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1.
Biomedical engineering and computational biology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871177

ABSTRACT

Background: Digital Twins (DTs), virtual copies of physical entities, are a promising tool to help manage and predict outbreaks of Covid-19. By providing a detailed model of each patient, DTs can be used to determine what method of care will be most effective for that individual. The improvement in patient experience and care delivery will help to reduce demand on healthcare services and to improve hospital management. Objectives: The aim of this study is to address 2 research questions: (1) How effective are DTs in predicting and managing infectious diseases such as Covid-19? and (2) What are the prospects and challenges associated with the use of DTs in healthcare? Methods: The review was structured according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) framework. Titles and s of references in PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar were searched using selected keywords (relating to digital twins, healthcare and Covid-19). The papers were screened in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria so that all papers published in English relating to the use of digital twins in healthcare were included. A narrative synthesis was used to analyse the included papers. Results: Eighteen papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. None of the included papers examined the use of DTs in the context of Covid-19, or infectious disease outbreaks in general. Academic research about the applications, opportunities and challenges of DT technology in healthcare in general was found to be in early stages. Conclusions: The review identifies a need for further research into the use of DTs in healthcare, particularly in the context of infectious disease outbreaks. Based on frameworks identified during the review, this paper presents a preliminary conceptual framework for the use of DTs for hospital management during the Covid-19 outbreak to address this research gap.

2.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-8, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860632

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Telerehabilitation has increasingly been used since the COVID-19 pandemic but with limited guidance available on undertaking physical assessments using remote methods. We aimed to provide such guidance by developing a Telerehab Toolkit, an online information and training resource for practitioners, patients, and carers on telerehabilitation for people with physical disabilities and movement impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Development and evaluation of the toolkit were informed by the Knowledge to Action framework and took place iteratively in two phases-knowledge creation and action. Information was collated from various sources including literature review, online survey, service evaluation, and focus group discussions. The toolkit has been evaluated using think-aloud interviews, e-mail and social media feedback from users, and analytics data on user engagement with the website. RESULTS: The Telerehab Toolkit focuses on remote physical assessments, and contains information on technology, digital skills, remote assessment tools, information governance, and safety for telerehabilitation. Resources include top tips from practitioners and patients, how-to guides, checklists, videos, and links to evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The Telerehab Toolkit has been well-received by practitioners, healthcare students, patients, and carers, is being disseminated widely, and is freely available (www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/telerehab). IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONTelerehabilitation has been increasingly used since the COVID-19 pandemic, but with limited guidance and training for practitioners on undertaking safe and effective remote physical assessments.The Telerehab Toolkit has been developed iteratively using the Knowledge to Action framework; it is a free online resource for practitioners and patients with specific guidance on telerehabilitation for physical disabilities and movement impairment.It is anticipated that the resource will help to improve the knowledge, skills, and confidence of the current and future rehabilitation workforce.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842905

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo identify the available guidance and training to implement telerehabilitation movement assessments for people (adults and children) with a physical disability, including those recovering from COVID-19.DesignRapid scoping review.Included sources and articlesPubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Cochrane, Embase, Web of Science, PEDro, UK Health Forum, WHO, National Archives and NHS England were searched using the participant–concept–context framework from 2015 to August 2020. Primary studies that recruited individuals with physical disabilities and guidance documents aimed at providers to implement movement-related telerehabilitation were included.Results23 articles (11 primary research studies, 3 systematic reviews and 9 guidance documents) were included out of 7857 that were identified from the literature search. Two main issues were found: (1) telerehabilitation guidance (from both research studies and guidance documents) was not specific to movement-related assessment and (2) most primary research studies provided neither guidance nor training of movement-specific assessment to practitioners. Of the COVID-19 related guidance, two articles reported COVID-19 management that only referred to identifying COVID-19 status without references to specific movement-related guidance.ConclusionsTelerehabilitation guidance and training have existed pre-COVID-19, yet the lack of specific movement-related information and provider support is surprising. This gap must be addressed to optimise effective implementation of remote assessments for those with physical disabilities.Review registrationOpen Science Framework: osf.io/vm6sp.

4.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794631

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Telerehabilitation was used to ensure continued provision of care during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there was a lack of guidance on how to use it safely and effectively for people with physical disabilities and movement impairment. In this service evaluation, we aimed to collate information on practitioner and patient experiences, challenges and facilitators, and examples of best practice to inform the development of an online toolkit and training package. METHODS: Guided discussions were carried out with 44 practitioners, 7 patients and 2 carers from five health and social care organisations in South West England, and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Practitioners and patients had positive experiences of telerehabilitation and were optimistic about its future use. Recognized benefits for people with physical disabilities included greater flexibility, reduced travel and fatigue, having appointments in a familiar environment and ease of involving family members. Challenges encountered were: technological (usability issues, access to technology and digital skills); difficulties seeing or hearing patients; the lack of 'hands-on' care; and safety concerns. Facilitators were supported by colleagues or digital champions, and family members or carers who could assist patients during their appointments. Key themes in best practice were: person-centred and tailored care; clear and open communication and observation and preparation and planning. Practitioners shared tips for remote physical assessments; for example, making use of patient-reported outcomes, and asking patients to wear bright and contrasting coloured clothing to make it easier to see movement. CONCLUSION: Telerehabilitation holds promise in health and social care, but it is necessary to share good practice to ensure it is safe, effective and accessible. We collated information and recommendations that informed the content of the Telerehab Toolkit (https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/research/telerehab), a practical resource for practitioners, patients and carers, with a focus on remote assessment and management of physical disabilities and movement impairment.

5.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(3): e30486, 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Video consultations (VCs) were rapidly implemented in response to COVID-19 despite modest progress before. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore staff and patient experiences with VCs implemented during COVID-19 and use feedback insights to support quality improvement and service development. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was conducted on 955 patient and 521 staff responses (from 4234 consultations; 955/4234, 22.6% and 521/4234, 12.3%, respectively) routinely collected following a VC between June and July 2020 in a rural, older adult, and outpatient care setting at a National Health Service Trust. Responses were summarized using descriptive statistics and inductive thematic analysis and presented to Trust stakeholders. RESULTS: Most patients (890/955, 93.2%) reported having good (210/955, 22%) or very good (680/955, 71.2%) experience with VCs and felt listened to and understood (904/955, 94.7%). Most patients accessed their VC alone (806/955, 84.4%) except for those aged ≥71 years (23/58, 40%), with ease of joining VCs negatively associated with age (P<.001). Despite more difficulties joining, older adults were most likely to be satisfied with the technology (46/58, 79%). Patients and staff generally felt that patients' needs had been met (860/955, 90.1% and 453/521, 86.9%, respectively), although staff appeared to overestimate patient dissatisfaction with VC outcomes (P=.02). Patients (848/955, 88.8%) and staff (419/521, 80.5%) felt able to communicate everything they wanted, although patients were significantly more positive than staff (P<.001). Patient satisfaction with communication was positively associated with technical performance satisfaction (P<.001). Most staff members (466/521, 89.4%) reported positive (185/521, 35.5%) or very positive (281/521, 53.9%) experiences with joining and managing VCs. Staff reported reductions in carbon footprint (380/521, 72.9%) and time (373/521, 71.6%). Most patients (880/955, 92.1%) would choose VCs again. We identified three themes in responses: barriers, including technological difficulties, patient information, and suitability concerns; potential benefits, including reduced stress, enhanced accessibility, cost, and time savings; and suggested improvements, including trial calls, turning music off, photo uploads, expanding written character limit, supporting other internet browsers, and shared online screens. This routine feedback, including evidence to suggest that patients were more satisfied than clinicians had anticipated, was presented to relevant Trust stakeholders, allowing for improved processes and supporting the development of a business case to inform the Trust decision on continuing VCs beyond COVID-19 restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of regularly reviewing and responding to routine feedback following digital service implementation. The feedback helped the Trust improve the VC service, challenge clinician-held assumptions about patient experience, and inform future use of VCs. It has focused improvement efforts on patient information; technological improvements such as blurred backgrounds and interactive whiteboards; and responding to the needs of patients with dementia, communication or cognitive impairment, or lack of appropriate technology. These findings have implications for other health care providers.

6.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e058247, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731281

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We explored use and usability of general practitioner (GP) online services. SETTING: Devon and Cornwall, England. DESIGN: Mixed-methods sequential study based on qualitative interviews, analysis of routine eConsult usage and feedback data, and assessment of GP websites. METHODS: First, we interviewed 32 staff and 18 patients from seven practices in June 2018. Second, we used routinely collected consultation meta-data and, third, patient feedback data for all practices using eConsult from June 2018 to March 2021. Lastly, we examined GP websites' usability in January 2020 and September 2021. RESULTS: Interviews suggested practices infrequently involved patients in eConsult implementation. Some patients 'gamed' the system to achieve what they wanted. Usage data showed a major increase in eConsult resulting from COVID-19. Women used eConsult twice as much as men. Older had similar eConsult consultation rates to younger patients. Patient feedback forms were completed for fewer than 3% of consultations. Patients were mostly satisfied with eConsult but some had concerns about its length and repetitiveness, lack of continuity over time and between eConsult and medical records. We did not find clear evidence that patients' suggested improvements were acted on. Finally, few GP websites met accessibility guidelines and may hinder access to online national services such as eConsult. CONCLUSION: Given that, face to face, older people consult more, usage data suggest that older people have reduced online access. That the female-to-male ratio of eConsult use use was even greater than 'traditional' face-to-face ratio was unexpected and needs further research. Although eConsult collects and uses routine patient feedback to improve the system, more open systems for patient feedback, such as Care Opinion, may be more effective in helping online systems evolve. Lastly, we question the need for GP websites and suggest that national or regional services are better placed to maintain accessible services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , England , Feedback , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Primary Health Care/methods , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
7.
European Journal of Surgical Oncology ; 48(2):e85, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1719674

ABSTRACT

Background: The Covid Pandemic has influenced how cancer surgeries are performed and their pre-operative management to allow appropriate social distancing and self-isolation prior to Surgery. With the requirement of wire localisation of non-palpable breast cancers/ lesions on the day of surgery and non-availability of mammogram and ultrasound machine in an isolated zone, we embarked on localisation of non-palpable breast lesions using MagseedR markers and SentimagR localisation system. We describe our initial experience in the management of these cancers and diagnostic excision biopsies using Magseed. Materials and Methods: Forty consecutive female patients, median age 61 (range 36-84) years underwent Magseed insertion for diagnostic excision biopsy (n=4) and breast conservation surgery (WLE;n= 36). Check mammograms were performed following Magseed insertion to confirm appropriate localisation. During the initial audit of 16 patients, one Magseed guided WLE and sentinel node biopsy was abandoned due to erratic signal strength on the day of surgery and underwent surgery with wire localisation on a later date. Subsequently all cases had Magseed signals confirmed following insertion in the radiology department along with check mammograms. Results: Thirty-nine patients underwent successful breast surgery (Magseed in intra-operative specimen X-ray) with standard axillary procedures (29 sentinel node biopsy, 2 axillary node clearance). The median time from magseed insertion to surgery was 13 (range 3-38) days. The lesions were invasive neoplasm +/- insitu (DCIS) disease (n= 32), DCIS (n=5), and papilloma (n=3). The median overall tumour size was 20 (range 3-38) mm and on postop histology was 17 (2-50) mm. Six patients required further re-excision for margin positivity with DCIS;margins were clear after single cavity shave(n=4) and two patients underwent mastectomy subsequently. Conclusions: Magseed localisation have given us significant flexibility in the management of non-palpable breast cancer and indeterminate lesions requiring diagnostic biopsy during the Covid pandemic. Initial audit suggests usefulness of confirming adequate Magseed signal in the radiology department along with check mammogram during the early learning curve.

8.
Journal of the Association of Physicians of India ; 69(October):17-23, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1717366

ABSTRACT

Background: There is more than twofold rise in prevalence of mucormycosis cases in India during the COVID-19 pandemic which needs to be evaluated. Aims: The study aimed to document the spectrum of cases of mucormycosis seen at our Institute during COVID-19 times.

9.
National Journal of Clinical Anatomy ; 11(1):54-59, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1706414

ABSTRACT

Background: Assessment has a very important role in curricular development by motivating students and target setting, providing appropriate feedback and quality assurance. During COVID-19 pandemic-induced lockdown, most of the medical schools throughout the world including India had to undergo a paradigm shift from face to face to online mode in medical education and assessment. This study was planned to assess and analyze the perception and opinion of 1 st -year medical students from all over the country regarding the online assessment (OA) process that emerged during the COVID 19 pandemic. We also tried to find out the preferred resources that the students wanted to access via online mode and any major hindrance they faced. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional, Internet based, online survey conducted on 1 st year medical students from all over India. Result: Students preferred the traditional (face to face) examinations over the OA in terms of usefulness, motivation, answering long answer questions, adequacy of allotted time, and ease of performance. However, they favored OA in terms of examination anxiety, examiner bias, and answering the objective type of questions. The lack of good Internet connectivity was considered a major hindrance. Conclusion: This information might be helpful for respective authorities to establish an effective online platform which could deliver an authentic and valid OA in future during any crisis. © 2022 Medknow. All rights reserved.

10.
QJM ; 115(4): 222-227, 2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) is one of the most common infectious causes of sporadic encephalitis. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with immune dysregulation of the host that might increase the risk of infections like HSVE following SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is paucity of literature on post COVID-19 HSVE. This study was conducted with the aim of analyzing the clinical presentation, brain imaging, and outcome of patients presenting with HSVE within 6 weeks of COVID-19 and providing a comprehensive review on the possible mechanisms of post-COVID-19 HSVE. METHODS: This observational study included patients who had laboratory-confirmed HSVE (type 1 or type 2) and a history of COVID-19 within the previous 6 weeks. Patients were followed up for 3 months. RESULTS: Eight patients were included and all of them had type 1 HSVE. The mean latency of onset of neurological symptoms from being diagnosed with COVID-19 is 23.87 days and a majority of the patients have received injectable steroids with a mean duration of 6.5 days. Behavioral abnormality was the commonest neurological presentation and typical brain imaging involved T2 FLAIR hyperintensities of the medial temporal lobes. All patients received intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every eight hourly for atleast 14 days. One patient with concomitant rhinocerebral mucormycosis succumbed while the majority had a complete recovery. CONCLUSION: Possible immune dysregulation in COVID-19 may increase the susceptibility of HSVE in patients with a history of recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of HSVE in such patients are similar to typical HSVE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex , Herpes Simplex , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/complications , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neurology Asia ; 26(4):829-834, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1626971

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection is well-known to produce different neurological complications, including cerebrovascular diseases. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by transient segmental vasoconstriction of the cerebral vasculature, has been rarely reported in association with COVID-19 infection. The causative agent, the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors for its entry into the host cell. This leads to downregulation of the ACE-2 and increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) axis resulting in sympathetic overactivity and vasoconstriction. This might be the possible mechanism of RCVS in COVID-19. We hereby report a case of RCVS occurring in a SARS-CoV-2infected patient. This was a 38-year-old male without any comorbidities or risk factors, who presented with headache and confusion. His SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was positive. MRI of the brain was normal but cerebral angiography revealed segmental vasoconstriction in bilateral middle cerebral arteries and the terminal part of the internal carotid arteries, which resolved almost completely after 2 weeks. He was treated with oral nimodipine 60 mg every 6 hourly. A database search revealed 2 previous cases of RCVS associated with COVID-19. In conclusion, RCVS is a rare complication of COVID-19. It is possibly under-recognized as only a few COVID-19 patients with headaches undergo cerebral angiography especially when parenchymal brain imaging is normal.

12.
Blood ; 138:2249, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582362

ABSTRACT

Background: De novo nucleotide synthesis is necessary to meet the enormous demand for nucleotides, other macromolecules associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression 1, 2, 34. Hence, we hypothesized that targeting de novo nucleotide synthesis would lead to the depletion of the nucleotide pool, pyrimidine starvation and increase oxidative stress preferentially in leukemic cells compared to their non-malignant counterparts, impacting proliferative and differentiation pathways. Emvododstat (PTC299) is an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), a rate-limiting enzyme for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis that is currently in a clinical trial for the treatment of AML. Objectives: The goals of these studies were to understand the emvododstat-mediated effects on leukemia growth, differentiation and impact on Leukemia Stem Cells(LSCs). Comprehensive analyses of mitochondrial function, metabolic signaling in PI3K/AKT pathways, apoptotic signatures, and DNA damage responses were carried out. The rationale for clinical testing emvododstat was confirmed in an AML-PDX model. Results: Emvododstat treatment in cytarabine-resistant AML cells and primary AML blasts induced apoptosis, differentiation, and reduced proliferation, with corresponding decreased in cell number and increases in annexin V- and CD14-positive cells. Indeed, the inhibition of de novo nucleotide synthesis compromises the dynamic metabolic landscape and mitochondrial function, as indicated by alterations in the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and mitochondrial ROS/membrane potential and corresponding differentiation, apoptosis, and/or inhibition of proliferation of LSCs. These effects can be reversed by the addition of exogenous uridine and orotate. Further immunoblotting and mass cytometry (CyTOF) analyses demonstrated changes in apoptotic and cell signaling proteins (cleaved PARP, cleaved caspase-3) and DNA damage responses (TP53, γH2AX) and PI3/AKT pathway downregulation in response to emvododstat. Importantly, emvododstat treatment reduced leukemic cell burden in a mouse model of AML PDX ( Complex karyotype, mutation in ASXL1, IDH2, NRAS), decreased levels of leukemia stem cells frequency (1 in 522,460 Vs 1 in 3,623,599 in vehicle vs emvododstat treated mice), and improved survival. The median survival 40 days vs. 30 days, P=0.0002 in primary transplantation and 36 days vs 53.5 days, P=0.005 in secondary transpantation in a PDX mouse model of human AML. This corresponded with a reduction in the bone marrow burden of leukemia and increased expression of differentiation markers in mice treated with emvododstat (Fig. 1). These data demonstrate effect of emvododstat on mitochondrial functions. Conclusion: Inhibition of de novo pyrimidine synthesis triggers differentiation, apoptosis, and depletes LSCs in AML models. Emvododstat is a novel dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor being tested in a clinical trial for the treatment of myeloid malignancies and COVID-19. Keywords: AML, emvododstat, DHODH, apoptosis, differentiation References: 1 Thomas, D. & Majeti, R. Biology and relevance of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells. Blood 129, 1577-1585, doi:10.1182/blood-2016-10-696054 (2017). 2 Quek, L. et al. Genetically distinct leukemic stem cells in human CD34- acute myeloid leukemia are arrested at a hemopoietic precursor-like stage. The Journal of experimental medicine 213, 1513-1535, doi:10.1084/jem.20151775 (2016). 3 Villa, E., Ali, E. S., Sahu, U. & Ben-Sahra, I. Cancer Cells Tune the Signaling Pathways to Empower de Novo Synthesis of Nucleotides. Cancers (Basel) 11, doi:10.3390/cancers11050688 (2019). 4 DeBerardinis, R. J. & Chandel, N. S. Fundamentals of cancer metabolism. Sci Adv 2, e1600200, doi:10.1126/sciadv.1600200 (2016). [Formula presented] Disclosures: Weetall: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Sheedy: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Ray: PTC therapeutics: Current Employment. Andreeff: Karyopharm: Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Research Funding;Oxford Biomedica UK: Research Funding;Aptose: Consultancy;Daiich -Sankyo: Consultancy, Research Funding;Syndax: Consultancy;Breast Cancer Research Foundation: Research Funding;Reata, Aptose, Eutropics, SentiBio;Chimerix, Oncolyze: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Novartis, Cancer UK;Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (LLS), German Research Council;NCI-RDCRN (Rare Disease Clin Network), CLL Foundation;Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Senti-Bio: Consultancy;Medicxi: Consultancy;ONO Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;Amgen: Research Funding;Glycomimetics: Consultancy. Borthakur: ArgenX: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Protagonist: Consultancy;Astex: Research Funding;University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center: Current Employment;Ryvu: Research Funding;Takeda: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Novartis: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;GSK: Consultancy.

13.
Neurology ; 96(15):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576154
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e055811, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on parents' health-seeking behaviour and care for a sick or injured child in the Netherlands. DESIGN AND SETTING: An online survey on parents' experiences with a sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown periods was disseminated through social media. PARTICIPANTS: Parents living in the Netherlands with a sick or injured child during the lockdown periods from March to June 2020 and from December 2020 to February 2021 were eligible to participate. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse family and children's characteristics, parents' response to a sick or injured child, and the perceived impact of the lockdown on child's severity of illness and treatment reported by parents. Analyses were stratified for children with and without chronic conditions. RESULTS: Of the 105 parents who completed the survey, 83% reported they would have sought medical help before lockdown compared with 88% who did seek help during lockdown for the same specific medical problem. Parents reported that changes in health services affected their child's severity of illness (31%) and their treatment (39%), especially for children with chronic conditions. These changes included less availability of healthcare services and long waiting lists, which mostly led to worsening of the child's illness. During lockdown, there was no change in health-seeking behaviour by parents of children with a chronic condition (N=51) compared with parents of children without a chronic condition. CONCLUSION: Parents in the Netherlands who completed the survey were not deterred from seeking medical help for their sick or injured child during the COVID-19 lockdown periods. However, changes in health services affected child's severity of illness and treatment, especially for children with chronic conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Netherlands , Parents , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Minerva Psychiatry ; 62(3):156-163, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1488923

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has already swept millions of lives and created the deep black cloud made up of negative emotions. Analysis of origin of negative emotions from previous experiences indicates diversity in thinking, reasoning, self-centeredness and lack of empathy give rise to human vices which are difficult but not impossible to overcome by resurrection of positive emotions like love, empathy, motivation for good deeds and philanthropic activities. Complex interplay of positive and negative emotions orchestrated by intricately associated neuronal circuits, neurotransmitters coupled with endocrinal influence holds responsible for human behavior, considered as the root of human civilization, is currently facing existential crisis during COVID-19 pandemic. Human civilization is experiencing unique psychosocial problems through emerging COVID-19 pandemic. Depression, panic buying, herd behavior, infodemic, immense sufferings of marginalized people, surge of addictive behavior, racism, domestic violence, rape, divorce, financial constraints, stigmatization, all stem from negative emotions and lack of positive vibes amidst the rally of death and sorrows. COVID-19 and surge of negative emotions are the two pandemics which conjointly causing major mental health threat. Cultivations and practice of positive emotions and triumph of optimistic octet over sinister septet are desirable to save Mother Nature and her habitats from the cruel claws of this pandemic.

16.
Journal of Association of Physicians of India ; 69(10):17-23, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1469268

ABSTRACT

Background: There is more than twofold rise in prevalence of mucormycosis cases in India during the COVID-19 pandemic which needs to be evaluated. Aims: The study aimed to document the spectrum of cases of mucormycosis seen at our Institute during COVID-19 times. Methods: The study is a retrospective observational study carried out at our Institute from May 2021 to mid-June 2021. All patients with biopsy-proven mucormycosis were enrolled in the study. The patients were subjected to complete history taking, ophthalmological examination, and imaging studies. The patients were treated with a multidisciplinary approach with antifungal therapy as well as surgical intervention when needed. Results: Ten patients (n=10) were seen, with a mean age of 50.3 years. The major risk factors included recent use of steroids, uncontrolled diabetes, and CKD. The most common presentation was swelling of unilateral eye and ptosis, followed by loss of vision. Inflammatory marker (CRP) and d-dimer were raised at presentation in all cases. Imaging showed the spread of infection from paranasal sinus to orbit and brain via cavernous sinus, which was a poor prognostic factor. Intravenous Amphotericin-B was given to all patients for at least 4 weeks. Two patients were discharged after completion of treatment and mortality was seen in three patients. Conclusion: We present an array of COVID-associated-mucormycosis (CAM) cases from Eastern India. CAM is presenting with rhino-orbito-cerebral involvement. There is poor outcome with cerebral involvement and high incidence of adverse effects with deoxycholate formulation of amphotericin-B. The causal association of COVID-19 with mucormycosis needs to be unearthed but possible preventive role of anticoagulation should be evaluated. © 2021 Journal of Association of Physicians of India. All rights reserved.

18.
Neurology ; 96(15 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1407957

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe a case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis (CM) after recovery from severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Background: CM following clinical resolution of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a previously healthy patient has not been reported before. Design/Methods: A 76-year-old patient with a past medical history of hypertension was hospitalized after presenting with 3 days of diarrhea followed by weakness and confusion. Nasal swab nucleic acid amplification test was positive for SARS-CoV-2. A non-contrast MRI brain was unremarkable. Fever and worsening hypoxic respiratory failure rapidly developed, necessitating mechanical ventilation on day 3. Remdesivir, tocilizumab and convalescent plasma were administered. She also received IV methylprednisolone and inhaled budesonide over the course of her month long hospitalization, along with empiric broad spectrum antibiotics and two weeks of micafungin for a sputum culture positive for Candida albicans. She was successfully extubated on day 19 and discharged to a skilled nursing facility on day 30. She was admitted again 19 days later with fever and progressive encephalopathy. MRI brain revealed multiple strokes in bilateral cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. Blood and CSF cultures were positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. CSF opening pressure was normal. She was started on amphotericin B and flucytosine. Mental status worsened to a comatose state requiring intubation. At the time of this writing, she remains comatose 12 days after initiation of treatment. Results: N/A Conclusions: Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of encephalopathy in a patient with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Treatment with steroids and tocilizumab may be predisposing factors due to relative immunosuppression.

19.
Value in Health ; 23:S562-S563, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1386136

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Published mortality rates from SARS-CoV-2 infections have varied significantly due to differences in testing and disease tracking rates across countries. The impact of population density, family size, mobility and government actions on mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infections is not well understood. Method(s): This is a retrospective data analysis using the Worldwide WHO situation reports along with population density information and family size information (from ), government response data (7 policies: school closure (SC), workplace closure (WC), public event cancellation (PEC), restriction on gatherings (RG), public transport closure (PTC), stay-at-home (SAH), internal movement restrictions (IMR) - Oxford University) and mobility reports (Apple) to estimate variables associated with COVID-19 mortality from countries with complete information. Poisson regression models were developed to evaluate associations between mortality counts and variables mentioned herein. A 42-day lag was applied to mobility and government response metrics to evaluate the impact thereof on mortality. Result(s): Nine countries were included in the analysis (Australia, Belgium, Chile, Italy, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Spain, UK, USA). The highest quartile of government response index had the greatest protective effect on mortality (incidence proportion ratio (IPR): 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.01-0.32). There was no consistent association impact between walking, driving or transit mobility metric. Government actions with significant protective effect were PTC (IPR: 0.46 (0.28-0.75)) and PEC (IPR: 0.65 (0.47-0.91)). All other government actions did not show a statistically significant association with mortality. Conclusion(s): Our study identified population metrics and government actions potentially associated with mortality, across multiple geographies. Further research on key confounders (such as mask wearing) is required to evaluate further actions to mitigate the mortality from COVID-19.Copyright © 2020

20.
Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care ; 38:49-49, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1271457
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