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1.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 60(6): 941-951, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714815

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children is still challenging, but essential for appropriate political decisions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether residual blood samples can be used for SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence monitoring in pediatrics. METHODS: In this repeated cross-sectional cohort study, anonymous residual blood samples from pediatric patients aged 0-17 years were collected in three time-periods (Oct.-Nov. 2020, April 2021, and June-July 2021) and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (anti-S) and nucleocapsid (anti-N) antibodies using commercial antibody assays. 28 reactive samples were used to compare antibody levels with a pseudotyped neutralization assay. The results were further compared to the official national COVID-19 surveillance data to calculate the number of unreported cases. RESULTS: In total, n=2,626 individual blood samples were analyzed. In this unvaccinated pediatric cohort anti-S and anti-N antibody seroprevalence increased over the three time periods (anti-S: 1.38-9.16%, and 14.59%; anti-N: 1.26%, to 6.19%, and 8.56%). Compared to the national surveillance data this leads to a 3.93-5.66-fold increase in the number of unreported cases. However, a correlation between the cumulative incidence of the individual provinces and our assigned data was found (r=0.74, p=0.0151). In addition, reactive samples with anti-S and anti-N and samples with only anti-S showed neutralization capabilities (11/14 and 8/14, respectively). Anti-S levels were not significantly different between age groups and sexes (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that residual blood samples from routine laboratory chemistry could be included in the estimation of the total SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemistry, Clinical , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317400

ABSTRACT

Possible mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy is still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Three perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded (two cases confirmed by PCR, the third one based on clinical findings). In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, or drug use during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants. Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as strongly support COVID19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412 Date of registration: November 18, 2020

3.
Eur J Immunol ; 51(11): 2665-2676, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482126

ABSTRACT

To monitor infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and successful vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the kinetics of neutralizing or blocking anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers need to be assessed. Here, we report the development of a quick and inexpensive surrogate SARS-CoV-2 blocking assay (SUBA) using immobilized recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) and human cells expressing the native form of surface SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Spike protein-expressing cells bound to hACE2 in the absence or presence of blocking antibodies were quantified by measuring the optical density of cell-associated crystal violet in a spectrophotometer. The advantages are that SUBA is a fast and inexpensive assay, which does not require biosafety level 2- or 3-approved laboratories. Most importantly, SUBA detects blocking antibodies against the native trimeric cell-bound SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and can be rapidly adjusted to quickly pre-screen already approved therapeutic antibodies or sera from vaccinated individuals for their ACE2 blocking activities against any emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Blocking/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Flow Cytometry/methods , Antibodies, Blocking/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 413-418, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345122

ABSTRACT

The risk and potential consequences of mother-to-child transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy are still a matter of debate. We studied the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on 56 complete households, including 27 newborns whose mothers were pregnant when exposed to the virus. Two PCR-confirmed perinatal SARS-CoV-2 transmissions with mild symptoms in affected neonates were recorded. In addition, we observed a severe eye malformation (unilateral microphthalmia, optic nerve hypoplasia, and congenital retinopathy) associated with maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection in weeks 5 and 6 of embryonic development. This embryopathy could not be explained by other infectious agents, genetic factors, drug use, or maternal disease during pregnancy. Eight other women with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection prior to gestational week 12, however, delivered healthy infants.Conclusion: The repeated occurrence of mother-to-child transmission in our cohort with risks that remain incompletely understood, such as long-term effects and the possibility of an embryopathy, should sensitize researchers and stimulate further studies as well as support COVID-19 vaccination recommendations for pregnant women. Trial registration number: NCT04741412. Date of registration: November 18, 2020 What is Known: •Materno-fetal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during pregnancy has rarely been reported so far, but was demonstrated in isolated cases. What is New: •In a study of complete households with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection, including a cohort of pregnant women, we observed perinatal coronavirus transmission at a higher frequency than expected. •We also describe a newborn boy with an eye malformation reminiscent of rubella embryopathy but associated with early gestation SARS-CoV-2 infection of his mother. •A coronavirus-related embryopathy, reported here for the first time, is a finding that requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2
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