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1.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855235

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a primary respiratory disease with an alarming impact worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and presents various neurological symptoms, including seizures. SARS-CoV-2 shows neuroinvasive and neurotropic capabilities through a neuronal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which is also highly expressed in both neuronal and glial cells. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 can trigger neuroinflammation and neuronal hyperexcitability, increasing the risk of seizures'. Olfactory neurons could be an exceptional neuronal pathway for the neuroinvasion of respiratory viruses to access the central nervous system (CNS) from the nasal cavity, leading to neuronal injury and neuroinflammation. Although neuronal ACE2 has been widely studied, other receptors for SARS-CoV-2 in the brain have been proposed to mediate viral-neuronal interactions with subsequent neurological squeals. Thus, the objective of the present critical review was to find the association and mechanistic insight between COVID-19 and the risk of seizures.

2.
Comb Chem High Throughput Screen ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793195

ABSTRACT

Favipiravir is a potential antiviral drug undergoing clinical trials to manage various viral infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Favipiravir possesses antiviral properties against RNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Unfortunately, these viruses do not have vaccines or authorized antiviral drugs for the management of diseases resulting from their infection, hence the dire need to accentuate the discovery of antiviral drugs that are efficacious and have a broad spectrum. Favipiravir acts primarily by blocking inward and outward movements of the virus from cells. Favipiravir is a prodrug undergoing intracellular phosphorylation and ribosylation to form an active form, favipiravir-RTP, which binds viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Considering the novel mechanism of favipiravir action, especially in managing viral infections, it is vital to pay more attention to the promised favipiravir hold in the management of SARS-CoV-2, its efficacy, dosage regiment, and interactions with other drugs. In conclusion, favipiravir possesses antiviral properties against RNA viruses, including COVID-19. Favipiravir is effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection through inhibition of RdRp. Pre-clinical and large-scalp prospective studies are recommended efficacy and long-term safety of favipiravir in COVID-19.

3.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 22(5): 12-21, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606600

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is a highly contagious viral illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has had a catastrophic effect on the world's demographics, resulting in more than 3.8 million deaths worldwide and establishing itself as the most serious global health crisis since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Several questions remain unanswered regarding the effects of COVID-19 disease during pregnancy. Although most infections are mild in high-risk populations, the severe disease frequently leads to intubation, intensive care unit admission, and, in some cases, death. Hormonal and physiological changes in the immune and respiratory systems, cardiovascular function, and coagulation may affect the progression of COVID-19 disease in pregnancy. However, the consequences of coronavirus infection on implantation, fetal growth and development, labor, and newborn health have yet to be determined, and, consequently, a coordinated global effort is needed in this respect. Principles of management concerning COVID-19 in pregnancy include early isolation, aggressive infection control procedures, oxygen therapy, avoidance of fluid overload, consideration of empiric antibiotics (secondary to bacterial infection risk), laboratory testing for the virus and co-infection, fetal and uterine contraction monitoring, prevention, and / or treatment of thromboembolism early mechanical ventilation for progressive respiratory failure, individualized delivery planning, and a team-based approach with multispecialty consultations. This review focuses on COVID-19 during pregnancy, its management, and the area where further investigations are needed to reduce the risk to mothers and their newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 652335, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526785

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has a disastrous effect on mankind due to the contagious and rapid nature of its spread. Although vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been successfully developed, the proven, effective, and specific therapeutic molecules are yet to be identified for the treatment. The repurposing of existing drugs and recognition of new medicines are continuously in progress. Efforts are being made to single out plant-based novel therapeutic compounds. As a result, some of these biomolecules are in their testing phase. During these efforts, the whole-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 has given the direction to explore the omics systems and approaches to overcome this unprecedented health challenge globally. Genome, proteome, and metagenome sequence analyses have helped identify virus nature, thereby assisting in understanding the molecular mechanism, structural understanding, and disease propagation. The multi-omics approaches offer various tools and strategies for identifying potential therapeutic biomolecules for COVID-19 and exploring the plants producing biomolecules that can be used as biopharmaceutical products. This review explores the available multi-omics approaches and their scope to investigate the therapeutic promises of plant-based biomolecules in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2022 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484937

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus responsible for the current global pandemic, which first emerged in December 2019. This coronavirus has affected 217 countries worldwide, most of which have enacted non-remedial preventive measures, such as nationwide lockdowns, work from home, travel bans, and social isolation. Pharmacists, doctors, nurses, technologists, and other healthcare professionals have played pivotal roles during this pandemic. Unfortunately, confirmed drugs have not been identified for the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARSCoV2; however, favipiravir and remdesivir have been reported as promising antiviral drugs. Some vaccines have already been developed, and vaccination is ongoing globally. Various nanotechnologies are currently being developed in many countries for preventing SARS-CoV-2 spread and treating COVID-19 infections. In this article, we present an overview of the COVID-19 pandemic situation and discuss nanotechnology-based approaches and investigational therapeutics for COVID-19.

6.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325726

ABSTRACT

Novel therapies for the treatment of COVID-19 are continuing to emerge as the SARS-Cov-2 pandemic progresses. PCR remains the standard benchmark for initial diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, while advances in immunological profiling are guiding clinical treatment. The SARS-Cov-2 virus has undergone multiple mutations since its emergence in 2019, resulting in changes in virulence that have impacted on disease severity globally. The emergence of more virulent variants of SARS-Cov-2 remains challenging for effective disease control during this pandemic. Major variants identified to date include B.1.1.7, B.1.351; P.1; B.1.617.2; B.1.427; P.2; P.3; B.1.525; and C.37. Globally, large unvaccinated populations increase the risk of more and more variants arising. With successive waves of COVID-19 emerging, strategies that mitigate against community transmission need to be implemented, including increased vaccination coverage. For treatment, convalescent plasma therapy, successfully deployed during recent Ebola outbreaks and for H1N1 influenza, can increase survival rates and improve host responses to viral challenge. Convalescent plasma is rich with cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-8), CCL2, and TNFα, neutralizing antibodies, and clotting factors essential for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical trials can inform and guide treatment policy, leading to mainstream adoption of convalescent therapy. This review examines the limited number of clinical trials published, to date that have deployed this therapy and explores clinical trials in progress for the treatment of COVID-19.

7.
S Afr J Bot ; 143: 428-434, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294211

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) is a viral disease that causes acute respiratory syndrome, which has increased the morbidity and mortality rate throughout the world. World Health Organization has declared this COVID-19 outbreak as pandemic and classified health emergency throughout the world. In the recent past, outbreaks of SARS and MERS have shown the interspecies transmission potential of coronaviruses and limitations of already prescribed drugs to overcome this global public health issue. Therefore, there is a dire need to identify a new regimen of targeted drugs from natural compounds having anti-COVID19 potential. This study aimed at screening 1018 brown algal natural compounds (many of them previously reported to have immunomodulatory effects) having probable anti-COVID19 potentials. The source compounds were extracted from MarinLit, a database dedicated to marine natural products and screened against COVID-19 main protease. The top seven compounds were further analysed, and their interactions with the active site were visualized. This study will further warrant screening the potent compounds against the virus in-vitro conditions.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(21)2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-909203

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which reported in an outbreak in 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus belongs to the beta-coronavirus class, along with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus. Interestingly, the virus binds with angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 found in host cells, through the spike (S) protein that exists on its surface. This binding causes the entry of the virus into cells of the host organism. The actual mechanism used by the COVID-19 virus to induce disease is still speculative. A total of 44,322,504 cases, a 1,173,189 death toll and 32,486,703 recovery cases have been reported in 217 countries globally as of 28 October 2020. Symptoms from the infection of the virus include chest pain, fever, fatigue, nausea, and others. Acute respiratory stress syndrome, arrhythmia, and shock are some of the chronic manifestations recorded in severe COVID-19. Transmission is majorly by individual-to-individual through coughing, sneezing, etc. The lack of knowledge regarding the mechanism of and immune response to the virus has posed a challenge in the development of a novel drug and vaccine. Currently, treatment of the disease involves the use of anti-viral medications such as lopinavir, remdesivir, and other drugs. These drugs show some efficacy in the management of COVID-19. Studies are still on-going for the development of an ideal and novel drug for treatment. In terms of natural product intervention, Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been employed to alleviate the clinical manifestation and severity of the disease and have shown some efficacy. This review presents an updated detailed overview of COVID-19 and the virus, concerning its structure, epidemiology, symptoms and transmission, immune responses, and current interventions, and highlights the potential of TCM. It is anticipated that this review will further add to the understanding of COVID-19 and the virus, hence opening new research perspectives.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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