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1.
HemaSphere ; 6:373-375, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032169

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Co-2 (Coid-19), but eidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. Aims: ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting seere outcomes. Methods: The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by VHIR based on Redcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirmed that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waier of informed consent. Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 symptoms and management. For analysis of COVID-19 seerity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Seere: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensie care unit. Continuous ariables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical ariables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Releant factors influencing disease or seerity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results: As of February 25, 2022, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 428 patients: 212 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 186 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL). The mean age of SCD was lower (22y) than of THAL (39.4y). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.4% and 61,3%) than in SCD (16,3% and 46,8%) (p<0.001, p=0.004). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 seerity, as described in the general population (p=0.003, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 seerity by disease seerity groups. The mean age for seere COVID-19 was lower in patients with seere SCD (SS/SB0 s SC/SB+: 23y s 67.5y) and THAL (major s intermedia: 43.5 s 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as eleated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for deeloping seere COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with seerity grade in SCD (p=0.01) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.009). While seere COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p<0.001), this was not predicted by a history of preious ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Oerall, 14,6% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4% were admitted to ICU with an oerall mortality rate of 1%, much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain;54 Clinical Pharmacology Serice, Hospital Uniersitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain;55 Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Barcelona, Spain;56 Diision of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, American Uniersity of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon;57 UOC Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Uniersity of Padoa, Padoa, Italy;58 Department of Haematology, Oxford Uniersity Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom;59 Translational Research in Child and Adolescent Cancer, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Barcelona, Spain Background: Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Co-2 (Coid-19), but eidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. Aims: ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting seere outcomes. Methods: The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by VHIR based on Redcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirm d that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waier of informed consent. Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 symptoms and management. For analysis of COVID-19 seerity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Seere: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensie care unit. Continuous ariables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical ariables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Releant factors influencing disease or seerity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results: As of February 25, 2022, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 428 patients: 212 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 186 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL). The mean age of SCD was lower (22y) than of THAL (39.4y). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.4% and 61,3%) than in SCD (16,3% and 46,8%) (p<0.001, p=0.004). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 seerity, as described in the general population (p=0.003, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 seerity by disease seerity groups. The mean age for seere COVID-19 was lower in patients with seere SCD (SS/SB0 s SC/SB+: 23y s 67.5y) and THAL (major s intermedia: 43.5 s 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as eleated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for deeloping seere COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with seerity grade in SCD (p=0.01) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.009). While seere COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p<0.001), this was not predicted by a history of preious ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Oerall, 14,6% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4% were admitted to ICU with an oerall mortality rate of 1%, much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Summary/Conclusion: Results obtained so far show that seere COVID-19 occurs at younger ages in more aggressie forms of SCD and THAL. Current preentie approaches focus on age oer disease seerity. Our data highlights the risk of seere COVID-19 infection in some young patients, particularly those with SS/SB0 SCD, suggesting that immunization should be considered in this pediatric group as well. Results between similar sized cohorts of RBCD patients ary between each other and those presented here, highlighting the importance of collecting all of these small cohorts together to ensure adequate statistical power so that definitie risk factors can be reliably identified and used to guide management of patients with these rare disorders in the light of the ongoing pandemic. (Figure Presented).

2.
HemaSphere ; 6:2679-2681, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032097

ABSTRACT

Background: Autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) during pregnancy is a rare finding, and few is known about maternal and foetal outcomes. AIHA may either develop or relapse during gestation and postpartum or be an issue in a patient on active therapy who becomes pregnant. AIHA management during pregnancy and lactation is not standardized and drug use is often limited by safety concerns. Aims: We studied AIHA impact on pregnancy focusing on disease severity, treatment need and maternal/foetal outcome. Methods: Through a multicentric retrospective cohort study, we identified 38 pregnancies occurred in 28 women from 1997 to 2021 in 10 European centres in Italy, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, USA, and Spain. All included patients had a previous AIHA history or developed/exacerbated AIHA during gestation or postpartum. AIHA was classified according to the direct antiglobulin test. Results: We registered 18 warm AIHA (10 IgG;8 IgG+C3d), 2 cold agglutinin disease, 3 mixed and 5 atypical forms (Table 1). Evans syndrome (i.e., association of AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia or neutropenia) was present in 4. Mean age at AIHA diagnosis was 27 (3-39) and at pregnancy 32 (21-41) years. AIHA diagnosis predated pregnancy in 15 women and had required at least 1 therapy line in all of them, and >2 lines in 12 (rituximab, N=7;cytotoxic immunosuppressants, N=6;splenectomy, N=5). Among these 15 patients, 6 had a relapse during pregnancy, 3 during postpartum and 9 were on active treatment at the time of pregnancy (steroids, N=8;cyclosporine, N=1;azathioprine, N=1;the latter stopped after positive pregnancy test). A patient with a previous AIHA, relapsed as immune thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy. Further 8 patients had an AIHA onset during gestation and 2 postpartum. A patient had AIHA onset during the postpartum of the 1st pregnancy and relapsed during the 2nd one. In the 20 women experiencing AIHA during pregnancy/postpartum, median Hb and LDH levels were 6,4 g/dL (3,1 - 8,7) and 588 UI/L (269-1631), respectively. Management consisted in blood transfusions (N=10) and prompt establishment of steroid therapy+/-IVIG (N=20), all with response (complete N=13, partial N=7). After delivery, rituximab was necessary in 4 patients and cyclosporine was added in one. Anti-thrombotic prophylaxis was given in 7 patients. Overall, we registered 10 obstetric complications (10/38, 26%), including 4 early miscarriages, a premature rupture of membranes, a placental detachment, 2 preeclampsia, a postpartum infection and a biliary colic. Apart from the case of biliary colic and one of the two cases of preeclampsia, 8/10 complications occurred during active haemolysis and treatment for AIHA. Nine foetal adverse events (9/38, 24%) were reported: a transitory respiratory distress of the new-born in a mother with active AIHA, 3 cases of foetal growth restriction, a preterm birth, an infant reporting neurologic sequelae, a case of AIHA of the new-born requiring intravenous immunoglobulins, blood transfusions and plasma exchange, and 2 perinatal deaths. The latter both occurred in women on active AIHA therapy and were secondary to a massive placental detachment and a symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. (Figure Presented ) Summary/Conclusion: AIHA developing/reactivating during pregnancy or postpartum is rare (about 5%) but mainly severe requiring steroid therapy and transfusions. Importantly, severe maternal and foetal complications may occur in up to 26% of cases mostly associated with active disease, pinpointing the importance of maintaining a high level of awareness. Passive maternal autoantibodies transfer to the foetus seems a rare event.

3.
Blood ; 138:4058, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582388

ABSTRACT

[Formula presented] PV, NR and MMP contributed equally Introduction Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), chronic life threating multisystemic disorders in their severe forms, are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Cov-2 (Covid-19), but evidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting severe outcomes. Methods The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by Vall d'Hebron Research Institute based on REDcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirmed that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waiver of informed consent. The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry on RBCD and COVID-19 is endorsed by the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 (severity grade, clinical manifestations, acute events, treatments, hospitalization, intensive care unit, death). For analysis of COVID-19 severity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Severe: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensive care unit. Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Relevant factors influencing disease or severity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results As of June 2021, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 373 patients: 191 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 156 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL) and 26 other RBCD. 84% of the SCD patients were reported by Spain, Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands and 92% of the THAL patients by Italy and Greece. The mean age of SCD was lower (22.5y) than of THAL (39.6y) with pediatric population accounting for 50.5% in SCD and 9% in THAL (p <0.001). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.3% and 65.8%) than in SCD (16% and 48.1%) (p<0.001, p=0.002). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 severity, as described in the general population (p=0.002, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 severity by disease severity groups. The mean age for severe COVID-19 was lower in patients with severe SCD (SS/SB0 vs SC/SB+: 23.3y vs 67.5y) and THAL (major vs intermedia: 43.5 vs 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as elevated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for developing severe COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with severity grade in SCD (p=0.011) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.014). While severe COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p=0.001), this was not predicted by a history of previous ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Overall, 14.8% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4.4% were admitted to ICU with an overall mortality rate of 0.8% (no deaths were registered in pediatric age), much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Discussion Results obtained so far show that severe COVID-19 occurs at younger ages in more aggressive forms of SCD and THAL. Current preventive approaches (shielding, vaccinations) focus on age over disease severity. Our data highlights the risk of severe COVID-19 infection in some young patients, particularly those with SS/SB0 SCD, suggesting that immunization should be considered in this pediatric group as well. Results between similar sized cohorts of RBCD patients vary between each other and those presented here, highlighting the importance of collecting all of these small cohorts together to ensure adequate statistical p wer so that definitive risk factors (eg. age, genotype, comorbidities) can be reliably identified and used to guide management of patients with these rare disorders in the light of the ongoing pandemic. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Longo: Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria;BlueBird Bio: Honoraria. Bardón-Cancho: Novartis Oncology Spain: Research Funding. Flevari: PROTAGONIST COMPANY: Research Funding;ADDMEDICA: Consultancy, Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;IMARA COMPANY: Research Funding;NOVARTIS COMPANY: Research Funding. Voskaridou: BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding;IMARA: Research Funding;NOVARTIS: Research Funding;ADDMEDICA: Consultancy, Research Funding;GENESIS: Consultancy, Research Funding;PROTAGONIST: Research Funding. Biemond: GBT: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novo Nordisk: Honoraria;Celgene: Honoraria;Sanquin: Research Funding. Nur: Celgene: Speakers Bureau;Roche: Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Beneitez-Pastor: Agios: Honoraria;Alexion: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Forma Therapeutics: Honoraria. Pepe: Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A: Other: no profit support;Bayer S.p.A.: Other: no profit support. de Montalembert: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Addmedica: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BlueBirdBio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Vertex: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Glenthøj: Agios: Consultancy;Novo Nordisk: Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy;Alexion: Research Funding;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;Saniona: Research Funding;Sanofi: Research Funding. Benghiat: Novartis: Consultancy;BMS: Consultancy. Labarque: Novartis: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultancy;Sobi: Consultancy;NovoNordisk: Consultancy;Octapharma: Consultancy. Diamantidis: Genesis Pharma: Honoraria;Uni-Pharma: Honoraria;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;IONIS Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;NOVARTIS, Genesis Pharma SA: Research Funding. Kerkhoffs: Sanofi: Research Funding;Terumo BCT: Research Funding. Iolascon: Celgene: Other: Advisory Board;Bluebird Bio: Other: Advisory Board. Taher: Vifor Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding;Agios Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy;Ionis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding;Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding. Colombatti: Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Global Blood Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Novonordisk: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Forma Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Addmedica: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BlueBirdBio: Research Funding. Mañú Pereira: Novartis: Research Funding;Agios Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding.

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