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Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066


Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234829


The number of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases is increasing in India. This study looks upon the geographic distribution of the virus clades and variants circulating in different parts of India between January and August 2020. The NPS/OPS from representative positive cases from different states and union territories in India were collected every month through the VRDLs in the country and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Epidemiological analysis of the 689 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples revealed GH and GR to be the predominant clades circulating in different states in India. The northern part of India largely reported the 'GH' clade, whereas the southern part reported the 'GR', with a few exceptions. These sequences also revealed the presence of single independent mutations-E484Q and N440K-from Maharashtra (first observed in March 2020) and Southern Indian States (first observed in May 2020), respectively. Furthermore, this study indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 variant (VOC, VUI, variant of high consequence and double mutant) was not observed during the early phase of virus transmission (January-August). This increased number of variations observed within a short timeframe across the globe suggests virus evolution, which can be a step towards enhanced host adaptation.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Phylogeography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity