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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331285

ABSTRACT

Background: Quarantine and isolation measures during COVID-19 pandemic may have caused additional stress and challenged mental health of the youth. Aim of the study is to investigate the COVID-19 pandemic impact on neuropsychological disorders (NPD) of Italian children and adolescents to provide general pediatric recommendations.Material and methodsA retrospective multicenter observational study was planned by the Italian Pediatric Society (SIP) to explore the impact of COVID-19 on the access of children to pediatric Emergency Departments (pED) for the evaluation of neuropsychological symptoms, collecting the classification codes of diagnoses between March 1, 2019 and March 2, 2021. The period study was split into two sub-periods: a pre COVID-19 period (from March 1 2019 to March 1, 2020) and a COVID-19 period (from March 2, 2020 to March 2, 2021). As additional information, data on NPD hospitalizations in any pediatric department of the involved centers were recorded.ResultsDuring the study period, a total of 533,318 children were admitted to the pED involved in the study. Despite a 48.2% decline of pED admissions, there was a significant increase (83.1%) in patient admissions for NPD. The most frequent NPD conditions which increased during the COVID-19 pandemic were suicidal ideation (+ 147%), depression (+ 115%), eating disorder (+ 78.4%), and psychosis (+ 17.2%). During the pandemic period, a 39.5% increase in NPD hospitalizations was observed as well. The NPD disorders that mostly required hospitalizations were suicidal ideation (+ 134%), depression (+ 41.4%), eating disorder (+ 31.4%), and drug abuse (+ 26.7%).DiscussionThe COVID-19 pandemic had a major impact on children's health, mainly on their NPD development. Neuropsychological assessment should be required at the primary level, in the pediatrician's office, to facilitate early capture of the sign of impairment and provide an adequate treatment.Conclusion. SIP underlines the psychological consequences of COVID 19 pandemic on the youngest and recommend an early identification of NPD in the pediatric population to avoid other serious consequences for children's physical and mental health.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753483

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to evaluate the effects of heat and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on P3 facial respirator microstructure. INTERVENTION: P3 facial filters were exposed to dry heat and UV sterilization procedures. METHODS: P3 facial filter samples underwent a standardized sterilization process based on dry heat and UV irradiation techniques. We analyzed critical parameters of internal microstructure, such as fiber thickness and porosity, before and after sterilization, using 3D data obtained with synchrotron radiation-based X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT). The analyzed filter has two inner layers called the "finer" and "coarser" layers. The "finer" layer consists of a dense fiber network, while the "coarser" layer has a less compact fiber network. RESULTS: Analysis of 3D images showed no statistically significant differences between the P3 filter of the controls and the dry heat/UV sterilized samples. In particular, averages fiber thickness in the finer layer of the control and the 60° dry heated and UV-irradiated sample groups was almost identical. Average fiber thickness for the coarser layer of the control and the 60° dry heated and UV-irradiated sample groups was very similar, measuring 19.33 µm (±0.47), 18.33 µm (±0.47), and 18.66 µm (±0.47), respectively. There was no substantial difference in maximum fiber thickness in the finer layers and coarser layers. For the control group samples, maximum thickness was on average 11.43 µm (±1.24) in the finer layer and 59.33 µm (±6.79) in the coarser layer. Similarly, the 60° dry heated group samples were thickened 12.2 µm (±0.21) in the finer layer and 57.33 µm (±1.24) in the coarser layer, while for the UV-irradiated group, the mean max thickness was 12.23 µm (±0.90) in the finer layer and 58.00 µm (±6.68) in the coarser layer. Theoretical porosity analysis resulted in 74% and 88% for the finer and coarser layers. The finer layers' theoretical porosity tended to decrease in dry heat and UV-irradiated samples compared with the respective control samples. CONCLUSIONS: Dry heat and UV sterilization processes do not substantially alter the morphometry of the P3 filter samples' internal microstructure, as studied with micro-CT. The current study suggests that safe P3 filter facepiece reusability is theoretically feasible and should be further investigated.


Subject(s)
Hot Temperature , Pandemics , Sterilization , Ultraviolet Rays , X-Ray Microtomography
3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 32, 2022 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergency Departments play a pivotal role in detecting cases of child abuse. Despite the efforts made in the past decades on the need for a screening method for the early detection of abuse victims, a unique instrument shared by the international scientific community has not been made. These instruments should be able to help recognizing whether it is necessary to further investigate the child's condition. The aim of the study is to illustrate the screening indicators in use since 2010 in the Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital to early recognise the victims of abuse and the modifying process of the screening tool undertaken over the years. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the process that led to the editing of the indicators of child abuse in use nowadays at the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital. We codified three clinical pathways to apply in case of suspected abuse. Furthermore, we investigated the medical records of screening-positive accesses in the Paediatric Emergency Department of the Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital from January 2008 to October 2020. RESULTS: An estimation of positive screening, regarding the type of abuse suspected, and the number of accessed in ED was made, resulting in a cohort of 956 patients. In 2010 we created a list of 14 items grouped in three clusters: anamnestic declarations or incongruences, carelessness/neglect and evident lesions at physical examination. Positivity to one of the items allows the actuation of the investigating protocol named as clinical pathway.In 2013, after three years of experience, the criteria were edited to increase specificity. The application of screening led to a median number of 82 suspected cases/year from 2013 to 2020. CONCLUSION: A screening tool is essential and productive for the early recognition of victims of abuse. An in-deep analysis of suspected cases through a standardized method, such as the clinical pathway, allowed reaching the diagnosis in a more accurate and precise manner.


Subject(s)
Child Abuse , Hospitals, Pediatric , Child , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Child Abuse/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Mass Screening/methods , Retrospective Studies
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320094

ABSTRACT

Background: Italy was the first country in Europe to face the coronavirus pandemic. Healthcare workers (HCWs) were at higher risk of contracting COVID-19, because of their closer contact with patients. The present study aimed to analyze HCWs’ knowledge, practices, and attitude towards COVID-19. Methods: We set up a cross-sectional survey through SurveyMonkey® and circulated the link in Facebook and Whatsapp closed groups. It was conducted in Italy from the end of February to the first week of May 2020. The study participants were general practitioners, pediatricians and other health professionals. Data were collected using a well-structured questionnaire including demographic, scope of knowledge, awareness and practice assessment section. Results: A total of 958 participants were included. Of these, 320 (33.4%) were general practitioners, 248 (25.9%) were pediatricians and 390 (40.7%) were other health professionals. The highest response rate was from Northern Italy (48.1%), followed by the Center (29.9%) and Southern Italy (22.0%). The reported risk of having contact with a patient affected by Covid-19 was higher in the lockdown period than the pre-lockdown period (19.4% vs 10.2%, p=0.002). Respondents reported to have changed their clinical practice, more during lockdown period (81.1%) than in the pre-lockdown (46.3%). Particularly, they increased the use of masks (87.1%, p<0.001), disinfection and sanitization of doctors’ offices (75.8%, p<0.001), the use of protective glasses (71.2%, p<0.001), alcoholic hand solution (71.2%, p<0.001), and hand washing (31.8%, p=0.028). Conclusions: The majority of HCWs felt prepared to face the pandemic, and increased significantly their knowledge on infection prevention and control measures less known in the routine clinical practice (such as use of protective glasses and alcoholic hand solution), compared to other well-known measures (such as hand washing). HCWs are at high risk of infection and need extensive knowledge and awareness of the disease to take adequate precautionary measures and they are crucial to disseminate good practices.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318110

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that are common in humans and many animal species. Animal coronaviruses rarely infect humans with the exceptions of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus (SARS-CoV), and now SARS-CoV-2, which is the cause of the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several studies suggested that genetic variants in the ACE2 gene may influence the host susceptibility or resistance to SARS-CoV-2 infection according to the functional role of ACE2 in human pathophysiology. However, many of these studies have been conducted in silico based on epidemiological and population data. We therefore investigated the occurrence of ACE2 variants in a cohort of 131 Italian unrelated individuals clinically diagnosed with COVID-19 and in an Italian control population, to evaluate a possible allelic association with COVID-19, by direct DNA analysis. Methods: : As a pilot study, we analyzed, by whole-exome sequencing, genetic variants of ACE2 gene in 131 DNA samples of COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Tor Vergata University Hospital and at Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, Rome. We used a large control group consisting of 1,000 individuals (500 males and 500 females). Results: : We identified three different germline variants: one intronic c.439+4G>A and two missense c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) and c.2158A>G p.(Asn720Asp) in a total of 131 patients with a similar frequency in male and female. Thus far, only the c.1888G>C p.(Asp630His) variant shows a statistically different frequency compared to the ethnically matched populations. Therefore, further studies are needed in larger cohorts, since it was found only in one heterozygous COVID-19 patient. Conclusions: : Our results suggest that there is no strong evidence, in our cohort, of consistent association of ACE2 variants with COVID-19 severity. We might speculate that rare susceptibility/resistant alleles could be located in the non-coding regions of the ACE2 gene, known to play a role in regulation of the gene activity.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317622

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the lung ultrasound (LUS) patterns in combination with clinical-laboratory profiles of children hospitalized for COVID-19 infection in relation to temporal trend of the Italian epidemic. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at a pediatric tertiary referral hospital from 15th March 2020 to 15th March 2021. We compared the characteristics of two periods of the pandemic outbreak, the first one in spring and summer (15th March-30th September 2020) and the second one in autumn and winter (1st October 2020-15th March 2021). Results: 28 patients (53.85%) were in the first period, 24 patients (46.15%) were in the second period. The disease severity score was significantly higher in the second period (p=0.02). We observed that the occurrence of the irregular pleural line was seen more frequently in the second period (87.5% vs 60.71%;p=0.03). The B-lines were significantly more frequent in children in the second period (87.5% vs 60%;p=0.03). The several but not-coalescent B-lines were significantly more frequent in the second period (80% vs 41.7%;p=0.05). The LUS score correlated significantly with the disease severity score with a strong relationship (r=0.51, p=0.002). The second phase of the COVID-19 epidemic outbreak had a higher disease severity score than the first phase with a moderate correlation (r= 0.42;p=0.01). Conclusion: The LUS plays an important role in the evaluation of pulmonary involvement in children affected by COVID-19 during different periods of the pandemic in combination with clinical-laboratory findings.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308860

ABSTRACT

Background: Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period, while this is the first study that encompass several different phases of National Lockdown in a European country. We described the effects of different National Containment Measures on positive NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) trend, epidemiological links and main clinical features of the largest Italian Pediatric cohort admitted to a single regional Pediatric Emergency Department Hub for COVID-19, during an eight-month period.Methods: We described 316 patients with a positive NST for SARS-CoV2, on a total of 5001 nasopharyngeal swabs performed among 13171 admissions at our PED, over a period starting from March 17th, 2020 to December 1st, 2020. Age, epidemiological link, clinical features and hospitalizations were analyzed according to different lockdown phases. Data were collected anonymously from electronic records and analyzed using SPSS 22.00 statistics software (Chicago, IL).Findings: Thirty-six percent of total admissions have been tested for SARS-CoV2. During the post Lockdown period we performed the highest percentage of NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) 49,7% and found the highest percentage of positive NST on total NST effectuated 7,9%. Mean age was 6.5 years old. The 0-6 years age group accounted the highest number of positive NST. Familial link is predominant during all phases;however, we observed an increase of extra-familial and unknown link starting from the phase 4, especially among adolescents. Seventeen patients showed an intra-scholastic link. Older children were frequently symptomatic and accounted for the 1% admission in ICU (Intensive Care Unit). Seven patients were admitted with MIS-C diagnosis.Interpretation: Different levels of containment measures caused important changes in epidemiological link, mean age and number of admissions and hospitalization of patients with COVID-19. Familial link was predominant in our cohort, during all phases of Lockdown, yet the impact on extrafamilial link and intra-scholastic link should be further investigated. Adolescent and young adults could present more frequently with moderate/severe symptoms requiring, in rare cases, admission in ICU.Funding Statement: No funding was secured for this study.Declaration of Interests: The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the institutional review board of BambinoGesù Children Hospital, IRCCS.

8.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(3): 400-408.e4, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650182

ABSTRACT

Breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in fully vaccinated individuals are considered a consequence of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and functional B cell memory in vivo against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6, and 9 months after the second dose in a cohort of health care workers (HCWs). While we observed physiological decline of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, memory B cells persist and increase until 9 months after immunization. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum and anti-Spike IgA in the saliva. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic
11.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572687

ABSTRACT

Several countries have targeted adolescents for immunization against SARS-CoV-2 to mitigate COVID-19 spread. In Italy, immunization for children ≥ 12 years has been available starting from June 2021. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the knowledge, attitude and intention to vaccinate children < 18 years in Italian families. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with intention to vaccinate. We collected a total of 1696 responses. Among the 491 families of children ≥ 12 years, 41.2% would not vaccinate their children and 21.2% were uncertain, while among the 1205 families of children < 12 years, 36.1% would not vaccinate and 33.8% were uncertain. Determinants of intention to vaccinate both age groups were perceived safety and efficacy of vaccines and perceived risk of transmitting infection to adults. For children < 12 years, additional determinants were perceived risk of being infected and being hospitalized because of COVID-19. In view of the expanding strategy to vaccinate adolescents and the availability of immunization for children < 12 years, our results call for a communication strategy targeted at families of children focused on the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccine in children and on the dynamics of infection spread across different age groups. As perceptions in families are volatile and may change rapidly over time, repeated surveys for measuring attitudes to vaccinate would be advisable.

12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 9th January 2020, China CDC reported a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2) as the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Identifying the first appearance of virus is of epidemiological importance to tracking and mapping the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a country. We therefore conducted a retrospective observational study to detect SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized patients with a Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) enrolled in the DRIVE (Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness) study in five Italian hospitals (CIRI-IT BIVE hospitals network) (1st November 2019 - 29th February 2020). OBJECTIVES: To acquire new information on the real trend in SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic phase I and to determine the possible early appearance of the virus in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were tested for influenza [RT-PCR assay (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yam, B/Vic)] in accordance with the DRIVE study protocol. Subsequently, swabs underwent molecular testing for SARS-COV-2. [one-step real-time multiplex retro-transcription (RT) PCR]. RESULTS: In the 1683 samples collected, no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 was found. Moreover, 28.3% (477/1683) of swabs were positive for influenza viruses, the majority being type A (358 vs 119 type B). A/H3N2 was predominant among influenza A viruses (55%); among influenza B viruses, B/Victoria was prevalent. The highest influenza incidence rate was reported in patients aged 0-17 years (40.3%) followed by those aged 18-64 years (24.4%) and ≥65 years (14.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, some studies have shown the early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in northern regions, those most severely affected during phase I of the pandemic. In central and southern regions, by contrast no early circulation of the virus was registered. These results are in line with ours. These findings highlight the need to continue to carry out retrospective studies, in order to understand the epidemiology of the novel coronavirus, to better identify the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison with other acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), and to evaluate the real burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523971

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Varicella is a common pediatric infection. Even if it generally has a benign course, it may complicate and require hospitalization. The aim of our study was to estimate the acute hospitalization cost (AHC) for varicella in the acute phase in a pediatric population. METHODS: We calculated the AHC of pediatric patients admitted for varicella at Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy, from 1 November 2005 to 1 November 2020. RESULTS: In the study period, 825 pediatric patients affected by varicella were hospitalized. The mean hospitalization cost was EUR 4015.35 (range from EUR 558.44 to EUR 42,608.00). Among patients, 55% were unvaccinable due to either their age or their immunosuppression status. They would benefit from herd immunity, reducing the overall AHC by EUR 182,196,506. Since the introduction of the compulsory vaccination against varicella in Italy, we observed a significant reduction in AHC cost of 60.6% in 2019 and of 93.5% in 2020. Finally, from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, we documented a decline of 81.2% and 76.9% in varicella hospitalization, compared to 2018 and 2019, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella AHC is an important economic and health assessment point and can be useful for improving preventive strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chickenpox , Chickenpox/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine , Child , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Infant , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-292059

ABSTRACT

Background: Breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated HCWs are considered a marker of waning immunity. Serum antibodies represent the most visible and measurable outcome of vaccine-induced B-cell memory. When antibodies decline, memory B cells are expected to persist and perform their function, thus preventing clinical disease. We investigated whether BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine induces durable and in vivo functional B-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 3, 6 and 9 months after the second dose. Methods: We assessed the duration of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immunity by measuring specific antibodies and memory B cells 3, 6 and 9 months after vaccination. In fully vaccinated HCWs with breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections, we evaluated the humoral and mucosal response of vaccine-induced memory B cells. Findings: Whereas specific serum antibodies decline, anti-Spike memory B cells continue to increase until 9 months after the last vaccine dose. HCWs with breakthrough infections had no signs of waning immunity on the day of the first positive swab. In 3-4 days, memory B cells responded to SARS-CoV-2 infection by producing high levels of specific antibodies in the serum. In the saliva, anti-Spike IgA also rapidly increased in response to the infection. Antibodies to the viral nucleoprotein were produced with the slow kinetics typical of the response to a novel antigen. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies physiologically decline months after vaccination. By contrast, memory B cells persist and increase over time. Parenteral administered vaccines do not generate mucosal immunity and serum antibodies reach mucosal sites in small amounts by transudation. In HCWs with SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections, memory B cells react by rapidly differentiating into antibody-producing cells and generating IgA for protection of mucosal sites.

15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821

ABSTRACT

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
17.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 666468, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354876

ABSTRACT

A case of recurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with neurovestibular symptoms was reported. In March 2020, a physician working in an Italian pediatric hospital had flu-like symptoms with anosmia and dysgeusia, and following a reverse transcription PCR (RT/PCR) test with a nasopharyngeal swab tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. After home quarantine, 21 days from the beginning of the symptoms, the patient tested negative in two subsequent swabs and was declared healed and readmitted to work. Serological testing showed a low level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody title and absence of immunoglobulin M (IgM). However, 2 weeks later, before resuming work, the patient complained of acute vestibular syndrome, and the RT/PCR test with mucosal swab turned positive. On the basis of the literature examined and reviewed for recurrence cases and vestibular symptoms during COVID-19, to our knowledge this case is the first case of recurrence with vestibular impairment as a neurological symptom, and we defined it as probably a viral reactivation. The PCR retest positivity cannot differentiate re-infectivity, relapse, and dead-viral RNA detection. Serological antibody testing and viral genome sequencing could be always performed in recurrence cases.

18.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 594898, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269983

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is among the leading causes of hospitalization in infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab may reduce RSV infection, but its prescription is restricted to high-risk groups. The aim of the study is to retrospectively determine acute hospitalization costs of bronchiolitis. Materials and methods: Infants aged 1 month-1 year, admitted to Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, Rome, Italy, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis from January 1 till December 31, 2017, were included in the study. Results: A total of 531 patients were enrolled in the study, and the mean age was 78.75 days. The main etiologic agent causing bronchiolitis was RSV, accounting for 58.38% of infections. The total cost of bronchiolitis hospitalization was 2,958,786 euros. The mean cost per patient was significantly higher in the case of RSV (5,753.43 ± 2,041.62 euros) compared to other etiology (5,395.15 ± 2,040.87 euros) (p = 0.04). Discussion: The study confirms the high hospitalization cost associated with bronchiolitis. In detail, in the case of RSV etiology, the cost was higher compared to other etiology, which is likely due to the longer hospitalization and the more frequent admission to the intensive cure department. Conclusion: This study highlights that bronchiolitis is an important cost item even in a tertiary hospital and that cost-effective interventions targeting RSV are increasingly urgent.

19.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 122, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies described the epidemiological link and main clinical features of pediatric COVID-19, during the first pandemic period. Our study encompasses several different phases since the National Lockdown in Italy. The primary outcome is (I) to analyze the prevalence of positive NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) among the largest Italian Pediatric cohort admitted to a single regional PED Hub for COVID-19 during an eight-month period. Secondary outcomes are: (II) the description of trend of admissions in our PED and (III) the categorization of the positive patients according to clinical manifestations and epidemiological link. METHODS: We described 316 patients with a positive NST for SARS-CoV2, on a total of 5001 nasopharyngeal swabs performed among 13,171 admissions at our PED, over a period starting from March 17th, 2020 to December 1st, 2020. Age, epidemiological link, clinical features and hospitalizations were analyzed according to different lockdown phases. Data were collected anonymously from electronic records and analyzed using SPSS 22.00 statistics software (Chicago, IL). RESULTS: Thirty-six percent of total admissions have been tested. During the post lockdown period, we performed the highest percentage of NST (Nasopharyngeal Swab Test) 49.7%, and among them 7.9% were positive. The prevalence of infection during a 10-month period was 2.3%. Mean age was 6.5 years old. Familial Link accounted for the 67.7% of infection, while Extrafamilial and Unknown link accounted for 17 and 14.9%, respectively. Familial link is predominant during all phases. Seventeen patients showed an intra-scholastic link, and the highest prevalence was observed in the 7-10 years age group, with a prevalence of 12.8% (5 patients). Fever was the most frequent symptom (66%), in particular among preschooler children aged 0-6 years (71.9%). Older children were more frequently symptomatic. Seven patients were admitted with MIS-C diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Different levels of containment measures caused important changes in number of positive NST for SARS-CoV2. Familial link was predominant in our cohort, during all phases of Lockdown. The risk of being infected at home is four time greater than the risk of being infected from an extra familial individual. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clear impact of intra-scholastic link. The constant improvement in knowledge on onset symptoms and risk factor for SARS-CoV2 infection and its complications (e.g. MIS-C), can impact on number of hospitalizations, ICU admissions and early management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 620598, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247886

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 started circulating in China and this led to a major epidemic in Northern Italy between February and May 2020. Young children (aged <5 years) seem to be less affected by this coronavirus disease (COVID-19) compared to adults, although there is very little information on the circulation of this new virus among children in Italy. We retrospectively tested nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 in samples collected in young children between November, 2019 and March, 2020 in the context of the RSV ComNet study. Methods: Two networks of primary care pediatricians in Lazio (Central Italy) and Puglia (Southern Italy) collected nasopharyngeal swabs from children, aged <5 years, presenting with symptoms for an acute respiratory infection (ARI). The RSV ComNet study is a multicenter study implemented to estimate the burden of RSV in young children (aged <5 years) in the community. Swabs were sent to a central reference laboratory and tested for 14 respiratory viruses through RT-PCR. All collected samples were retrospectively tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR (Istituto Superiore di Sanità protocol). Results: A total of 293 children with ARI were identified in the two participating networks. The highest number of cases were recruited in weeks 51/2019 and 3/2020. The majority of patients (57%) came from the Lazio region. All of the 293 samples tested negative for SARS-Cov2. Rhinovirus was the most frequently detected virus (44%), followed by RSV (41%) and influenza viruses (14%). Conclusions: Our study shows that in Lazio (a region of intermediate SARS-COV-2 incidence) and Puglia (a region of low incidence), the SARS-Cov2 virus did not circulate in a sample of ARI pediatric cases consulting primary care pediatricians between November 2019 and March 2020.

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