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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(16): e021204, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352600

ABSTRACT

Background Limited information is available regarding in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) in patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results We leveraged the American Heart Association COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease (AHA COVID-19 CVD) Registry to conduct a cohort study of adults hospitalized for COVID-19. IHCA was defined as those with documentation of cardiac arrest requiring medication or electrical shock for resuscitation. Mixed effects models with random intercepts were used to identify independent predictors of IHCA and mortality while accounting for clustering at the hospital level. The study cohort included 8518 patients (6080 not in the intensive care unit [ICU]) with mean age of 61.5 years (SD 17.5). IHCA occurred in 509 (5.9%) patients overall with 375 (73.7%) in the ICU and 134 (26.3%) patients not in the ICU. The majority of patients at the time of ICHA were not in a shockable rhythm (76.5%). Independent predictors of IHCA included older age, Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 1.9; CI, 1.4-2.4; P<0.001), and non-Hispanic Black race (OR, 1.5; CI, 1.1-1.9; P=0.004). Other predictors included oxygen use on admission, quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score on admission, and hypertension. Overall, 35 (6.9%) patients with IHCA survived to discharge, with 9.1% for ICU and 0.7% for non-ICU patients. Conclusions Older age, Black race, and Hispanic ethnicity are independent predictors of IHCA in patients with COVID-19. Although the incidence is much lower than in ICU patients, approximately one-quarter of IHCA events in patients with COVID-19 occur in non-ICU settings, with the latter having a substantially lower survival to discharge rate.


Subject(s)
African Americans , COVID-19 , Heart Arrest/ethnology , Inpatients , Intensive Care Units , Patient Admission , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/ethnology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Female , Heart Arrest/diagnosis , Heart Arrest/mortality , Heart Arrest/therapy , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Race Factors , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
2.
Cardiol Rev ; 30(3): 129-133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320339

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by a clinical spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic or mild cases to severe pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as rescue therapy in appropriate patients with COVID-19 complicated by ARDS refractory to mechanical ventilation. In this study, we review the indications, challenges, complications, and clinical outcomes of ECMO utilization in critically ill patients with COVID-19-related ARDS. Most of these patients required venovenous ECMO. Although the risk of mortality and complications is very high among patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO, it is similar to that of non-COVID-19 patients with ARDS requiring ECMO. ECMO is a resource-intensive therapy, with an inherent risk of complications, which makes its availability limited and its use challenging in the midst of a pandemic. Well-maintained data registries, with timely reporting of outcomes and evidence-based clinical guidelines, are necessary for the careful allocation of resources and for the development of standardized utilization protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(12): e020910, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263974

ABSTRACT

Background Emerging evidence links acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with COVID-19 with higher mortality and respiratory morbidity, but the relationship of AKI with cardiovascular disease outcomes has not been reported in this population. We sought to evaluate associations between chronic kidney disease (CKD), AKI, and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods and Results In a large multicenter registry including 8574 patients with COVID-19 from 88 US hospitals, data were collected on baseline characteristics and serial laboratory data during index hospitalization. Primary exposure variables were CKD (categorized as no CKD, CKD, and end-stage kidney disease) and AKI (classified into no AKI or stages 1, 2, or 3 using a modification of the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline definition). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. The key secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac events, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, new-onset nonfatal heart failure, and nonfatal cardiogenic shock. CKD and end-stage kidney disease were not associated with mortality or major adverse cardiac events after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, AKI was significantly associated with mortality (stage 1 hazard ratio [HR], 1.72 [95% CI, 1.46-2.03]; stage 2 HR, 1.83 [95% CI, 1.52-2.20]; stage 3 HR, 1.69 [95% CI, 1.44-1.98]; versus no AKI) and major adverse cardiac events (stage 1 HR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.74-2.71]; stage 2 HR, 2.70 [95% CI, 2.07-3.51]; stage 3 HR, 3.06 [95% CI, 2.52-3.72]; versus no AKI). Conclusions This large study demonstrates a significant association between AKI and all-cause mortality and, for the first time, major adverse cardiovascular events in patients hospitalized with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Cause of Death , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Registries , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , United States
4.
Indian Heart J ; 73(1): 91-98, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported to cause worse outcomes in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, especially in patients with acute cardiac injury, which is determined by elevated levels of high-sensitivity troponin. There is a paucity of data on the impact of congestive heart failure (CHF) on outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We conducted a literature search of PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases from 11/1/2019 till 06/07/2020, and identified all relevant studies reporting cardiovascular comorbidities, cardiac biomarkers, disease severity, and survival. Pooled data from the selected studies was used for metanalysis to identify the impact of risk factors and cardiac biomarker elevation on disease severity and/or mortality. RESULTS: We collected pooled data on 5967 COVID-19 patients from 20 individual studies. We found that both non-survivors and those with severe disease had an increased risk of acute cardiac injury and cardiac arrhythmias, our pooled relative risk (RR) was - 8.52 (95% CI 3.63-19.98) (p < 0.001); and 3.61 (95% CI 2.03-6.43) (p = 0.001), respectively. Mean difference in the levels of Troponin-I, CK-MB, and NT-proBNP was higher in deceased and severely infected patients. The RR of in-hospital mortality was 2.35 (95% CI 1.18-4.70) (p = 0.022) and 1.52 (95% CI 1.12-2.05) (p = 0.008) among patients who had pre-existing CHF and hypertension, respectively. CONCLUSION: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 infection appears to significantly adversely impact patient prognosis and survival. Pre-existence of CHF, and high cardiac biomarkers like NT-pro BNP and CK-MB levels in COVID-19 patients correlates with worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Heart Failure/mortality , Humans , Natriuretic Peptide, Brain/blood , Pandemics , Peptide Fragments/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate , Troponin/blood
5.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 117-134, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889359

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine, initially used as an antimalarial, is used as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent for the management of autoimmune and rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Lately, there has been interest in its potential efficacy against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, with several speculated mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to elaborate on the mechanisms surrounding hydroxychloroquine. The review is an in-depth analysis of the antimalarial, immunomodulatory, and antiviral mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine, with detailed and novel pictorial explanations. The mechanisms of hydroxychloroquine are related to potential cardiotoxic manifestations and demonstrate potential adverse effects when used for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, current literature associated with hydroxychloroquine and COVID-19 has been analyzed to interrelate the mechanisms, adverse effects, and use of hydroxychloroquine in the current pandemic. Currently, there is insufficient evidence about the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19. KEY MESSAGES HCQ, initially an antimalarial agent, is used as an immunomodulatory agent for managing several autoimmune diseases, for which its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions. HCQ is generally well-tolerated although severe life-threatening adverse effects including cardiomyopathy and conduction defects have been reported. HCQ use in COVID-19 should be discouraged outside clinical trials under strict medical supervision.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Pandemics
6.
Card Fail Rev ; 6: e15, 2020 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601346

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) predominantly presents with symptoms of fever, fatigue, cough and respiratory failure. However, it appears to have a unique interplay with cardiovascular disease (CVD); patients with pre-existing CVD are at highest risk for mortality from COVID-19, along with the elderly. COVID-19 contributes to cardiovascular complications including arrhythmias, myocardial dysfunction and myocardial inflammation. Although the exact mechanism of myocardial inflammation in patients with COVID-19 is not known, several plausible mechanisms have been proposed based on early observational reports. In this article, the authors summarise the available literature on mechanisms of myocardial injury in COVID-19.

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