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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307802

ABSTRACT

Background: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a neurological autoimmune disease that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Whether COVID-19 patients are at high risk of GBS is unknown. Through a systematic review of case reports, we aimed to summarize the main features of patients with GBS and COVID-19. Methods: Without any restrictions, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Scopus, Web of Science and MedXriv (April 23 rd, 2020). Two reviewers screened and studied titles, abstracts and reports. We extracted information to characterize sociodemographic variables, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments and outcomes. Results: Eight reports (n=12 patients) of GBS and COVID-19 were identified;one was a Miller Fisher case. The age ranged between 23 and 77 years, and there were more men (9/102). GBS symptoms started between 5 and 24 days after those of COVID-19. The protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid samples ranged between 40 and 193 mg/dl. None of the cerebrospinal fluid samples tested positive for COVID-19. Six patients debuted with ascendant weakness and three with facial weakness. Five patients had favourable evolution, four remained with relevant symptoms or required critical care and one died;the Miller Fisher case had successful resolution. Conclusions: GBS is emerging as a disease that may appear in COVID-19 patients. Although limited, preliminary evidence appears to suggest that GBS occurs after COVID-19 onset. Practitioners and investigators should have GBS in mind as they look after COVID-19 patients and conduct research on novel aspects of COVID-19. Comparison with GBS patients in the context of another viral outbreak (Zika), revealed similarities and differences that deserves further scrutiny and epidemiological studies.

4.
J Neuroimmunol ; 359: 577686, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330986

ABSTRACT

A 44-year-old previously healthy woman developed acute myelitis in close temporal relationship with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine first-dose administration. The neurological involvement was mainly sensory with neuroimaging showing two mono-metameric lesions involving the posterior and lateral cord at dorsal level. Significant improvement was promptly recorded with high-dose intravenous steroids, with complete recovery within one month. The strict temporal relationship between vaccination and myelitis, together with the absence of clues pointing to alternative diagnoses, might suggest a conceivable role for anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine as immunological trigger, although a causal relationship has yet to be established and our preliminary observation suggests caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Myelitis/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Myelitis/chemically induced
5.
Neurosci Lett ; 759: 136040, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322284

ABSTRACT

Despite a likely underestimation due to the many obstacles of the highly infectious, intensive care setting, increasing clinical reports about COVID-19 patients developing acute paralysis for polyradiculoneuritis or myelitis determine additional impact on the disease course and outcome. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated basing on clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features, and response to treatments. Here we provide an overview with insights built on the available reports. Besides direct viral pathogenicity, a crucial role seems to be represented by immune-mediated mechanisms, supporting and further characterizing the already hypothesized neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and implying specific treatments. Proper clinical and instrumental depiction of symptomatic cases, as well as screening for their early recognition is advocated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Myelitis/epidemiology , Myelitis/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Myelitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 266, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a temporary short-term memory loss with inability to retain new memories, usually lasting 2 to 8 h. TGA may be related to several medical procedures, including angiography, general anesthesia, gastroscopy. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 58-year-old woman who experiencing TGA one hour after the execution of her first-time nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. Brain MRI showed a typical punctate Diffusion Weight Image (DWI) hippocampal lesion. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of TGA after the execution of nasopharyngeal swab for COVID-19. This association lengthen the list of medical procedures associated with TGA, and we discuss the possible plausible mechanisms by which a nasopharyngeal swab could trigger TGA.


Subject(s)
Amnesia, Transient Global , COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/adverse effects , Amnesia, Transient Global/diagnosis , Amnesia, Transient Global/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology
7.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(7): 751-756, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Single cases and small series of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak worldwide. We evaluated incidence and clinical features of GBS in a cohort of patients from two regions of northern Italy with the highest number of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: GBS cases diagnosed in 12 referral hospitals from Lombardy and Veneto in March and April 2020 were retrospectively collected. As a control population, GBS diagnosed in March and April 2019 in the same hospitals were considered. RESULTS: Incidence of GBS in March and April 2020 was 0.202/100 000/month (estimated rate 2.43/100 000/year) vs 0.077/100 000/month (estimated rate 0.93/100 000/year) in the same months of 2019 with a 2.6-fold increase. Estimated incidence of GBS in COVID-19-positive patients was 47.9/100 000 and in the COVID-19-positive hospitalised patients was 236/100 000. COVID-19-positive patients with GBS, when compared with COVID-19-negative subjects, showed lower MRC sum score (26.3±18.3 vs 41.4±14.8, p=0.006), higher frequency of demyelinating subtype (76.6% vs 35.3%, p=0.011), more frequent low blood pressure (50% vs 11.8%, p=0.017) and higher rate of admission to intensive care unit (66.6% vs 17.6%, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows an increased incidence of GBS during the COVID-19 outbreak in northern Italy, supporting a pathogenic link. COVID-19-associated GBS is predominantly demyelinating and seems to be more severe than non-COVID-19 GBS, although it is likely that in some patients the systemic impairment due to COVID-19 might have contributed to the severity of the whole clinical picture.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies
8.
Muscle Nerve ; 64(2): 206-211, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241577

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has become a global pandemic. Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), often treated with immunosuppressants, might be at higher risk of developing COVID-19 and of demonstrating a severe disease course. We aimed to study prevalence and describe features of COVID-19 in MG patients. METHODS: In May 2020, we conducted telephonic interviews with MG patients followed at our referral center. We collected structured data regarding MG and COVID-19, which was diagnosed as probable or confirmed according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control case definition. We compared confirmed-COVID-19 prevalence calculated from the beginning of the pandemic in MG patients with that of the overall Pavia district. RESULTS: We interviewed 162 MG patients (median age, 66 y; interquartile range 41-77; males 59.9%), 88 from the Pavia district. Three patients had SARS-CoV-2-confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and eight had probable-COVID-19. In the Pavia district, the prevalence of confirmed-COVID-19 among MG patients (1/88, 1.14%) and overall population (4777/546 515, 0.87%) did not differ (P = .538). Higher Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America clinicalclass and the need for recent rescue treatment, but not ongoing immunosuppressive treatments, were associated with COVID-19 risk. Of 11 MG patients with probable/confirmed-COVID-19, 3 required ventilator support, and 2 elderly patients died of COVID-19 respiratory insufficiency. Only 1 of11 patients experienced worsening MG symptoms, which improved after increasing their steroid dose. DISCUSSION: The risk of COVID-19 in MG patients seems to be no higher than that of the general population, regardless of immunosuppressive therapies. In our cohort, COVID-19 barely affected MG course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Myasthenia Gravis/diagnosis , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy
10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 107, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809661

ABSTRACT

Background: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a neurological autoimmune disease that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Whether COVID-19 patients are at high risk of GBS is unknown. Through a systematic review of case reports, we aimed to summarize the main features of patients with GBS and COVID-19. Methods: Without any restrictions, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Scopus, Web of Science and MedXriv (April 23 rd, 2020). Two reviewers screened and studied titles, abstracts and reports. We extracted information to characterize sociodemographic variables, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments and outcomes. Results: Eight reports (n=12 patients) of GBS and COVID-19 were identified; one was a Miller Fisher case. Overall, the median age was 62.5 (interquartile range (IQR)=54.5-70.5) years, and there were more men (9/102). GBS symptoms started between 5 and 24 days after those of COVID-19. The median protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid samples was 101.5 mg/dl (IQR=51-145). None of the cerebrospinal fluid samples tested positive for COVID-19. Six patients debuted with ascendant weakness and three with facial weakness. Five patients had favourable evolution, four remained with relevant symptoms or required critical care and one died; the Miller Fisher case had successful resolution. Conclusions: GBS is emerging as a disease that may appear in COVID-19 patients. Although limited, preliminary evidence appears to suggest that GBS occurs after COVID-19 onset. Practitioners and investigators should have GBS in mind as they look after COVID-19 patients and conduct research on novel aspects of COVID-19. Comparison with GBS patients in the context of another viral outbreak (Zika), revealed similarities and differences that deserves further scrutiny and epidemiological studies.

11.
ProQuest Central; 2020.
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-2095

ABSTRACT

Background: Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is a neurological autoimmune disease that can lead to respiratory failure and death. Whether COVID-19 patients are at high risk of GBS is unknown. Through a systematic review of case reports, we aimed to summarize the main features of patients with GBS and COVID-19. Methods: Without any restrictions, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Scopus, Weof Science and MedXriv (April 23rd, 2020). Two reviewers screened and studied titles, abstracts and reports. We extracted information to characterize sociodemographic variables, clinical presentation, laboratory results, treatments and outcomes. Results: Eight reports (n=12 patients) of GBS and COVID-19 were identified;one was a Miller Fisher case. Overall, the median age was 62.5 (interquartile range (IQR)=54.5-70.5) years, and there were more men (9/102). GBS symptoms started between 5 and 24 days after those of COVID-19. The median protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid samples was 101.5 mg/dl (IQR=51-145). None of the cerebrospinal fluid samples tested positive for COVID-19. Six patients debuted with ascendant weakness and three with facial weakness. Five patients had favourable evolution, four remained with relevant symptoms or required critical care and one died;the Miller Fisher case had successful resolution. Conclusions: GBS is emerging as a disease that may appear in COVID-19 patients. Although limited, preliminary evidence appears to suggest that GBS occurs after COVID-19 onset. Practitioners and investigators should have GBS in mind as they look after COVID-19 patients and conduct research on novel aspects of COVID-19. Comparison with GBS patients in the context of another viral outbreak (Zika), revealed similarities and differences that deserves further scrutiny and epidemiological studies.

12.
Acta Myol ; 39(2): 57-66, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-719952

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since February 2020, the outbreak of COVID-19 in Italy has forced the health care system to undergo profound rearrangements in its services and facilities, especially in the worst-hit areas in Northern Italy. In this setting, inpatient and outpatient services had to rethink and reorganize their activities to meet the needs of patients during the "lockdown". The Italian Association of Myology developed a survey to estimate the impact of these changes on patients affected by neuromuscular disorders and on specialized neuromuscular centers during the acute phase of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We developed an electronic survey that was sent to neuromuscular centers affiliated with the Italian Association of Myology, assessing changes in pharmacological therapies provision, outpatient clinical and instrumental services, support services (physiotherapy, nursing care, psychological support) and clinical trials. RESULTS: 40% of surveyed neuromuscular centers reported a reduction in outpatient visit and examinations (44.5% of centers in Northern regions; 25% of centers in Central regions; 50% of centers in Southern regions). Twenty-two% of centers postponed in-hospital administration of therapies for neuromuscular diseases (23.4% in Northern regions; 13.0% in Central regions; 20% in Southern regions). Diagnostic and support services (physiotherapy, nursing care, psychological support) were suspended in 57% of centers (66/43/44% in Northern, Central and Southern centers respectively) Overall, the most affected services were rehabilitative services and on-site outpatient visits, which were suspended in 93% of centers. Strategies adopted by neuromuscular centers to overcome these changes included maintaining urgent on-site visits, addressing patients to available services and promoting remote contact and telemedicine. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a significant disruption of clinical and support services for patients with neuromuscular diseases. Despite the efforts to provide telemedicine consults to patients, this option could be promoted and improved further. A close collaboration between the different neuromuscular centers and service providers as well as further implementation of telehealth platforms are necessary to ensure quality care to NMD patients in the near future and in case of recurrent pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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