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1.
NeuroQuantology ; 20(16):5267-5272, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2206878

ABSTRACT

Numerous nations are taking severe isolate strategies to forestall the fast spread of COVID-19 (Covid Disease 2019) around the globe, for example, city lockdown. Urban areas in China and Italy were secured down in the beginning phase of the pandemic. The current investigation expects to analyze and analyze the effect of COVID-19 lockdown on people's mental states in China and Pakistan. We also carried out a survey (a) of Weibo customers and Twitter customers (geo-area = Karachi, Pakistan);(2) to have the customer's distributed posts filled in a span of fourteen days, then after locking down in each location (e.g. the lock-down date for Karachi, Pakistan, was 23 January 2020);Our current research was conducted at Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from March 2020 to September 2020. Results demonstrated that people zeroed in additional on "home", furthermore, communicated a more elevated level of psychological cycle after a lockdown in both Lahore and Karachi. Then, the degree of stress diminished, and the consideration regarding relaxation expanded in Karachi after the lockdown. The regard for gathering, religion, and feelings turned out to be more common in Lahore after the lockdown. Discoveries give leaders ideal proof on open responses and the effects on mental states in the COVID-19 setting, and have suggestions for proof based mental wellbeing mediations in two nations. Copyright © 2022, Anka Publishers. All rights reserved.

2.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(9):DC12-DC17, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067199

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bharat Biotech International Ltd in partnership with National Institute of Virology (NIV), has developed an indigenous whole virion inactivated Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral vaccine BBV-152 (Covaxin), formulated with Toll Like Receptors 7/8 agonist Imidazoquinoline (IMDG) molecule adsorbed to alum (Algel). Variety of factors other than environmental ones can affect vaccines efficiency outside the strict setting of clinical trials, like how the vaccine is stored or transported, and even how patients are vaccinated. In addition, the intrinsic capacity of the recipient to respond to a vaccine which is determined by sex, genetic factors, age, psychological stress, nutrition and other diseases are also likely to have an impact. Aim(s): To determine the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the inactivated whole virus vaccine (Covaxin) amongst hospital-based population groups. Material(s) and Method(s): The prospective analytical study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India, from January 2021 to March 2021.The study primarily included Healthcare Workers (HCWs) employed at SMS Medical college and attached hospitals. In-vitro quantitative IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) were measured using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) based Advia centaur SARS-CoV-2 IgG, manufactured by Siemens Pvt Ltd, Munich, Germany, as per manufacture's instructions. Result(s): Out of total 223 individuals, 61.88 % (138/223) showed neutralising antibody titre of >1 index value by CLIA, rest 38.12% (85/223) were non reactive i.e., titre <1 index value, after four weeks of receiving first dose of Covaxin. After 2 to 4 weeks of receiving second dose 84.30% (188/223) showed neutralising antibody titre of >1 index value by CLIA, rest 15.70% (35/223) were non reactive i.e., titre <1 index value. After receiving first dose, 100% (223/223) of the participants developed localised pain and bodyache 33.63% (75/223). None of the participants showed any anaphylactic reaction or any emergency condition just after vaccination. Conclusion(s): Covaxin is a well-tolerated vaccine, and induces good humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 with a significant rise in the neutralising antibody titres. Copyright © 2022 Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

3.
National Journal of Community Medicine ; 13(7):424-429, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989185

ABSTRACT

Background: In each geographic region, risk of new cases of COVID19 are driven by internal factors such as agent, host, and environment characteristics, as well as external factors, such as population mobility and cross border transmission of disease. COVID19 control measures are best implemented when local governments and health teams are well aware of these internal and external risks. These risks are dynamic in nature and hence need to be reviewed at regular intervals. The study conducted to develop a composite spatiotemporal Hazard Index comprising of three factors – presence of susceptible population, population density and presence of active cases with corresponding growth rates, to rank areas within an administrative boundary by their fortnightly risk of active COVID19 cases. Methods: Using Principal Component Analysis, the weights of each of these factors were determined and applied to transformed values of factors in the districts of Gujarat state for months of January to July 2021. Hazard Index thus obtained was used to rank the districts. Results: Spearman correlation between the Hazard Index and number of active cases 15 days later was moderate and significant (p<0.01) throughout the study period. Conclusion: Hazard Index can predict Districts at highest risk of active cases in the given time period. These districts with high Hazard Index would require different control measures, depending on the factor that resulted in higher index value. © 2022, MedSci Publications. All rights reserved.

4.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(6):2024-2028, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841854

ABSTRACT

Objective: To ascertain the immunogenicity and short-term safety of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) in our setup. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Sialkot Pakistan, from Feb to Apr 2021. Methodology: A total of 227 health care workers (HCWs) between 18 to 59 years of age were included in the study. Two doses of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV were administered to all individuals 21 days apart and they were monitored for any vaccine-related adverse reactions for 7 days after each dose. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in study subjects were detected in three samples i.e. before 1st dose of vaccine, 21 days after 1st dose and 14 days after 2nd dose by Elecsys Anti- SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics). Results: Mean age of individuals in the study was 36.70 ± 18.08 years and most individuals were in the 31-45 years age group. Fatigue and drowsiness were the most common adverse effects experienced by study subjects after 1st and 2nd dose of the vaccine followed by malaise and headache. Only 42 (39%) individuals developed positive neutralizing antibody titers in a sample taken 21 days after 1st dose while all individuals except one (99%) developed positive neutralizing antibody titers in a sample taken 2 weeks after 2nd vaccine dose. Conclusion: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV is safe and well-tolerated with very few adverse reactions. Immunogenicity was well achieved as the seroconversion rate was 99% two weeks after 2nd dose of the vaccine. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

5.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(4):1175-1178, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515768

ABSTRACT

Objective: To share our large scale SARS CoV-2 PCR test experience in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from Feb to Dec 2020. Methodology: All the patients reporting to COVID-19 desk both indoor and outdoor were included in study. Nasopharyngeal swab specimen was taken from the patients arriving at reception. For hospitalized patient’s samples were received at reception placed in viral transport medium maintaining cold chain. Results: Among 193656 samples tested for SARS CoV-2 RNA by RT-PCR, 24338 (12.6%) were found positive and 169318 (87.4%) were negative. Mean age of patients was 38.25 ± 16.73 (1-110 years). 138781 (71.7%) were males and 54875 (28.3%) were females. 109765 (56.7%) samples were received from in patient department and 83891 (43.3%) samples were received from outpatient department. Highest number of cases (n=6224) seen during month of June followed by 5813 cases during May and 4786 cases during November (p-value <0.001). Most of the positive cases were in age group 21-40 years;11122 (6%), followed by age group 41-60 years;8133 (4.2%). More positive samples 14890 (7.7%) were received from in patient department and males 17928 (9.3%) were affected more than females. Conclusion: The two peaks of COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan were observed during the months of May to July and again during October to December. Most positive patients in our setup were males in age group 21-40 years as this age group is more exposed to external environment. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

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