparked a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to preliminary data, about 14% of cases are considered severe and 5% of cases result in critical illness and, reported case fatality rates vary from 1% to more than 7%. However, the symptoms of the disease and the clinical outcome are very different in infected people. In view of these differences, it is clearly apparent that to gain insight into the biology of the SARS-CoV-2, it is important to study not just the infectious particle in itself but also to investigate the virus-host cell interactions that occur during infection. This review seeks to consider the various aspects of genetic factors in determining the susceptibility and host resistance to SARS-CoV-2 throughout the recently published literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Genome, Viral , Humans
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