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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(13): 495-502, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771891

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥18 years receive a single COVID-19 vaccine booster dose ≥2 months after receipt of an Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen [Johnson & Johnson]) adenovirus vector-based primary series vaccine; a heterologous COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is preferred over a homologous (matching) Janssen vaccine for booster vaccination. This recommendation was made in light of the risks for rare but serious adverse events following receipt of a Janssen vaccine, including thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome† (1), and clinical trial data indicating similar or higher neutralizing antibody response following heterologous boosting compared with homologous boosting (2). Data on real-world vaccine effectiveness (VE) of different booster strategies following a primary Janssen vaccine dose are limited, particularly during the period of Omicron variant predominance. The VISION Network§ determined real-world VE of 1 Janssen vaccine dose and 2 alternative booster dose strategies: 1) a homologous booster (i.e., 2 Janssen doses) and 2) a heterologous mRNA booster (i.e., 1 Janssen dose/1 mRNA dose). In addition, VE of these booster strategies was compared with VE of a homologous booster following mRNA primary series vaccination (i.e., 3 mRNA doses). The study examined 80,287 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits¶ and 25,244 hospitalizations across 10 states during December 16, 2021-March 7, 2022, when Omicron was the predominant circulating variant.** VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED/UC encounters was 24% after 1 Janssen dose, 54% after 2 Janssen doses, 79% after 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose, and 83% after 3 mRNA doses. VE for the same vaccination strategies against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations were 31%, 67%, 78%, and 90%, respectively. All booster strategies provided higher protection than a single Janssen dose against ED/UC visits and hospitalizations during Omicron variant predominance. Vaccination with 1 Janssen/1 mRNA dose provided higher protection than did 2 Janssen doses against COVID-19-associated ED/UC visits and was comparable to protection provided by 3 mRNA doses during the first 120 days after a booster dose. However, 3 mRNA doses provided higher protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations than did other booster strategies during the same time interval since booster dose. All adults who have received mRNA vaccines for their COVID-19 primary series vaccination should receive an mRNA booster dose when eligible. Adults who received a primary Janssen vaccine dose should preferentially receive a heterologous mRNA vaccine booster dose ≥2 months later, or a homologous Janssen vaccine booster dose if mRNA vaccine is contraindicated or unavailable. Further investigation of the durability of protection afforded by different booster strategies is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
2.
Pediatrics ; 149(4)2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760012

ABSTRACT

This national study evaluated trends in illness severity among 82 798 children with coronavirus disease 2019 from March 1, 2020, to December 30, 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Patient Acuity , Severity of Illness Index
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(9): 352-358, 2022 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727017

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 exceeded 90% in clinical trials that included children and adolescents aged 5-11, 12-15, and 16-17 years (1-3). Limited real-world data on 2-dose mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) in persons aged 12-17 years (referred to as adolescents in this report) have also indicated high levels of protection against SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) infection and COVID-19-associated hospitalization (4-6); however, data on VE against the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant and duration of protection are limited. Pfizer-BioNTech VE data are not available for children aged 5-11 years. In partnership with CDC, the VISION Network* examined 39,217 emergency department (ED) and urgent care (UC) encounters and 1,699 hospitalizations† among persons aged 5-17 years with COVID-19-like illness across 10 states during April 9, 2021-January 29, 2022,§ to estimate VE using a case-control test-negative design. Among children aged 5-11 years, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters 14-67 days after dose 2 (the longest interval after dose 2 in this age group) was 46%. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 83% and 76%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 38% and 46%, respectively. Among adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE increased to 86% ≥7 days after dose 3 (booster dose). VE against COVID-19-associated ED and UC encounters was substantially lower during the Omicron predominant period than the B.1.617.2 (Delta) predominant period among adolescents aged 12-17 years, with no significant protection ≥150 days after dose 2 during Omicron predominance. However, in adolescents aged 16-17 years, VE during the Omicron predominant period increased to 81% ≥7 days after a third booster dose. During the full study period, including pre-Delta, Delta, and Omicron predominant periods, VE against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization among children aged 5-11 years was 74% 14-67 days after dose 2, with wide CIs that included zero. Among adolescents aged 12-15 and 16-17 years, VE 14-149 days after dose 2 was 92% and 94%, respectively; VE ≥150 days after dose 2 was 73% and 88%, respectively. All eligible children and adolescents should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations, including a booster dose for those aged 12-17 years.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Child , Child, Preschool , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , United States
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309609

ABSTRACT

Introduction: /Objectives: We evaluated the length of time immunocompromised children (ICC) remain positive for SARS-CoV-2, identified factors associated with viral persistence and determined cycle threshold (CT) values of children with viral persistence as a surrogate of viral load. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ICC at a pediatric hospital from March 2020-2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary, secondary or acquired due to medical comorbidities/immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first-of-two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests at least 24 hours apart. Testing of sequential clinical specimens from the same subject was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel assay. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank-sum tests were used to compare outcomes between groups. Results: Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria. Median age was 15.5 years (IQR 8-18 yrs), 64% were male, 58% were white, and 43% were Hispanic/Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings and 58% were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0,55.0), with no differences in median time by illness presentation or level of immunosuppression. Seven children had >1 sample available for repeat testing, and 5/7 (71%) children had initial CT values of <30, (moderate to high viral load);4 children had CT values of <30 3-4 weeks later, suggesting persistent moderate to high viral loads. Conclusions: Most ICC with SARS-CoV-2 infection had mild disease, with prolonged viral persistence >6 weeks and moderate to high viral load.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(7): 255-263, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689713

ABSTRACT

CDC recommends that all persons aged ≥12 years receive a booster dose of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ≥5 months after completion of a primary mRNA vaccination series and that immunocompromised persons receive a third primary dose.* Waning of vaccine protection after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine has been observed during the period of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance† (1-5), but little is known about durability of protection after 3 doses during periods of Delta or SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant predominance. A test-negative case-control study design using data from eight VISION Network sites§ examined vaccine effectiveness (VE) against COVID-19 emergency department/urgent care (ED/UC) visits and hospitalizations among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years at various time points after receipt of a second or third vaccine dose during two periods: Delta variant predominance and Omicron variant predominance (i.e., periods when each variant accounted for ≥50% of sequenced isolates).¶ Persons categorized as having received 3 doses included those who received a third dose in a primary series or a booster dose after a 2 dose primary series (including the reduced-dosage Moderna booster). The VISION Network analyzed 241,204 ED/UC encounters** and 93,408 hospitalizations across 10 states during August 26, 2021-January 22, 2022. VE after receipt of both 2 and 3 doses was lower during the Omicron-predominant than during the Delta-predominant period at all time points evaluated. During both periods, VE after receipt of a third dose was higher than that after a second dose; however, VE waned with increasing time since vaccination. During the Omicron period, VE against ED/UC visits was 87% during the first 2 months after a third dose and decreased to 66% among those vaccinated 4-5 months earlier; VE against hospitalizations was 91% during the first 2 months following a third dose and decreased to 78% ≥4 months after a third dose. For both Delta- and Omicron-predominant periods, VE was generally higher for protection against hospitalizations than against ED/UC visits. All eligible persons should remain up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations to best protect against COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and ED/UC visits.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors , United States , Young Adult
6.
Clin Ther ; 2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654208

ABSTRACT

Controlling the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), will rely on vaccination at increasing rates and in an equitable manner. The main reasons for under-vaccination are varied among different segments of the population and include vaccine hesitancy and lack of access. While vaccine hesitancy is complicated and requires long-term solutions, access can be enhanced through evidence-based delivery strategies that augment conventional approaches. Hospital-based COVID-19 vaccination programs hold particular promise in reaching populations with decreased vaccine access and those at higher risk for adverse outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitals have the necessary equipment and storage capabilities to maintain cold chain requirements-a common challenge in the primary care setting-and can serve as a central distribution point for delivering vaccines to patients in diverse hospital locations, including inpatient units, emergency departments, urgent care centers, perioperative areas, and subspecialty clinics. They also have the capacity for mass-vaccination programs and other targeted outreach efforts. Hospital-based programs that have been successful in implementing influenza and other routine vaccinations can leverage existing infrastructure, such as electronic health record-related tools. With the possibility of COVID-19 becoming endemic, much like seasonal influenza, these programs will require flexibility as well as planning for long-term sustainability. This commentary highlights existing vaccine delivery to children in hospital-based settings, including key advantages and important challenges, and outlines how these systems could be expanded to include the COVID-19 vaccine delivery.

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S346-S347, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564063

ABSTRACT

Background The temporal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in immunocompromised children (IC) are unknown but may have important infection control implications. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence and assessed factors associated with viral persistence and cycle threshold (CT) values as a surrogate of viral load for IC. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-positive IC at a large quaternary pediatric hospital from March 2020-2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary or secondary/acquired immunodeficiencies due to comorbidities or immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first-of-two consecutively negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests ≥ 24 hours apart. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of sequential patient samples was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel (CDC assay). Chi-square, Fisher exact, and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare demographic and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank tests were used to compare outcomes. Subjects without 2 consecutive negative tests censored at the last test. Analyses were conducted using SAS v 9.4. Results Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria, and 67 children had more than 1 test (Figure 1). Median age was 15.5 years (IQR 8-18 yrs), 64% were male, 58% of children were white, and 43% were Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings, and 58% of children were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0,55.0), with no difference in duration of positivity with specific diagnoses, degree of lymphopenia, or symptomatic vs asymptomatic illness. Five of 7 (71%) children with samples available for repeat testing had initial CT values < 30, indicating a moderate to high viral load, and of these, 4 (57%) had repeat testing 21 to 30 days later with CT values < 30 (Figure 2), suggesting persistence of moderate to high viral loads. Figure 1. Plot of immunocompromised children in cohort with positive SARS CoV2 PCR and subsequent testing (n = 67). Timelines of immunocompromised children in cohort with positive SARS CoV2 PCR and subsequent testing, grouped by immunocompromising condition. Each line represents an individual patient. Positive results are shown in light grey, negative results are shown in black. Figure 2. Plot of CT values from SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing over time among children with sequential samples available for retesting (n = 7) Plot of CT values (y axis) from SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing on the CDC assay over time (x axis) in days from initial positive test. Repeated testing which yielded a negative result on the CDC assay or intermittent negative results on clinical testing represented as CT value of 40. Each line represents a unique patient. Conclusion The median duration of viral persistence among IC with SARS-CoV-2 infection was 6 weeks, with no significant difference in immunocompromised diagnoses or clinical presentation, with over half of children with testing on the same platform having moderate to high viral loads after 3 weeks, suggesting potential transmission risk. Disclosures Samuel R. Dominguez, MD, PhD, BioFire Diagnostics (Consultant, Research Grant or Support)DiaSorin Molecular (Consultant)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support) Samuel R. Dominguez, MD, PhD, BioFire (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant, Research Grant or Support;DiaSorin Molecular (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Suchitra Rao, MBBS, MSCS, BioFire (Research Grant or Support)

10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1553-1559, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502903

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons, defined as those with suppressed humoral or cellular immunity resulting from health conditions or medications, account for approximately 3% of the U.S. adult population (1). Immunocompromised adults are at increased risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes (2) and might not acquire the same level of protection from COVID-19 mRNA vaccines as do immunocompetent adults (3,4). To evaluate vaccine effectiveness (VE) among immunocompromised adults, data from the VISION Network* on hospitalizations among persons aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness from 187 hospitals in nine states during January 17-September 5, 2021 were analyzed. Using selected discharge diagnoses,† VE against COVID-19-associated hospitalization conferred by completing a 2-dose series of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine ≥14 days before the index hospitalization date§ (i.e., being fully vaccinated) was evaluated using a test-negative design comparing 20,101 immunocompromised adults (10,564 [53%] of whom were fully vaccinated) and 69,116 immunocompetent adults (29,456 [43%] of whom were fully vaccinated). VE of 2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was lower among immunocompromised patients (77%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 74%-80%) than among immunocompetent patients (90%; 95% CI = 89%-91%). This difference persisted irrespective of mRNA vaccine product, age group, and timing of hospitalization relative to SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant predominance in the state of hospitalization. VE varied across immunocompromising condition subgroups, ranging from 59% (organ or stem cell transplant recipients) to 81% (persons with a rheumatologic or inflammatory disorder). Immunocompromised persons benefit from mRNA COVID-19 vaccination but are less protected from severe COVID-19 outcomes than are immunocompetent persons, and VE varies among immunocompromised subgroups. Immunocompromised persons receiving mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should receive 3 doses and a booster, consistent with CDC recommendations (5), practice nonpharmaceutical interventions, and, if infected, be monitored closely and considered early for proven therapies that can prevent severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Young Adult
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(44): 1539-1544, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502901

ABSTRACT

Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) or COVID-19 vaccination can provide immunity and protection from subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection and illness. CDC used data from the VISION Network* to examine hospitalizations in adults with COVID-19-like illness and compared the odds of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and thus having laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, between unvaccinated patients with a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection occurring 90-179 days before COVID-19-like illness hospitalization, and patients who were fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 90-179 days before hospitalization with no previous documented SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hospitalized adults aged ≥18 years with COVID-19-like illness were included if they had received testing at least twice: once associated with a COVID-19-like illness hospitalization during January-September 2021 and at least once earlier (since February 1, 2020, and ≥14 days before that hospitalization). Among COVID-19-like illness hospitalizations in persons whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, the odds of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (adjusted for sociodemographic and health characteristics) among unvaccinated, previously infected adults were higher than the odds among fully vaccinated recipients of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine with no previous documented infection (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.75-10.99). These findings suggest that among hospitalized adults with COVID-19-like illness whose previous infection or vaccination occurred 90-179 days earlier, vaccine-induced immunity was more protective than infection-induced immunity against laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. All eligible persons should be vaccinated against COVID-19 as soon as possible, including unvaccinated persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Laboratories , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
12.
N Engl J Med ; 385(15): 1355-1371, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397961

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the effectiveness of the vaccines against symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) currently authorized in the United States with respect to hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or ambulatory care in an emergency department or urgent care clinic. METHODS: We conducted a study involving adults (≥50 years of age) with Covid-19-like illness who underwent molecular testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We assessed 41,552 admissions to 187 hospitals and 21,522 visits to 221 emergency departments or urgent care clinics during the period from January 1 through June 22, 2021, in multiple states. The patients' vaccination status was documented in electronic health records and immunization registries. We used a test-negative design to estimate vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated patients with those among unvaccinated patients. Vaccine effectiveness was adjusted with weights based on propensity-for-vaccination scores and according to age, geographic region, calendar time (days from January 1, 2021, to the index date for each medical visit), and local virus circulation. RESULTS: The effectiveness of full messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (≥14 days after the second dose) was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87 to 91) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization, 90% (95% CI, 86 to 93) against infection leading to an ICU admission, and 91% (95% CI, 89 to 93) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. The effectiveness of full vaccination with respect to a Covid-19-associated hospitalization or emergency department or urgent care clinic visit was similar with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines and ranged from 81% to 95% among adults 85 years of age or older, persons with chronic medical conditions, and Black or Hispanic adults. The effectiveness of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 79) against laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to hospitalization and 73% (95% CI, 59 to 82) against infection leading to an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. CONCLUSIONS: Covid-19 vaccines in the United States were highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospitalization, ICU admission, or an emergency department or urgent care clinic visit. This vaccine effectiveness extended to populations that are disproportionately affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
14.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(12): e29277, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the length of time immunocompromised children (ICC) remain positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), identified factors associated with viral persistence, and determined cycle threshold (CT ) values of children with viral persistence as a surrogate of viral load. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ICC at a pediatric hospital from March 2020 to March 2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary, secondary, or acquired due to medical comorbidities/immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first of two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests at least 24 hours apart. Testing of sequential clinical specimens from the same subject was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) 2019-nCoV real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR Diagnostic Panel assay. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank tests were used to compare outcomes between groups. RESULTS: Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria. Median age was 15.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 8-18), 64% were male, 58% were White, and 43% were Hispanic/Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings and 58% were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0-55.0), with no differences in median time by illness presentation or level of immunosuppression. Seven children had more than one sample available for repeat testing, and five of seven (71%) children had initial CT values of <30 (moderate to high viral load); four children had CT values of <30, 3-4 weeks later, suggesting persistent moderate to high viral loads. CONCLUSIONS: Most ICC with SARS-CoV-2 infection had mild disease, with prolonged viral persistence >6 weeks and moderate to high viral load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
15.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(2): 176-184, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068645

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and infection among pediatric patients across the United States. Objective: To describe testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the epidemiology of infected patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health record data from 135 794 patients younger than 25 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from January 1 through September 8, 2020. Data were from PEDSnet, a network of 7 US pediatric health systems, comprising 6.5 million patients primarily from 11 states. Data analysis was performed from September 8 to 24, 2020. Exposure: Testing for SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Results: A total of 135 794 pediatric patients (53% male; mean [SD] age, 8.8 [6.7] years; 3% Asian patients, 15% Black patients, 11% Hispanic patients, and 59% White patients; 290 per 10 000 population [range, 155-395 per 10 000 population across health systems]) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 5374 (4%) were infected with the virus (12 per 10 000 population [range, 7-16 per 10 000 population]). Compared with White patients, those of Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity had lower rates of testing (Black: odds ratio [OR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.68-0.72]; Hispanic: OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.63-0.67]; Asian: OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.57-0.63]); however, they were significantly more likely to have positive test results (Black: OR, 2.66 [95% CI, 2.43-2.90]; Hispanic: OR, 3.75 [95% CI, 3.39-4.15]; Asian: OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.69-2.48]). Older age (5-11 years: OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.13-1.38]; 12-17 years: OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.73-2.12]; 18-24 years: OR, 3.51 [95% CI, 3.11-3.97]), public payer (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.31-1.57]), outpatient testing (OR, 2.13 [1.86-2.44]), and emergency department testing (OR, 3.16 [95% CI, 2.72-3.67]) were also associated with increased risk of infection. In univariate analyses, nonmalignant chronic disease was associated with lower likelihood of testing, and preexisting respiratory conditions were associated with lower risk of positive test results (standardized ratio [SR], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.84]). However, several other diagnosis groups were associated with a higher risk of positive test results: malignant disorders (SR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.19-1.93]), cardiac disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05-1.32]), endocrinologic disorders (SR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.31-1.75]), gastrointestinal disorders (SR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.04-1.38]), genetic disorders (SR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.40]), hematologic disorders (SR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.47]), musculoskeletal disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.30]), mental health disorders (SR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]), and metabolic disorders (SR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.24-1.61]). Among the 5374 patients with positive test results, 359 (7%) were hospitalized for respiratory, hypotensive, or COVID-19-specific illness. Of these, 99 (28%) required intensive care unit services, and 33 (9%) required mechanical ventilation. The case fatality rate was 0.2% (8 of 5374). The number of patients with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease in early 2020 was 40% lower (259 vs 433 and 430) than in 2018 or 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort study of US pediatric patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were low, and clinical manifestations were typically mild. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity; adolescence and young adulthood; and nonrespiratory chronic medical conditions were associated with identified infection. Kawasaki disease diagnosis is not an effective proxy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
18.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(2): 176-184, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938375

ABSTRACT

Importance: There is limited information on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and infection among pediatric patients across the United States. Objective: To describe testing for SARS-CoV-2 and the epidemiology of infected patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic health record data from 135 794 patients younger than 25 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 from January 1 through September 8, 2020. Data were from PEDSnet, a network of 7 US pediatric health systems, comprising 6.5 million patients primarily from 11 states. Data analysis was performed from September 8 to 24, 2020. Exposure: Testing for SARS-CoV-2. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Results: A total of 135 794 pediatric patients (53% male; mean [SD] age, 8.8 [6.7] years; 3% Asian patients, 15% Black patients, 11% Hispanic patients, and 59% White patients; 290 per 10 000 population [range, 155-395 per 10 000 population across health systems]) were tested for SARS-CoV-2, and 5374 (4%) were infected with the virus (12 per 10 000 population [range, 7-16 per 10 000 population]). Compared with White patients, those of Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity had lower rates of testing (Black: odds ratio [OR], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.68-0.72]; Hispanic: OR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.63-0.67]; Asian: OR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.57-0.63]); however, they were significantly more likely to have positive test results (Black: OR, 2.66 [95% CI, 2.43-2.90]; Hispanic: OR, 3.75 [95% CI, 3.39-4.15]; Asian: OR, 2.04 [95% CI, 1.69-2.48]). Older age (5-11 years: OR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.13-1.38]; 12-17 years: OR, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.73-2.12]; 18-24 years: OR, 3.51 [95% CI, 3.11-3.97]), public payer (OR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.31-1.57]), outpatient testing (OR, 2.13 [1.86-2.44]), and emergency department testing (OR, 3.16 [95% CI, 2.72-3.67]) were also associated with increased risk of infection. In univariate analyses, nonmalignant chronic disease was associated with lower likelihood of testing, and preexisting respiratory conditions were associated with lower risk of positive test results (standardized ratio [SR], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.84]). However, several other diagnosis groups were associated with a higher risk of positive test results: malignant disorders (SR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.19-1.93]), cardiac disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.05-1.32]), endocrinologic disorders (SR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.31-1.75]), gastrointestinal disorders (SR, 2.00 [95% CI, 1.04-1.38]), genetic disorders (SR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.40]), hematologic disorders (SR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.06-1.47]), musculoskeletal disorders (SR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.30]), mental health disorders (SR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.10-1.30]), and metabolic disorders (SR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.24-1.61]). Among the 5374 patients with positive test results, 359 (7%) were hospitalized for respiratory, hypotensive, or COVID-19-specific illness. Of these, 99 (28%) required intensive care unit services, and 33 (9%) required mechanical ventilation. The case fatality rate was 0.2% (8 of 5374). The number of patients with a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease in early 2020 was 40% lower (259 vs 433 and 430) than in 2018 or 2019. Conclusions and Relevance: In this large cohort study of US pediatric patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection rates were low, and clinical manifestations were typically mild. Black, Hispanic, and Asian race/ethnicity; adolescence and young adulthood; and nonrespiratory chronic medical conditions were associated with identified infection. Kawasaki disease diagnosis is not an effective proxy for multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Young Adult
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