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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306759

ABSTRACT

Background: Several clinical, laboratory and instrumental prognostic indicators for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been found. Combining all the different predictors in a score would make easier and more accurate the risk assessment of COVID-19 patients. To this purpose, we examined a large number of COVID-19 patients. First, we identified the best predictors of in-hospital mortality at admission. Then, we calculated a score system to capture the contribution of the various prognostic indicators.Methods: Prospective multicenter study (ELCOVID) referring to central-northern Italy. This project is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04367129). COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital in the period May-September 2020 were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory and electrocardiographic (ECG) records were collected at admission. Patients were followed-up and in-hospital mortality constituted the primary endpoint. A risk scoring system to predict prognosis was derived by independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.Findings: A total of 1014 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. Demographic, clinical, laboratories and ECG characteristics were collected. Median age was 74 (IQR 64-82) years, and most patients were male (61%). During a median follow-up of 12 (IQR 7-22) days, 359 (35%) patients died. Age (HR 2.25, 95%CIs 1.72-2.94, p < 0.001), delirium (HR 2.03, 95%CIs 2.14-3.61, p = 0.012), platelets count (HR 0.91, 95%CIs 0.83-0.98, p = 0.018), D-dimer (HR 1.18, 95%CIs 1.01-1.31, p = 0.002), S1Q3T3 pattern and/or RBBB (HR 1.47, 95%CIs 1.02-2.13, p = 0.039) and ECG signs of previous myocardial necrosis (HR 2.28, 95%CIs 1.23-4.21, p = 0.009) were independently associated to in-hospital mortality. The risk scoring system derived had a moderate discriminatory capability and good calibration. A score value ≥4 had a sensitivity of 78,4% and specificity of 65,2% to predict in-hospital mortality.Interpretation: This score system stratifies prognosis and may be important for the management of COVID-19 patients admitted to the hospital.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04367129).Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: None declared.Ethics Approval Statement: ELCOVID is a prospective observational study approved by the local Ethics Committee and involves 15 hospitals in the Emilia Romagna and Lazio, two regions in northern and central Italy heavily affected by the pandemic.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 263-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650198

ABSTRACT

Recent data support the existence of a distinctive 'vascular' phenotype with the involvement of both pulmonary parenchyma and its circulation in COVID-19 pneumonia. Its prompt identification is important for the accurate management of COVID-19 patients. The aim is to analyse the pro and contra of the different modalities to identify the 'vascular' phenotype. Chest computed tomography scan and angiogram may quantify both parenchyma and vascular damage, but the presence of thrombosis of pulmonary microcirculation may be missed. Increased d-dimer concentration confirms a thrombotic state, but it cannot localize the thrombus. An elevation of troponin concentration non-specifically reflects cardiac injury. Echocardiogram and electrocardiogram provide specific signs of right ventricular pressure overload. This is particularly relevant for the 'vascular' phenotype, which does not necessarily represent the result of thrombo-embolic venous complications, but more frequently, it is the result of pulmonary microcirculation thrombosis in situ and needs immediate therapeutic action. CONDENSED ABSTRACT: Despite diagnosis of the 'vascular' phenotype of COVID-19 pneumonia may be subtle, the evidence indicates a reasonable possibility of identifying it already in the initial stage of the infection. Chest computed tomography scan and angiogram, increased d-dimer concentration, and elevation of troponin concentration may be not sufficient to identify 'vascular' phenotype. Echocardiogram and electrocardiogram provide specific signs of right ventricular pressure overload. This is particularly relevant for the 'vascular' phenotype, which does not necessarily represent the result of thrombo-embolic venous complications, but more frequently, it is the result of pulmonary microcirculation thrombosis in situ and needs immediate therapeutic action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , Lung , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2
3.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601777

ABSTRACT

Recent data support the existence of a distinctive ‘vascular’ phenotype with the involvement of both pulmonary parenchyma and its circulation in COVID-19 pneumonia. Its prompt identification is important for the accurate management of COVID-19 patients. The aim is to analyse the pro and contra of the different modalities to identify the ‘vascular’ phenotype. Chest computed tomography scan and angiogram may quantify both parenchyma and vascular damage, but the presence of thrombosis of pulmonary micro-circulation may be missed. Increased d-dimer concentration confirms a thrombotic state, but it cannot localize the thrombus. An elevation of troponin concentration nonspecifically reflects cardiac injury. Echocardiogram and electrocardiogram provide specific signs of right ventricular pressure overload. This is particularly relevant for the ‘vascular’ phenotype which does not necessarily represent the result of thromboembolic venous complications but, more frequently, it is the result of pulmonary microcirculation thrombosis in situ and needs immediate therapeutic action.

4.
Hypertens Res ; 45(2): 333-343, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521736

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is associated with more severe disease and adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Recent investigations have indicated that hypertension might be an independent predictor of outcomes in COVID-19 patients regardless of other cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities. We explored the significance of coronary calcifications in 694 hypertensive patients in the Score-COVID registry, an Italian multicenter study conducted during the first pandemic wave in the Western world (March-April 2020). A total of 1565 patients admitted with RNA-PCR-positive nasopharyngeal swabs and chest computed tomography (CT) at hospital admission were included in the study. Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular calcifications were analyzed independently by a research core lab. Hypertensive patients had a different risk profile than nonhypertensive patients, with more cardiovascular comorbidities. The deceased hypertensive patients had a greater coronary calcification burden at the level of the anterior descending coronary artery. Hypertension status and the severity cutoffs of coronary calcifications were used to stratify the clinical outcomes. For every 100-mm3 increase in coronary calcium volume, hospital mortality in hypertensive patients increased by 8%, regardless of sex, age, diabetes, creatinine, and lung interstitial involvement. The coronary calcium score contributes to stratifying the risk of complications in COVID-19 patients. Cardiovascular calcifications appear to be a promising imaging marker for providing pathophysiological insight into cardiovascular risk factors and COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Hypertension , Vascular Calcification , Calcium , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging , Vascular Calcification/epidemiology
5.
Eur Heart J ; 42(6): 555-557, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472264

Subject(s)
Nanoparticles , Humans
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 92: 24-27, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370510

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Biomedicines ; 9(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354917

ABSTRACT

Endothelial dysfunction characterizes every aspect of the so-called cardiovascular continuum, a series of events ranging from hypertension to the development of atherosclerosis and, finally, to coronary heart disease, thrombus formation, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Endothelial dysfunction is the main prognostic factor for the progression of vascular disorders, which responds to drug intervention and lifestyle changes. Virtually all of the drugs used to prevent cardiovascular disorders, such as long-used and new antilipidemic agents and inhibitors of angiotensin enzyme (ACEi), exert an important effect on the endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction is a central feature of coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19), and it is now clear that life-risk complications of the disease are prompted by alterations of the endothelium induced by viral infection. As a consequence, the progression of COVID-19 is worse in the subjects in whom endothelial dysfunction is already present, such as elderly, diabetic, obese, and hypertensive patients. Importantly, circulating biomarkers of endothelial activation and injury predict the severity and mortality of the disease and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of treatments. The purpose of this review is to provide updates on endothelial function by discussing its clinical relevance in the cardiovascular continuum, the latest insights from molecular and cellular biology, and their implications for clinical practice, with a focus on new actors, such as the Notch signaling and emerging therapies for cardiovascular disease.

8.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 41(1): 71-72, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322333
9.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2215-2229, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309072

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical and demographical studies on COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that men experience worse outcomes than women. However, in most cases, the data were not stratified according to gender, limiting the understanding of the real impact of gender on outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the disaggregated in-hospital outcomes and explore the possible interactions between gender and cardiovascular calcifications. Data was derived from the sCORE-COVID-19 registry, an Italian multicentre registry that enrolled COVID-19 patients who had undergone a chest computer tomography scan on admission. A total of 1683 hospitalized patients (mean age 67±14 years) were included. Men had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, a higher pneumonia extension, more coronary calcifications (63% vs.50.9%, p<0.001), and a higher coronary calcium score (391±847 vs. 171±479 mm3, p<0.001). Men experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (24.4% vs. 17%, p=0.001), but the death event tended to occur earlier in women (15±7 vs. 8±7 days, p= 0.07). Non-survivors had a higher coronary, thoracic aorta, and aortic valve calcium score. Female sex, a known independent predictor of a favorable outcome in SARS-CoV2 infection, was not protective in women with a coronary calcification volume greater than 100 mm3. There were significant differences in cardiovascular comorbidities and vascular calcifications between men and women with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. The differences in outcomes can be at least partially explained by the different cardiovascular profiles. However, women with poor outcomes had the same coronary calcific burden as men. The presumed favorable female sex bias in COVID-19 must therefore be reviewed in the context of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Calcification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
10.
J Clin Med ; 10(14)2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302357

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Several studies have unveiled the great heterogeneity of COVID-19 pneumonia. Identification of the "vascular phenotype" (involving both pulmonary parenchyma and its circulation) has prognostic significance. Our aim was to explore the combined role of chest computed tomography (CT) scan and electrocardiogram (ECG) at hospital admission in predicting short-term prognosis and to draw pathophysiological insights. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the chest CT scan and ECG performed at admission in 151 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted between 20 March and 4 April 2020. All-cause mortality within 30 days was the primary endpoint. Median age was 71 years (IQR: 62-76). Severe pneumonia was present in 25 (17%) patients, and 121 (80%) had abnormal ECG. During a median follow-up of 7 days (IQR: 4-13), 54 (36%) patients died. Deceased patients had more severe pneumonia than survivors did (80% vs. 64%, p = 0.044). ECG in deceased patients showed more frequently atrial fibrillation/flutter (17% vs. 6%, p = 0.039) and acute right ventricular (RV) strain (35% vs. 10%, p < 0.001), suggesting the "vascular phenotype". ECG signs of acute RV strain (HR 2.46, 95% CIs 1.36-4.45, p = 0.0028) were independently associated with all-cause mortality in multivariable analysis, and in the likelihood ratio test, showed incremental prognostic value over chest CT scan, age, and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSIONS: Combining chest CT scan and ECG data improves risk stratification in COVID-19 pneumonia by identifying a distinctive phenotype with both parenchymal and vascular damage of the lung. Patients with severe pneumonia at chest CT scan plus ECG signs of acute RV strain have an extremely poor short-term prognosis.

11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(6): 895-905, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206759

ABSTRACT

Transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy (ATTR-CM) is a life-threatening condition with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. The recent availability of treatment for ATTR-CM has stimulated increased awareness of the disease and patient identification. Stratification of patients with ATTR-CM is critical for optimal management and treatment; however, monitoring disease progression is challenging and currently lacks best-practice guidance. In this report, experts with experience in treating amyloidosis and ATTR-CM developed consensus recommendations for monitoring the course of patients with ATTR-CM and proposed meaningful thresholds and frequency for specific parameters. A set of 11 measurable features across three separate domains were evaluated: (i) clinical and functional endpoints, (ii) biomarkers and laboratory markers, and (iii) imaging and electrocardiographic parameters. Experts recommended that one marker from each of the three domains provides the minimum requirements for assessing disease progression. Assessment of cardiac disease status should be part of a multiparametric evaluation in which progression, stability or improvement of other involved systems in transthyretin amyloidosis should also be considered. Additional data from placebo arms of clinical trials and future studies assessing ATTR-CM will help to elucidate, refine and define these and other measurements.


Subject(s)
Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial , Cardiomyopathies , Heart Failure , Amyloid Neuropathies, Familial/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Consensus , Humans , Prealbumin/genetics
12.
Eur Heart J ; 41(41): 3981-3983, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893110
13.
Atherosclerosis ; 328: 136-143, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171201

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The potential impact of coronary atherosclerosis, as detected by coronary artery calcium, on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients remains unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic impact of clinical and subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD), as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), in a large, unselected population of hospitalized COVID-19 patients undergoing non-gated chest computed tomography (CT) for clinical practice. METHODS: SARS-CoV 2 positive patients from the multicenter (16 Italian hospitals), retrospective observational SCORE COVID-19 (calcium score for COVID-19 Risk Evaluation) registry were stratified in three groups: (a) "clinical CAD" (prior revascularization history), (b) "subclinical CAD" (CAC >0), (c) "No CAD" (CAC = 0). Primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality and the secondary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident (MI/CVA). RESULTS: Amongst 1625 patients (male 67.2%, median age 69 [interquartile range 58-77] years), 31%, 57.8% and 11.1% had no, subclinical and clinical CAD, respectively. Increasing rates of in-hospital mortality (11.3% vs. 27.3% vs. 39.8%, p < 0.001) and MI/CVA events (2.3% vs. 3.8% vs. 11.9%, p < 0.001) were observed for patients with no CAD vs. subclinical CAD vs clinical CAD, respectively. The association with in-hospital mortality was independent of in-study outcome predictors (age, peripheral artery disease, active cancer, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, LDH, aerated lung volume): subclinical CAD vs. No CAD: adjusted hazard ratio (adj-HR) 2.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-7.17, p=0.025); clinical CAD vs. No CAD: adj-HR 3.74 (95% CI 1.21-11.60, p=0.022). Among patients with subclinical CAD, increasing CAC burden was associated with higher rates of in-hospital mortality (20.5% vs. 27.9% vs. 38.7% for patients with CAC score thresholds≤100, 101-400 and > 400, respectively, p < 0.001). The adj-HR per 50 points increase in CAC score 1.007 (95%CI 1.001-1.013, p=0.016). Cardiovascular risk factors were not independent predictors of in-hospital mortality when CAD presence and extent were taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and extent of CAD are associated with in-hospital mortality and MI/CVA among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 disease and they appear to be a better prognostic gauge as compared to a clinical cardiovascular risk assessment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronary Artery Disease , Aged , Calcium , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Europace ; 22(12): 1848-1854, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059441

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Our aim was to describe the electrocardiographic features of critical COVID-19 patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out a multicentric, cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of 431 consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between 10 March and 14 April 2020 who died or were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation. This project is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT04367129). Standard ECG was recorded at hospital admission. ECG was abnormal in 93% of the patients. Atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected in 22% of the patients. ECG signs suggesting acute right ventricular pressure overload (RVPO) were detected in 30% of the patients. In particular, 43 (10%) patients had the S1Q3T3 pattern, 38 (9%) had incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), and 49 (11%) had complete RBBB. ECG signs of acute RVPO were not statistically different between patients with (n = 104) or without (n=327) invasive mechanical ventilation during ECG recording (36% vs. 28%, P = 0.10). Non-specific repolarization abnormalities and low QRS voltage in peripheral leads were present in 176 (41%) and 23 (5%), respectively. In four patients showing ST-segment elevation, acute myocardial infarction was confirmed with coronary angiography. No ST-T abnormalities suggestive of acute myocarditis were detected. In the subgroup of 110 patients where high-sensitivity troponin I was available, ECG features were not statistically different when stratified for above or below the 5 times upper reference limit value. CONCLUSIONS: The ECG is abnormal in almost all critically ill COVID-19 patients and shows a large spectrum of abnormalities, with signs of acute RVPO in 30% of the patients. Rapid and simple identification of these cases with ECG at hospital admission can facilitate classification of the patients and provide pathophysiological insights.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Electrocardiography , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Eur Heart J ; 41(44): 4229-4230, 2020 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043044
16.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(5): 1123-1129, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043200

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis has been reported as a possible clinical presentation or complication in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 due to SARS-CoV-2. Despite the alarm that this possibility generated among physicians, there is paucity of information about mechanisms, prevalence, prognosis, diagnosis and therapy of myocarditis in the context of COVID-19. This brief review has the goal to revise and summarize current knowledge on myocarditis in COVID-19 patients and underline problems especially related to diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Myocarditis/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Prevalence
17.
JACC Case Rep ; 3(1): 162-164, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036588

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a patient critically ill with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in which atrial flutter with high ventricular response rate occurred, contributing to worsening of the respiratory distress. After failure of noninvasive rate and rhythm control strategies, successful transcatheter ablation was performed and the respiratory distress of the patient improved. (Level of Difficulty: Beginner.).

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