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1.
QJM ; 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878816
2.
Indian journal of critical care medicine : peer-reviewed, official publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine ; 26(4):528-530, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1870522

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Aggarwal A, Arora U, Mittal A, Aggarwal A, Singh K, Ray A, et al.Outcomes of HFNC Use in COVID-19 Patients inNon-ICU Settings: A Single-center Experience. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(4):528–530.

3.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 26(4): 528-530, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869986

ABSTRACT

How to cite this article: Aggarwal A, Arora U, Mittal A, Aggarwal A, Singh K, Ray A, et al.Outcomes of HFNC Use in COVID-19 Patients inNon-ICU Settings: A Single-center Experience. Indian J Crit Care Med 2022;26(4):528-530.

5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 349-356, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: BBV152 is a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been deployed in India. The results of the phase 3 trial have shown clinical efficacy of BBV152. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We conducted a test-negative, case-control study among employees of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India), who had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and had an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the peak of the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India between April 15 and May 15, 2021. Cases (test-positives) and controls (test-negatives) were matched (1:1) on the basis of age and gender. The odds of vaccination with BBV152 were compared between cases and controls and adjusted for level of occupational exposure (to COVID-19), previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and calendar time, using conditional logistic regression. The primary outcome was effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 (with the second dose received at least 14 days before testing) in reducing the odds of symptomatic RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, expressed as (1 - odds ratio) × 100%. FINDINGS: Between April 15 and May 15, 2021, 3732 individuals had an RT-PCR test. Of these, 2714 symptomatic employees had data on vaccination status, and 1068 matched case-control pairs were available for analysis. The adjusted effectiveness of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 after two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 50% (95% CI 33-62; p<0·0001). The adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 28 days before testing was 46% (95% CI 22-62) and administered at least 42 days before testing was 57% (21-76). After excluding participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, the adjusted effectiveness of two doses administered at least 14 days before testing was 47% (95% CI 29-61). INTERPRETATION: This study shows the effectiveness of two doses of BBV152 against symptomatic COVID-19 in the context of a huge surge in cases, presumably dominated by the potentially immune-evasive delta (B.1.617.2) variant of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings support the ongoing roll-out of this vaccine to help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, while continuing the emphasis on adherence to non-pharmacological measures. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Hindi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated , Adult , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Humans , India , Middle Aged , Virion/immunology
6.
Dis Model Mech ; 15(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793721

ABSTRACT

To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that manifest lung abnormalities during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, we performed whole-transcriptome sequencing of lung autopsies from 31 patients with severe COVID-19 and ten uninfected controls. Using metatranscriptomics, we identified the existence of two distinct molecular signatures of lethal COVID-19. The dominant 'classical' signature (n=23) showed upregulation of the unfolded protein response, steroid biosynthesis and complement activation, supported by massive metabolic reprogramming leading to characteristic lung damage. The rarer signature (n=8) that potentially represents 'cytokine release syndrome' (CRS) showed upregulation of cytokines such as IL1 and CCL19, but absence of complement activation. We found that a majority of patients cleared SARS-CoV-2 infection, but they suffered from acute dysbiosis with characteristic enrichment of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus cohnii in 'classical' patients and Pasteurella multocida in CRS patients. Our results suggest two distinct models of lung pathology in severe COVID-19 patients, which can be identified through complement activation, presence of specific cytokines and characteristic microbiome. These findings can be used to design personalized therapy using in silico identified drug molecules or in mitigating specific secondary infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Cytokines , Humans , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4058, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735282

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-19 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 was performed for the assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. In a total of 55, 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung samples were tested for ACE2, 36 for CD163, and 26 for CD61, compared to 15 non-covid 19 control lung sections. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis were used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels were positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/metabolism , Autopsy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Integrin beta3/genetics , Integrin beta3/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311096

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host protein by which severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters and multiplies within cells. The level of ACE2 expression in the lung is hypothesised to correlate with an increased risk of severe infection and complications in COVID-19 (COrona VIrus Disease 2019). To test this hypothesis, we compared the protein expression status of ACE2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-mortem lung samples of patients who died of severe COVID-19 and lung samples obtained from non-COVID-9 patients for other indications. IHC for CD61 and CD163 were performed for assessment of platelet-rich microthrombi and macrophages, respectively. IHC for SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen was also performed. Quantification of immunostaining, random sampling, and correlation analysis was used to substantiate the morphologic findings. Our results show that among a total of 44 COVID-19 post-mortem lung tissues and 15 lung biopsies in non-COVID-19 patients included, ACE2 protein expression was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls, regardless of sample size. Histomorphology in COVID-19 lungs showed diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), acute bronchopneumonia, and acute lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 viral protein detected in a subset of cases. ACE2 expression levels positively correlated with increased expression levels of CD61 and CD163. In conclusion, our results show significantly higher ACE2 protein expression in severe COVID-19 disease, correlating with increased macrophage infiltration and microthrombi, suggesting a pathobiological role in disease severity.

9.
J Infect ; 84(3): 383-390, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1629925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of the Coronavirus-disease associated mucormycosis (CAM) syndemic is poorly elucidated. We aimed to identify risk factors that may explain the burden of cases and help develop preventive strategies. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing cases diagnosed with CAM and taking controls as recovered COVID 19 patients who did not develop mucormycosis. Information on comorbidities, glycemic control, and practices related to COVID-19 prevention and treatment was recorded. Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: A total of 352 patients (152 cases and 200 controls) diagnosed with COVID-19 during April-May 2021 were included. In the CAM group, symptoms of mucormycosis began a mean of 18.9 (SD 9.1) days after onset of COVID-19, and predominantly rhino-sinus and orbital involvement was present. All, but one, CAM cases had conventional risk factors of diabetes and steroid use. On multivariable regression, increased odds of CAM were associated with the presence of diabetes (adjusted OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.1-11), use of systemic steroids (aOR 7.7, 95% CI 2.4-24.7), prolonged use of cloth and surgical masks (vs. no mask, aOR 6.9, 95%CI 1.5-33.1), and repeated nasopharyngeal swab testing during the COVID-19 illness (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2). Zinc therapy was found to be protective (aOR 0.05, 95%CI 0.01-0.19). Notably, the requirement of oxygen supplementation or hospitalization did not affect the risk of CAM. CONCLUSION: Judicious use of steroids and stringent glycemic control are vital to preventing mucormycosis. Use of clean masks, preference for N95 masks if available, and minimizing swab testing after the diagnosis of COVID-19 may further reduce the incidence of CAM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(6): 310-316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622789

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is associated with rarer extra-parenchymal manifestations, namely pneumothorax (PTX) and pneumomediastinum (PM) leading to complications and increased mortality. The study aims to describe the prevalence, risk factors for mortality, radiological characteristics and outcome of PTX/PM in patients admitted with COVID-19. This was a retrospective, single-centre, observational study in patients with confirmed COVID-19 presenting with non-iatrogenic PTX/PM from April 2020 to May 2021. Details pertaining to demographics, presentation, radiological characteristics, management and outcome were collected. Cases were classified into spontaneous and barotraumatic PTX/PM and a between-group comparison was performed using Chi-square and t-test. A total of 45 cases (mean age: 53.2 years, 82% males) out of 8,294 confirmed COVID-19 patients developed PTX/PM, the calculated incidence being 0.54%. 29 cases had spontaneous PTX/PM and the remaining 17 cases were attributed to barotrauma. The most common comorbidities were diabetes-mellitus (65.3%) and hypertension (42.3%). The majority of the cases had large PTX (62.1%) with tension in 8 cases (27.5%). There were predominant right-sided pneumothoraces and five were diagnosed with bronchopleural fistula. 37.7% of cases had associated subcutaneous emphysema. The median duration of PTX/PM from symptom onset was delayed at 22.5 and 17.6 days respectively. The mean CT severity score (CTSS) was 20.5 (± 4.9) with fibrosis (53.8%), bronchiectatic changes (50%) and cystic-cavitary changes (23%). There was no statistically significant difference between the spontaneous and barotrauma cohort. 71% of cases died and the majority belonged to the barotrauma cohort. It is imperative to consider the possibility of PTX/PM in patients having COVID-19, especially in those with deterioration in the disease course, both in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated patients. These patients may also have a high incidence of death, reflecting the gravity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Healthcare
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(11): 4030-4035, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573607

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to predict the likelihood of and likely time required to attain herd immunity against COVID-19 in New Delhi due to natural infection. METHOD: An ODE-based mathematical model was constructed by extending the classical SEIR model to predict the seroprevalence rate. We estimated the parameter values for Delhi using available data (reported cases and the seroprevalence rate) and used them for future prediction. Also, changes in the seroprevalence rate with different possibilities of reinfection were predicted. RESULTS: Maximum seroprevalence rate obtained through our model is 31.65% and also a reduction in the seroprevalence rate was observed for the upcoming one month (month of January, 2021) due to the reduced transmission rate. After increasing the transmission rate to the value same as the third wave in New Delhi, we obtained a maximum value of 54.96%. This maximum value significantly decreased with the reduction in the reinfection possibilities. Also, a little impact of the duration of persistence of antibodies, 180 vs 105 days, was observed on the maximum seroprevalence. CONCLUSION: This modelling study suggests that natural infection alone, as gauged by serial sero-surveys, may not result in attainment of herd immunity in the state of Delhi.

12.
Mycoses ; 65(1): 57-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Though invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a well known complication of COVID-19 pneumonia, indolent forms of aspergillosis have been rarely described. METHODS: We prospectively collected the clinico-radio-microbiological data of 10 patients of subacute invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (SAIA), who presented to our hospital with recent history of COVID-19 pneumonia along with cavitary lung disease, positive IgG (against Aspergillus) with or without positive respiratory samples for Aspergillus spp. RESULT: The mean age of presentation of SAIA was 50.7 ± 11.8 years. All the patients had recently recovered from severe COVID-19 illness with a mean duration of 29.2 ± 12 days from COVID-19 positivity. Cough was the predominant symptom seen in 8/10 (80%) patients followed by haemoptysis. 7/10 (70%) patients were known diabetic. While serum galactomannan was positive in 5/9 patients (55.5%), fungal culture was positive in 2/7 patients (28.5%) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Aspergillus was positive in three patients. Eight (80%) patients presented with a single cavitary lesion; pseudoaneurysm of pulmonary artery was seen in two patients and post-COVID-19 changes were seen in all patients. All patients were treated with voriconazole, out of which four (40%) patients died during the follow-up period. CONCLUSION: SAIA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cavitating lung lesions in patients with recent history of COVID-19 in the background of steroid use with or without pre-existing diabetes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Aspergillus , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Voriconazole
13.
QJM ; 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566057
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295966

ABSTRACT

With millions of people getting affected with COVID-19 pandemic caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), people living with post COVID-19 symptoms (PCS) are expected to rise in the future· The present study aimed at assessing PCS comprehensively and its associated factors among COVID-19 recovered adult population in north India. <br><br>Methods: In a tertiary health centre at Delhi, an online based cross-sectional study was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire, developed by employing a nominal group technique, in aged 18 years and above who were SARS-CoV-2 positive during the month of January to April 2021. Socio-demographic, various potential risk factors, including pre-existing morbidities, vaccination status, and severity of acute COVID-19 illness, information on acute illness management and a spectrum of PCS were collected between June 16 to July 28, 2021. Each participant was contacted telephonically first, before sending the survey link. PCS were presented as relative frequency;chi-square test, odds ratio, including adjusted, were calculated to rule out association between PCS and potential predictors. <br><br>Results: A total of 773 of 1801 COVID recovered participants responded to the link reaching a participation rate of 42·9%, with a median age of 34 years (IQR 27 to 44). Male respondents were 56·4%. Around 33·2% of them had PCS at four or more weeks, affecting almost all body organ systems. The most prevalent PCS were fatigue (79·3%), pain in the joins (33·4%), muscle (29·9%), hair loss (28·0%), headache (27·2%), breathlessness (25·3%), sleep disturbance (25·3%) and cough (24·9%). The prevalence of PCS was reduced to 12·8% at 12 weeks after positive test. Factor such as female gender, older age, oxygen supplementation during the acute illness, working in healthcare care facilities, the severity of acute illness, and pre-existing co-morbid were risk factors for PCS. Further, vaccination (second dose) reduced the odds of developing PCS by 45% compared to unvaccinated participants (aOR 0·65;95%CI 0·45-0·96). Finally, 8·3% of participants rated their overall health status was either poor or very poor following COVID-19 illness. <br><br>Conclusions: The PCS involves almost all organ systems, regardless of the severity of acute COVID-19 illness. Two doses of vaccine help to reduce development of PCS.<br><br>Funding Information: There is no sources of funding for this study. Authors contributed voluntarily to <br>this study.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: There are no conflicts of interest.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the institute ethics committee at the institution. The participants were asked for the digital informed consent at the time of registration. The study was done in accordance with ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. <br>

15.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 254-260, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542928

ABSTRACT

Post COVID-19 sequelae are a constellation of symptoms often reported after recovering from COVID-19. There is a need to better understand the clinical spectrum and long-term course of this clinical entity. The aim of this study is to describe the clinical features and risk factors of post COVID-19 sequelae in the North Indian population. This prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary healthcare centre in Northern India between October 2020 and February 2021. Patients aged >18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were recruited after at least two weeks of diagnosis, and details were captured. A total of 1234 patients were recruited and followed up for a median duration of 91 days (IQR: 45-181 days). Among them, 495 (40.1%) had persistent symptoms post-discharge or recovery. In 223 (18.1%) patients, the symptoms resolved within four weeks; 150 (12.1%) patients had symptoms till 12 weeks, and 122 (9.9%) patients had symptoms beyond 12 weeks of diagnosis/symptom-onset of COVID-19. Most common symptoms included myalgia (10.9%), fatigue (5.5%), shortness of breath (6.1%), cough (2.1%), insomnia (1.4%), mood disturbances (0.48%) and anxiety (0.6%). Patients who were hospitalized were more likely to report fatigue as a feature of long COVID. Hypothyroidism (OR: 4.13, 95% CI: 2.2-7.6, p-value < 0.001) and hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%) (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4, p-value 0.012) were identified as risk factors for long COVID sequelae. In conclusion, long COVID symptoms were common (22%), and 9.9% had the post COVID-19 syndrome. Myalgias, fatigue and dyspnoea were common symptoms. Patients with hypothyroidism and hypoxia during acute illness were at higher risk of long COVID.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/pathology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
16.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 273-277, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542926

ABSTRACT

Use of systemic corticosteroids is well-established in COVID-19 patients with hypoxia; however, there is scant data on its role in patients with mild disease and prolonged symptoms as a measure to prevent disease progression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of systemic corticosteroids in preventing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93% on room-air) among mild COVID-19 patients. An observational study was conducted among symptomatic COVID-19 patients taking oral corticosteroids and attending institute teleconsultation facility between 10th-30th June 2021. Patients who were already on corticosteroids for other indication or required oxygen supplementation before or within 24-hours of initiation of corticosteroids were excluded. A total of 140 consecutive symptomatic COVID-19 patients were included. Higher baseline C-reactive protein (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.06, p < 0.001) and early systemic corticosteroid (within 7 days) initiation (OR: 6.5, 95% CI: 2.1-20.1, p = 0.001) were independent risk factors for developing hypoxia (SpO2 ≤ 93%). Progression to hypoxia was significantly higher in patients who received corticosteroids before day 7 of illness (36.7%, 95% CI, 23.4-51.7%) compared to ≥ 7 of illness (14.3%, 95% CI, 7.8-23.2%) for persistent fever. Systemic corticosteroids within 7 days from symptom-onset were harmful and increased the risk of progression to hypoxia, whereas it may decrease the risk of progression when administered on or beyond 7 days in patients with mild COVID-19 and persistent symptoms. A well-designed randomised controlled trial is required to validate the findings.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hypoxia/prevention & control , Administration, Oral , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
17.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 665-670, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367963

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: In the present scenario, the most common sample for diagnosis of COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is nasal and throat swab (NTS). Other sampling options such as gargle lavage have found limited application in clinical use mostly because of unavailability of an appropriate gargling liquid. This study was conducted to assess the stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in normal saline at 4°C that can serve as a gargling liquid as well as a transport medium. The study also looked at the agreement between NTS and gargle lavage/saliva for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: In 29 consecutive real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) positive COVID-19 patients, paired NTS, gargle and saliva samples were taken. Samples were processed by rRT-PCR for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. To assess the SARS-CoV-2 RNA stability in normal saline, gargle lavage specimens were divided into two aliquots; one subset of the specimen was run within 4-6 h along with the routine samples (NTS and saliva) and the other subset was stored at 4°C and processed after 24-30 h. Agreement between cycle threshold (Ct) values from both the runs was compared using Bland-Altman (BA) analysis. Results: The positivity rates of rRT-PCR in NTS, saliva and gargle lavage samples were 82.7 (24/29), 79.3 (23/29) and 86.2 per cent (25/29), respectively. BA plot showed a good agreement between the Ct values of fresh and stored gargle samples, stipulating that there were no significant differences in the approximate viral load levels between the fresh and stored gargle lavage samples (bias: E gene -0.64, N gene -0.51, ORF gene -0.19). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study results show stability of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the gargle samples collected using normal saline up to 24-30 h. Gargle lavage and saliva specimen collection are cost-effective and acceptable methods of sampling for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by rRT-PCR. These simplified, inexpensive and acceptable methods of specimen collection would reduce the cost and workload on healthcare workers for sample collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saliva , Humans , Nasopharynx , Pharynx , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , Therapeutic Irrigation
18.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(10): 1367-1375, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338604

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To study the histopathology of patients dying of COVID-19 using post-mortem minimally invasive sampling techniques. METHODS: This was a single-center observational study conducted at JPNATC, AIIMS. Thirty-seven patients who died of COVID-19 were enrolled. Post-mortem percutaneous biopsies were taken from lung, heart, liver, kidney and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemistry was performed using CD61 and CD163. SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected using IHC with primary antibodies. RESULTS: The mean age was 48.7 years and 59.5% were males. Lung histopathology showed diffuse alveolar damage in 78% patients. Associated bronchopneumonia was seen in 37.5% and scattered microthrombi in 21% patients. Immunopositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in Type II pneumocytes. Acute tubular injury with epithelial vacuolization was seen in 46% of renal biopsies. Seventy-one percent of liver biopsies showed Kupffer cell hyperplasia and 27.5% showed submassive hepatic necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Predominant finding was diffuse alveolar damage with demonstration of SARS-CoV-2 protein in the acute phase. Microvascular thrombi were rarely identified in any organ. Substantial hepatocyte necrosis, Kupffer cell hypertrophy, microvesicular, and macrovesicular steatosis unrelated to microvascular thrombi suggested that liver might be a primary target of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
QJM ; 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310938
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218216

ABSTRACT

Platypnoea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a rare entity characterised by respiratory distress and/or hypoxia developing in the sitting/upright posture, which is relieved in the supine posture. It is caused by cardiac, pulmonary and non-cardiopulmonary diseases. COVID-19 can have varying respiratory manifestations including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sequelae-like pulmonary fibrosis. POS has been rarely reported in patients with COVID-19. Here we report a case of POS in a patient recovering from severe COVID-19 ARDS. As he was gradually mobilised after his improvement, he had worsening dyspnoea in the sitting position with significant relief on assuming a supine posture. He was diagnosed with POS after ruling out other causes of POS. He was treated with oxygen support in upright posture and chest physiotherapy was continued, to which he showed improvement. POS is a rare manifestation of COVID-19 which needs awareness as it can be diagnosed easily and can respond to continued supportive care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Dyspnea/etiology , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Male , SARS-CoV-2
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