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1.
Vaccine X ; 11: 100172, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914747

ABSTRACT

Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at occupational risk for acquisition of several vaccine-preventable diseases and transmission to patients. Vaccinations of HCP are justified to confer them immunity but also to protect susceptible patients and healthcare services from outbreaks, HCP absenteeism and presenteeism. Mandatory vaccination policies for HCP are increasingly adopted and achieve high and sustainable vaccination rates in short term. In this article we review the scientific evidence for HCP vaccination. We also address issues pertaining to vaccination policies for HCP and present the challenges of implementation of mandatory versus voluntary vaccination policies. Finally, we discuss the issue of mandatory vaccination of HCP against COVID-19.

2.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 867080, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903179

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Italy is one of the high-income countries hit hardest by Covid-19. During the first months of the pandemic, Italian healthcare workers were praised by media and the public for their efforts to face the emergency, although with limited knowledge and resources. However, healthcare workers soon had to face new challenges at a time when the national health system was working hard to recover. This study focuses on this difficult period to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of Italian healthcare workers. Materials and Methods: Healthcare workers from all Italian regions [n = 5,502] completed an online questionnaire during the reopening phase after the first wave lockdown. We assessed a set of individual-level factors (e.g., stigma and violence against HCWs) and a set of workplace-level factors (e.g., trust in the workplace capacity to handle COVID-19) that were especially relevant in this context. The primary outcomes assessed were score ≥15 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and score ≥4 on the General Health Questionnaire-12, indicators of clinically significant depressive symptoms and psychological distress, respectively. Logistic regression analyses were performed on depressive symptoms and psychological distress for each individual- and workplace-level factor adjusting for gender, age, and profession. Results: Clinically significant depressive symptoms were observed in 7.5% and psychological distress in 37.9% of HCWs. 30.5% of healthcare workers reported having felt stigmatized or discriminated, while 5.7% reported having experienced violence. Feeling stigmatized or discriminated and experiencing violence due to being a healthcare worker were strongly associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms [OR 2.98, 95%CI 2.36-3.77 and OR 4.72 95%CI 3.41-6.54] and psychological distress [OR 2.30, 95%CI 2.01-2.64 and OR 2.85 95%CI 2.16-3.75]. Numerous workplace-level factors, e.g., trust in the workplace capacity to handle COVID-19 [OR 2.43, 95%CI 1.92-3.07] and close contact with a co-worker who died of COVID-19 [OR 2.05, 95%CI 1.56-2.70] were also associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Similar results were found for psychological distress. Conclusions: Our study emphasizes the need to address discrimination and violence against healthcare professionals and improve healthcare work environments to strengthen the national health system's capacity to manage future emergencies.

3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862788

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic greatly impacted global health. Frontline healthcare workers involved in the response to COVID-19 faced physical and psychological challenges that threatened their wellbeing and job satisfaction. The pandemic crisis, alongside pre-existing critical issues, exposed healthcare workers to constant emotional fatigue, creating an increased workload and vulnerability to stress. Maintaining such stress levels increased their levels of anxiety, irritability and loneliness. Evidence shows that the Psychological Capital (PsyCap) was a strong protective factor against these stressors. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of job satisfaction among health workers facing the COVID-19 pandemic. The possible antecedent factors to satisfaction and the role that PsyCap plays in preserving and fostering higher levels of job satisfaction were investigated. A total of 527 healthcare workers from different areas of Italy were recruited for the study. The results revealed that psychological stress factors have a considerable impact on job satisfaction. All four predictors (Stress Vulnerability, Anxiety Symptoms, Loneliness and Irritability) had the potential to decrease job satisfaction. Loneliness had a more significant effect than other factors assessed in this study. Moreover, the results showed how PsyCap could decrease the effects of psychological stressors on job satisfaction. Consistent with previous studies, our findings show that PsyCap could alleviate negative impacts in work-related circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Occupations , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Sustainability ; 14(8):4766, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1792454

ABSTRACT

As of the end of February 2021, more than 420,000,000 confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported worldwide, with 5,856,224 deaths. Transmission of the different genetically engineered variants of SARS-CoV-2, which have been isolated since the beginning of the pandemic, occurs from one infected person to another by the same means: the airborne route, indirect contact, and occasionally the fecal–oral route. Infection is asymptomatic or may present with flulike symptoms such as fever, cough, and mild to moderate and severe respiratory distress, requiring hospitalization and assisted ventilation support. To control the spread of COVID-19, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have indicated that the appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE), as well as the adoption of effective hygiene systems, is one of the primary prevention measures for the entire population. Companies and institutions around the world are therefore trying to find the best ways to reorganize their operations, minimizing the risk of infection among their employees, in order to protect their health and prevent internal outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2, including through the development of new technologies that could also be an innovative and driving factor for the relaunch of companies in a more sustainable, ethically correct, and safe for the health of employees perspective. On the basis of the above premises, in view of the coexistence with SARS-CoV-2 that will most likely accompany us in the coming years, and in view of the vaccination campaign adopted worldwide, the purpose of our narrative review is to update the previous operational protocols with the latest scientific knowledge to be adopted in the workplace even when the emergency crisis is over.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677720

ABSTRACT

The adult Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (aVHS) is valid and reliable for evaluating attitudes toward vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity of the Italian version of the aVHS. After cross-cultural adaptation of the aVHS, internal consistency (IC), intra-class correlation (ICC), and content validity (S-CVI) were evaluated through a survey on 160 workers. Results of the ICC were analyzed on questionnaires administered twice at a distance of two months and revealed a satisfactory reproducibility (0.87). The IC of the aVHS was assessed by the Cronbach alpha coefficient test, with a result of 0.94, demonstrating an excellent IC reliability. The S-CVI calculated for the total scale was 0.97. The aVHS is a valid and reliable tool for evaluating vaccine hesitancy toward adult vaccinations. We suggest the use of this scale in upcoming surveys on opinions and perceptions of adult vaccinations.

6.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(1)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625412

ABSTRACT

The number of people vaccinated against COVID-19 increases worldwide every day; however, it is important to study the risk of breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals at high risk of exposure such as healthcare personnel (HCP). A systematic literature review (SLR) applying the PRISMA declaration and the PECOS format using the following entry terms was used: "Health Personnel OR Healthcare Worker OR Healthcare Provider OR Healthcare Personnel AND breakthrough OR infection after vaccine*". The research was carried out utilizing the following databases: SCOPUS, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sciences. An overall very low incidence of post-vaccination breakthrough infections was found, ranging from 0.011 to 0.001 (per 100 individuals at risk). Our findings further support the published high effectiveness rates of mRNA vaccines in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections among fully vaccinated HCP. Additional studies are needed to define the duration of the vaccine-induced protection among HCP.

7.
Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine ; 23(1):N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1602491

ABSTRACT

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in 2020, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 was reported in Wuhan, China. The present review examined the literature to reveal the incidence of novel coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) infections, underlying comorbidities, workplace infections and case fatality rates. A review was performed to identify the relevant publications available up to May 15, 2020. Since the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, the case fatality rate among healthcare workers (HCWs) has stood at 0.69% worldwide and 0.4% in Italy. Based on the current information, most patients have exhibited good prognoses in terms of after-effects or sequelae and low mortality rate. Patients that became critically ill were primarily in the elderly population or had chronic underlying diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Among all working sectors, HCWs, since they are front-line caregivers for patients with COVID-19, are considered to be in the high-risk population. Increased age and a number of comorbidity factors have been associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. The most frequent complications of COVID-19 reported that can cause fatality in patients were SARS, cardiac arrest, secondary infections and septic shock, in addition to acute kidney failure and liver failure. Overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing challenge, which poses a threat to global health that requires close surveillance and prompt diagnosis, in coordination with research efforts to understand this pathogen and develop effective countermeasures. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Experimental & Therapeutic Medicine is the property of Spandidos Publications UK Ltd and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597023

ABSTRACT

The sleep-wake cycle plays a fundamental role in maintaining the physiological balance of our body. Its alteration favours the genesis of several organic alterations and diseases including sleep disorders and the consumption of several substances of abuse. It has been reported that the work activity, especially that carried out during the night, is able to influence the sleep-wake cycle, promoting the development of insomnia, which, in turn, would subject the worker to a stressful condition such as to encourage adverse behaviour such as the use/abuse of psychotropic substances. Based on the above premises, the aim of our research was to evaluate, in night workers: (i) the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages; (ii) the presence of insomnia; and (iii) the possible correlation between alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder. We used the AUDIT-C test (the abbreviated version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and the Insomnia Severity Index to assess alcohol consumption and insomnia disorder, respectively. All questionnaires were completed by workers of both sexes belonging to different types of work activities, exclusively day or night. The results of our research show a higher propensity of night workers to consume alcoholic beverages than those who work during daytime hours, often in binge-drinking mode. In addition, an increase in the amount of alcohol consumed was found to be related to insomnia disorder, especially in night workers. This study provides further awareness of the importance of the negative impact of alcohol consumption on sleep quality in night workers.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Sleep , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, human lifestyles and occupational settings have changed in the workplace. This survey explores associations of home working employment and related physical activity (PA-MET min/week). METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted between March 2020 and March 2021. A standardized method for assessing PA and sedentary time, the Italian version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-SF), was used through the Microsoft Forms® platform for self-administering the questionnaire. Baseline data were collected, and four follow-ups were performed; a full calendar year was observed. RESULTS: In total, 310 home workers were recruited in this investigation. The average body mass index (BMI- kg/m2) was 21.4 ± 4.2 at baseline. The value increased at the first follow-up and fluctuated in the other recalls. The t-test of MET values of the four activities (Total PA, Vigorous-intensity activity, Moderate-intensity activity, Walking) show similar results; the total PA, at baseline 275.7 ± 138.6, decreased statistically significantly at the first (198.5 ± 84.6), third (174.9 ± 98.4), and fourth (188.7 ± 78.5) follow-ups, while it increased statistically significantly at the second follow-up (307.1 ± 106.1) compared to the baseline. Sedentary time was constant until the second follow-up, while it increased statistically significantly at the 3rd and 4th follow-up. CONCLUSION: workers involved reduced and reorganized their PA during this pandemic year. Each business company should intervene to improve the PA levels of workers and reduce sedentary behavior in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Exercise , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics
10.
Exp Ther Med ; 23(1): 10, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534299

ABSTRACT

According to the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in 2020, a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus 2 was reported in Wuhan, China. The present review examined the literature to reveal the incidence of novel coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) infections, underlying comorbidities, workplace infections and case fatality rates. A review was performed to identify the relevant publications available up to May 15, 2020. Since the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, the case fatality rate among healthcare workers (HCWs) has stood at 0.69% worldwide and 0.4% in Italy. Based on the current information, most patients have exhibited good prognoses in terms of after-effects or sequelae and low mortality rate. Patients that became critically ill were primarily in the elderly population or had chronic underlying diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. Among all working sectors, HCWs, since they are front-line caregivers for patients with COVID-19, are considered to be in the high-risk population. Increased age and a number of comorbidity factors have been associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19. The most frequent complications of COVID-19 reported that can cause fatality in patients were SARS, cardiac arrest, secondary infections and septic shock, in addition to acute kidney failure and liver failure. Overcoming the COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing challenge, which poses a threat to global health that requires close surveillance and prompt diagnosis, in coordination with research efforts to understand this pathogen and develop effective countermeasures.

11.
Applied Sciences ; 11(21):10051, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1488469

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, many workplaces were forced to interrupt their activities or alternatively had to prefer a smart way of working, if this was compatible with their activities, to contain the spread of the virus. Some production activities, on the other hand, continued, such as those belonging to the agri-food sector. The aim of the study was to investigate seroprevalence in the workers of an Italian agri-food company following prevention interventions developed in concert with an occupational physician. An observational cohort study was conducted on a population of 328 (100%) workers of a company in the agri-food sector, located in the Sicilian region, which specialized in the production and distribution of citrus fruits. Only one worker was infected with SARS-CoV-2, which later also developed the immune response. No other worker contracted the infection. In conclusion, the measures implemented identified the positive subject for SARS-CoV-2 at an early stage. This made it possible to avoid contagion between the positive subject and the other workers. The occupational physician was also, in this case, essential in decoding and implementing the rules and guidelines useful for the protection of the health and safety of the worker.

12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655927, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359254

ABSTRACT

Immediately after the outbreak of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (which had risen to the level of a pandemic according to the World Health Organization), the question arose whether or not to update the risk assessment, which, as required by Legislative Decree 81/2008, with the consequent updating of the prevention measures. In light of these forecasts, we asked ourselves whether the risk of coronavirus infection should be taken into account by the employer by updating the risk assessment or not. An in-depth analysis of current legislation has led to the conclusion that the biological risk from SARS-CoV-2 is to be considered specific only in health-related activities, in other activities it can be considered exclusively generic or generic aggravated. The Risk Assessment Document can therefore only be integrated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(6)2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259633

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are among the most successful and cost-effective public health tools and have greatly contributed to eliminating or controlling several serious vaccine-treatable diseases over the past century. To curb the spread of COVID-19, efficacious vaccination is emerging as essential in mitigating the disease and preventing deaths. Health care workers (HCW) are one of the first groups to receive vaccinations, so it is important to consider their attitudes to COVID-19 vaccination to better address barriers to widespread vaccination acceptance. This study aimed to evaluate variables that are linked with the recommendation of vaccines and intention to take-up vaccination against COVID-19 among the HCWs, in the context of the current pandemic. The study was conducted during the first week of the vaccination campaign dedicated to Italian HCWs, beginning in December 2020, and it involved all doctors in a public hospital in Sicily. The following questionnaires were administered: (1) The perceived vaccine trust questionnaire, measuring the degree of trust in vaccines by healthcare professionals both in general and for the protection of healthcare professionals themselves and patients; (2) the positive and negative affect scale-state (PANAS), for assessing positive and negative emotions in relation to their work as "frontline care providers"; (3) The locus of control of behaviour (LCB) to measure the extent to which subjects perceive responsibility for their personal behaviour (internal vs. external); (4) recommendation vaccines item, referring to the intention to recommend vaccination. The findings suggest that socio-demographic control variables (age, gender, and seniority) showed little or no predictive power in vaccine recommendation, while vaccine confidence, positive emotions, and internal locus of control were excellent predictors of vaccine recommendations by doctors. Younger doctors, both in age and experience, are more confident in vaccines and recommend them more frequently. It is essential to improve institutional communication addressed to doctors to enhance their role as vaccination facilitators.

14.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 6(1)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167743

ABSTRACT

Family physicians or pediatricians and general practitioners (GPs) work in non-hospital settings. GPs usually visit many patients, frequently at their homes, with low potential, if any, to control the work setting. Particularly during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak, they were not informed about the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, with inadequate information regarding the risk, a lack of suitable protective measures and, in some cases, deficient or poor accessibility to personal protective equipment (PPE). During the first wave of COVID-19, primary care physicians were on the front line and isolated the first cases of the disease. The present study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 133 GPs working in Catania (Italy) after the first wave of COVID-19. Serological analysis revealed a low seroprevalence (3%) among GPs. The low seroprevalence highlighted in the results can be attributed to correct management of patients by GPs in the first wave. It is now hoped that mass vaccination, combined with appropriate behavior and use of PPE, can help further reduce the risk of COVID-19 disease.

15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167582

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, several cases of atypical pneumonia were detected in Wuhan city, Hubei province, inland China. The initial outbreak was of considerable size first in China subsequently spread to the rest of the world. Immediately after the epidemic (which according to the World Health Organization had risen to pandemic status), the problem of whether or not to update the occupational risk assessment arose, also considering how the biological risk from SARS CoV-2 should be understood: specific or generic. To this end, we conducted a literature review to identify national health legislation and policies, examining how Italy has addressed the COVID-19 emergency in occupational health planning, in order to develop considerations on the need to update the Risk Assessment Document following the pandemic status. The data that emerged from the review of current legislation allowed us to conclude that the risk from SARS-CoV-2 is in most work activities to be understood as a generic or aggravated generic risk, requiring the employer to apply and control the preventive measures suggested by health authorities to contain the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Risk Assessment
16.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160481

ABSTRACT

To date, there is poor evidence on the transmission of infection in individuals handling the bodies of deceased persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 and in particular, during autopsies. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that when appropriate strategies are adopted autopsy is a safe procedure with a minimal infection risk for all subjects involved (pathologists, technical personnel, and others) when proper strategies are adopted. We performed 16 autopsies on cadavers of persons who had died with confirmed COVID-19 with different post-mortem intervals (PMI). To confirm the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, for each autopsy, 2 swabs were sampled from lungs, while to evaluate environmental contamination, 11 swabs were taken at three different times: T0 (before autopsy), T1 (at the end of the autopsy, without removing the corpse), and T2 (after cleaning and disinfecting the autopsy room). Specifically, 2 swabs were sampled on face shields used by each pathologist, and 4 swabs were collected on the autopsy table; 4 swabs were also collected from walls and 1 from floor. Lung swabs confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all cases. Environmental swabs, collected at T0 and T2 were all negative, while swabs sampled at T1 were shown to be positive. Interestingly, no association was shown between PMI length and environmental contamination. Infection control strategies for safe management of clinical forensic autopsies of bodies with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 are also described.

17.
Epidemiologia ; 2(1):124-139, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1154306

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was first observed in Wuhan, Hubei Province (China) in December 2019, resulting in an acute respiratory syndrome. Only later was COVID-19 considered a public health emergency of international concern and, on 11 March 2020, the WHO classified it as pandemic. Despite being a respiratory virus, the clinical manifestations are also characterized by cardiological involvement, especially in patients suffering from previous comorbidities such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus, its complications being potentially serious or fatal. Despite the efforts made by the scientific community to identify pathophysiological mechanisms, they still remain unclear. A fundamental role is played by the angiotensin 2 converting enzyme, known for its effects at the cardiovascular level and for its involvement in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The goal of this paper was to highlight the mechanisms and knowledge related to cardiovascular involvement during the first pandemic phase, as well as to emphasize the main cardiological complications in infected patients.

18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(5)2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134148

ABSTRACT

Vaccines constitute highly effective tools for controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) and are assessed to avert between two to three million deaths per year globally. Healthcare personnel (HCP) constitute a priority group for several vaccinations. However, studies indicate significant rates of vaccine hesitancy among them and, therefore, of acceptance of vaccination recommendations. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a university hospital in Southern Italy to assess the knowledge and attitudes of HCP about VPDs before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, estimate their intention to get vaccinated against COVID-19, and search for determinants that may influence their choice. A self-administered questionnaire was used. HCP improved their knowledge about VPDs and were more favorable to vaccinations in September-December 2020 compared to January-December 2019. Overall, 75% of respondents would get a COVID-19 vaccine. Our findings indicate a potential role of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on Italian HCP's knowledge and attitudes towards vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
19.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 6(1):21, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1077177

ABSTRACT

Family physicians or pediatricians and general practitioners (GPs) work in non-hospital settings. GPs usually visit many patients, frequently at their homes, with low potential, if any, to control the work setting. Particularly during the initial phases of the COVID-19 outbreak, they were not informed about the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, with inadequate information regarding the risk, a lack of suitable protective measures and, in some cases, deficient or poor accessibility to personal protective equipment (PPE). During the first wave of COVID-19, primary care physicians were on the front line and isolated the first cases of the disease. The present study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 133 GPs working in Catania (Italy) after the first wave of COVID-19. Serological analysis revealed a low seroprevalence (3%) among GPs. The low seroprevalence highlighted in the results can be attributed to correct management of patients by GPs in the first wave. It is now hoped that mass vaccination, combined with appropriate behavior and use of PPE, can help further reduce the risk of COVID-19 disease.

20.
Sustainability ; 9(12)20200501.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-209960

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 emergency has significantly transformed the working environment and job demands. Providing care was emotionally difficult for healthcare workers. Uncertainty, stigmatisation, and potentially exposing their families to infection were prominent themes for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the crisis, which first broke out in China at the end of 2019, and then in Italy in early 2020. This study examined the effects of stigma, job demands, and self-esteem, and the consequences of working as a "frontline care provider" with patients infected with the coronavirus (COVID-19). A correlational design study involved 260 healthcare workers (HCWs) working in a large hospital in southern Italy. The following questionnaires were administered: (1) the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ), for assessing psychological and physical demands; (2) the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL) to measure the quality individuals feel in relation to their work as "frontline care providers", through three dimensions: compassion fatigue (CF), burnout (BO), and compassion satisfaction (CS); (3) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, for evaluating individual self-esteem; (4) a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire developed by See et al. about attitudes of discrimination, acceptance, and fear towards HCWs exposed to COVID-19. The findings suggest that stigma has a high impact on workers' outcomes. Stigma may influence worker compliance and can guide management communication strategies relating to pandemic risk for HCWs.

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