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1.
2022 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops, INFOCOM WKSHPS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948802

ABSTRACT

In today's world of medical science, remote patient monitoring devices are becoming more important and a future need particularly in the present COVID-19 situation as individuals are preferred to be kept isolated. Patients would be benefited from a suitable monitoring system that measures their important medical parameters such as pulse rate, oxygen saturation or SpO2, body temperature, blood pressure, and Galvanized Skin Response (GSR). This system can increase the medical staff efficiency by drastically decreasing their duties in hospitals and the need to attend to them individually. Patients in their home isolation may utilize the device as well, and their vital indicators may be checked by doctors remotely. In this work, we are prototyping a powerefficient, wearable medical kit and a resource-aware fog network set up to handle the Internet of Things (IoT) data traffic. The idea behind the design is to process the critical medical sensors' data in the fog nodes which are deployed at the edge of the network. The data thus received, is used for a machine learning-based solution for personal health anomalies and COVID-19 infection risk analysis. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Adolescent Health ; 70(4):S23, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1936662

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Pediatric gender centers have seen a notable increase in demand for gender-affirming care services during the COVID-19 pandemic. This increased need has contributed to delays in youth accessing this time-sensitive care and amplified the importance of primary care providers (PCPs) playing an active role supporting gender diverse youth in the post-pandemic world. To guide interventions to support PCPs in gender-affirming care, we sought to understand how often PCP’s see gender diverse youth in primary care and assess PCP comfort facilitating conversations about gender identity in this setting. The objectives of this study were to (1) understand whether PCPs are routinely discussing pronouns and gender identity with adolescents and (2) explore barriers to and the impact of having such discussions in primary care. Methods: This project integrated data from a needs assessment survey and from semi-structured, qualitative interviews with pediatric PCPs. The 15-item survey was administered to PCPs in a large, hospital-affiliated, pediatric primary care network in the northeastern US to better understand PCPs experiences providing adolescent healthcare. Hour long, semi-structured interviews were conducted with pediatric PCPs in the pacific northwest using an interview guide developed in partnership with two PCP stakeholders. Survey responses were analyzed descriptively. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed by two authors in Dedoose qualitative analysis software via inductive thematic analysis using an iteratively designed codebook that was adjudicated to consensus. Results: Of the pediatric PCPs surveyed (n=85), the majority were pediatricians (67%) and most had been in practice for more than 5 years (75%). Almost all (92%) PCPs reported caring for at least one gender diverse youth in their practice in the last year. However, PCPs reported discussing pronouns (15%) and gender identity (29%) during annual well visits with adolescent patients much less frequently than discussing mood (98%), motor vehicle safety (77%) and sexuality (61%). Relatedly, gender-affirming care (60%) was the topic most frequently selected by PCPs for additional education. In separate PCP interviews, participants (n=15) indicated that while they felt discussions about pronouns and gender identity were important, they experienced specific structural and interpersonal barriers that prevented these conversations from occurring. These barriers included poor health system infrastructure (like forms and electronic health records), staff concerns, uncertainty around language, lack of awareness and fear. PCPs also discussed that when they asked about pronouns and gender identity, it normalized conversations about gender, helped facilitate family support, created welcoming environments in the health system and allowed for earlier identification of youth in need of support. Conclusions: Pediatric PCPs recognize the critical role they play in supporting gender-diverse youth and their families, particularly around normalizing conversations about gender identity. However, multiple individual and clinic-level barriers to asking about pronouns and gender identity remain. These results highlight the continued need to provide resources, education and support to PCPs in discussing these topics in the primary care setting to facilitate access to time-sensitive gender-affirming care. Sources of Support: This project was supported by the Seattle Children's Research Institute Career Development and AHRQ K12HS026393-03 (PI: Sequeira).

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785746

ABSTRACT

The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection requires antibody recognition of the spike protein. In a study designed to examine the molecular features of anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies, patient plasma proteins binding to pre-fusion stabilised complete spike and nucleocapsid proteins were isolated and analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-ToF) mass spectrometry. Amongst the immunoglobulins, a high affinity for human serum albumin was evident in the anti-spike preparations. Careful mass comparison revealed the preferential capture of advanced glycation end product (AGE) forms of glycated human serum albumin by the pre-fusion spike protein. The ability of bacteria and viruses to surround themselves with serum proteins is a recognised immune evasion and pathogenic process. The preference of SARS-CoV-2 for AGE forms of glycated serum albumin may in part explain the severity and pathology of acute respiratory distress and the bias towards the elderly and those with (pre)diabetic and atherosclerotic/metabolic disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Prediabetic State , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Serum Albumin , Serum Albumin, Human , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Sleep ; 44(SUPPL 2):A75, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402567

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Insufficient sleep is highly prevalent among school-age youth and adolescents, which has been exacerbated by the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, it is unclear whether sleep during COVID-19 varies based on whether school is in session. We examined the sleep of school-age youth and adolescents during COVID-19 and described changes in rates of insufficient sleep from summer (Time 1) to school year (Time 2). We further examined whether insufficient sleep is associated with mental health service utilization. Methods: Adults in Southwestern Pennsylvania with children under 18 years old in their household completed a repeated cross-sectional electronic survey. The survey was designed to assess usage of, and unmet need for, health and social service resources, among other health behaviors. As responses were anonymous with no longitudinal linking, we used descriptive statistics and Chi-Square tests to examine our aims at each time point. Insufficient sleep was operationalized as <9 hours (school-age youth) and <8 hours (adolescents) of sleep duration, per National Sleep Foundation standards. Results: Data were analyzed from n=97 school-age youth and n=83 adolescents at Time 1, and n=77 school-age youth and n=82 adolescents at Time 2. Most school-age youth (76.3%) obtained sufficient sleep at Time 1, which was maintained at Time 2. However, while 75.6% of adolescents obtained sufficient sleep at Time 1, that number fell to 63.3% at Time 2. Youth with insufficient sleep were more likely to utilize mental health services than those obtaining sufficient sleep at a borderline level of statistical significance (p-value = 0.097), after controlling for age group. Conclusion: The rate of insufficient sleep among adolescents during COVID-19 is meaningfully higher than non-COVID, school-year rates recently reported among adolescents. Youth with insufficient sleep are more likely to utilize mental health services, though the direction of causality in that association is unknown. Future work should focus on strategies for increasing access to sleep promotion programs that support sleep health and mental health during a time of great stress.

5.
Chirurgia (Turin) ; 34(3):131-134, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1315126

ABSTRACT

as the world is facing the biggest crisis of this century, sick patients become sicker without timely intervention. abscess arising from Sigmoid diverticulitis can have increased morbidity and mortality if not treated urgently. Timely intervention supported by care in the intensive Therapy Unit (ITU) reduces both mortality and morbidity significantly in an advanced situation. Two cases with Diverticular abscess are discussed in this article who had uncommon presentation resulting from undue delay related to COViD-19 crisis-induced lockdown. Their surgical intervention got delayed due to multifactorial crises including ITU bed-shortage resulting in increased mortality and morbidity. The multifactorial influences of lockdown on the unwanted delay in referral, aggravated presentation, and the complicated outcome of a common emergency condition demand more awareness for reducing risk.

6.
British Journal of Surgery ; 108:1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1254531
7.
Journal of the American Dental Association ; 152(5):369-376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The degree to which children experience unmet need for dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic and its association with pandemic-related household job or income loss are unknown. METHODS: The authors performed a cross-sectional household survey of 348 families in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from June 25 through July 2, 2020. Unmet need for child dental care and pandemic-related household job or income loss were assessed using caregiver self-report. RESULTS: Caregivers reported that the greatest unmet child health care need during the COVID-19 pandemic was dental care (16%), followed by medical care for a well visit or vaccination (5%). Approximately 40% of caregivers reported job loss or a decrease in household income due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors found a significant association between the probability of unmet child dental care and pandemic-related household job or income loss (P = .022). Losing a job or experiencing a decrease in income due to the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with unmet child dental care (relative risk, 1.77;95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 2.88). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, 3 times as many households reported unmet dental care for a child compared with unmet medical care. Unmet child dental care was more common in households where pandemic-related job or income loss occurred. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: If unmet dental care continues as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, nontraditional strategies for delivering dental care can be considered to improve access to dental care for children, such as teledentistry and oral health prevention services in primary care settings.

8.
Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine ; 48(1):1-12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1156291

ABSTRACT

The SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a major worldwide public health issue. Initially, improved supportive and anti-inflammatory intervention, often employing known drugs or technologies, provided measurable improvement in management. We have recently seen advances in specific therapeutic interventions and in vaccines. Nevertheless, it will be months before most of the world's population can be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. In the interim, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment offers several potentially beneficial therapeutic effects. Three small published series, one with a propensity-score-matched control group, have demonstrated safety and initial efficacy. Additional anecdotal reports are consistent with these publications. HBO2 delivers oxygen in extreme conditions of hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia, even in the presence of lung pathology. It provides anti-inflammatory and anti-pro inflammatory effects likely to ameliorate the overexuberant immune response common to COVID-19. Unlike steroids, it exerts these effects without immune suppression. One study suggests HBO(2 )may reduce the hypercoagulability seen in COVID patients. Also, hyperbaric oxygen offers a likely successful intervention to address the oxygen debt expected to arise from a prolonged period of hypoxemia and tissue hypoxia. To date, 11 studies designed to investigate the impact of HBO2 on patients infected with SARS-Cov-2 have been posted on clinicaltrials.gov . This paper describes the promising physiologic and biochemical effects of hyperbaric oxygen in COVID-19 and potentially in other disorders with similar pathologic mechanisms.

9.
Food, Culture and Society ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1096416

ABSTRACT

This paper introduces a special issue on food vending in the city. It contextualizes a collection of papers on street food and markets across time and global space that authors submitted before the 2020 pandemic. Focusing specifically on the mobilization of urban space for food provisioning and microenterprise, we theorize markets beyond the singular narrative of capital accumulation. Given the particular moment of its publication–which comes almost one year after the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus to be a pandemic in March 2020–our introduction probes the impact of COVID-19 on food vendors as well as on the cities that sustain them. Drawing on examples from cities such as New Delhi, New York City, Los Angeles and beyond, we comment on how the pandemic has unleashed threats to livelihoods and liveliness, and we also draw attention to the possibility of new social and economic opportunities in this moment of crisis, including innovative uses of urban space. © 2021 Association for the Study of Food and Society.

10.
Ieee Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement ; 70:10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1060523

ABSTRACT

The time-series forecasting makes a substantial contribution in timely decision-making. In this article, a recently developed eigenvalue decomposition of Hankel matrix (EVDHM) along with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) is applied to develop a forecasting model for nonstationary time series. The Phillips-Perron test (PPT) is used to define the nonstationarity of time series. EVDHM is applied over a time series to decompose it into respective subcomponents and reduce the nonstationarity. ARIMA-based model is designed to forecast the future values for each subcomponent. The forecast values of each subcomponent are added to get the final output values. The optimized value of ARIMA parameters for each subcomponent is obtained using a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum values of Akaike information criterion (AIC). Model performance is evaluated by estimating the future values of daily new cases of the recent pandemic disease COVID-19 for India, USA, and Brazil. The high efficacy of the proposed method is convinced with the results.

11.
Cognit Comput ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033036

ABSTRACT

Light fidelity (LiFi) and wireless fidelity (WiFi) can be applied with the same network under the different constraints, which is suitable for COVID-19 surveillance in hospitals. The LiFi network is a high-capacity and security platform. A COVID-19 surveillance system using LiFi is proposed, which consists of two switching modes: communication and surveillance. Firstly, the communication targets are to accommodate the electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity and high-capacity and security data transmission, where secondly the COVID-19 surveillance can be applied. In operation, the up and downlink system uses a metamaterial antenna embedded by Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI). An antenna consists of silver bars embedded at the microring center with two-phase modulators at its sides. The entangled source namely a dark soliton is applied to form the transmission, where the information security based on quantum cryptography can be managed. By using the suitable parameters, the whispering gallery modes (WGMs) are generated and the up and downlink nodes are formed. The input information is multiplexed with time to form the multiplexed signals, where the big data transmission (40 Pbit  s - 1 ) can be employed. By using the surveillance mode, the plasmonic antenna can be applied for temperature and electric force sensors, which can offer the disinfectant spray and temperature sensor for COVID-19 applications. The optimum plasma force sensitivity is 0.16 N kg-1 mW-1. The center frequencies of 191.48 THz and 199.41 THz are obtained for uplink and downlink antennas, respectively. The optimum temperature sensitivity is 0.05 rads-1 °C-1. In conclusion, the novelty of proposed work is that the integrated sensor circuits are employed for COVID-19 surveillance in the hospital. The fuzzy-based system is designed for critical patient monitoring alert using this surveillance and management inside the hospital for COVID-19 patients.

12.
Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics ; 57(6):687-693, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1001038

ABSTRACT

Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome temporarily associated with SARS-CoV-2 (P1MS-TS) or Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a post COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and adolescents <21 years of age. It is slowly emerging in India with clinical features overlapping with Kawasaki Disease (KD) and Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS). Ten P1MS-TS cases admitted in a pediatric hospital between July and Sept 2020 were compared with 19 Kawasaki Disease (KD) patients' data. The median age of PIMS-TS was 6 years (older to KD), 80% were males. PMS-TS cases had high inflammatory markers: CRP, ferritin, interleukin (IL)-6. Other distinct features were lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyponatremia. Serial measurements of CRP showed high baseline values with subsequent decrease. NT-Pro BNP level was extremely elevated;suggestive of cardiac injury. All patients recovered. Laboratory features of P1MS-TS present a unique pattern of intense inflammation, and cardiac involvement that is different from features of pre COVID-19 KD. CRP remains a useful, inexpensive marker for P1MS-TS diagnosis and clinical progression.

13.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 14(11):5-9, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-958447

ABSTRACT

Introduction: For last five-six months in the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) lockdown period the Phase 1 MBBS students were being taught Anatomy theory as well as demonstration topics in online mode. Faculties were new to the mode initially, but gradually they coped up for online teaching. Now, in coming near future, institutes will resume with physical class activities and examinations will be held in departments;in the 'new normal period' even when the COVID cases are increasing day-by-day. Aim: This study was an endeavour to explore faculties' perception in Anatomy teaching and assessment in online teaching and side by side their opinion for planning to resume class and assessment in new normal phase. Materials and Methods: For this amongst the faculties of Anatomy of West Bengal, posted in 17 different medical teaching institutes;included in the Whatsapp group of Anatomical Society of India West Bengal (WB) Chapter;this cross-sectional study was carried on by an online survey using a pretested predesigned structured questionnaire upon 14 questions regarding their perception of online class-cum-assessments as practiced as well as their perception for future post-unlock class sessions and assessment methods;assuring anonymity;with encouragement and support from Anatomical Society of India WB chapter. Out of total 199 faculties 163 responded in time and their responses was tabulated. Results: From the response of 163 faculties, it came out that all faculties taught 'abdomen', 'head neck', 'neuroanatomy' parts as well as some parts of histology and embryology. Google classroom was most favoured teaching platform followed by Zoom meeting application. Majority (84.6%) of the faculties used to take lecture classes by sharing Power Point Presentation (PPT) during class hours;and 46% used to share the prerecorded demonstration video of the parts. Only 5% of them felt that by this mode full competency could be achieved for the students. Question sharing followed by answer writing-scan-mail was the most favoured (88.9%) mode of theory assessments;although 57% faculties used Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) for assessment. In the 'new-normal phase' when the college and class will resume, faculties like to have demonstration classes with 'mini-group' and lecture topics to be covered solely in online mode. For theory assessment MCQs was mostly opted (63.8%) supplemented by camera-observed Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE) in the practical portion (50.3%). Conclusion: This study not only provides the experience shared by faculties in conducting the online teaching of Anatomy in the lockdown phases, but also provides insight in planning of the classes and examinations in the post-lockdown COVID-19 times which can be presented as recommendation to the university, which is yet to plan out the examination in 'new normal' era.

14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-905609

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has stretched national testing capacities to breaking points in almost all countries of the world. The need to rapidly screen vast numbers of a country's population in order to control the spread of the infection is paramount. However, the logistical requirement for reagent supply (and associated cost) of RT-PCR based testing (the current front-line test) have been hugely problematic. Mass spectrometry-based methods using swab and gargle samples have been reported with promise, but have not approached the task from a systematic analysis of the entire diagnostic process. Here, the pipeline from sample processing, the biological characteristics of the pathogen in human biofluid, the downstream bio- and physical-chemistry and the all-important data processing with clinical interpretation and reporting, are carefully compiled into a single high-throughput and reproducible rapid process. Utilizing MALDI-ToF mass spectrometric detection to viral envelope glycoproteins in a systems biology-multidisciplinary team approach, we have achieved a multifaceted clinical MALDI ToF MS screening test, primarily (but not limited to) SARS-CoV-2, with direct application to other future epidemics/pandemics that may arise. The clinical information generated not only includes SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus detection-(Spike protein fragments S1, S2b, S2a peaks), but other respiratory viral infections detected as well as an assessment of generalised oral upper respiratory immune response (elevated total Ig light chain peak) and a measure of the viral immune response (elevated intensity of IgA heavy chain peak). The advantages of the method include; (1) ease of sampling, (2) speed of analysis, and much reduced cost of testing. These features reveal the diagnostic utility of MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry as a powerful and economically attractive global solution.

15.
Diagnostics ; 10(10):746, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-792355

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has stretched national testing capacities to breaking points in almost all countries of the world. The need to rapidly screen vast numbers of a country"s population in order to control the spread of the infection is paramount. However, the logistical requirement for reagent supply (and associated cost) of RT-PCR based testing (the current front-line test) have been hugely problematic. Mass spectrometry-based methods using swab and gargle samples have been reported with promise, but have not approached the task from a systematic analysis of the entire diagnostic process. Here, the pipeline from sample processing, the biological characteristics of the pathogen in human biofluid, the downstream bio- and physical-chemistry and the all-important data processing with clinical interpretation and reporting, are carefully compiled into a single high-throughput and reproducible rapid process. Utilizing MALDI-ToF mass spectrometric detection to viral envelope glycoproteins in a systems biology-multidisciplinary team approach, we have achieved a multifaceted clinical MALDI ToF MS screening test, primarily (but not limited to) SARS-CoV-2, with direct application to other future epidemics/pandemics that may arise. The clinical information generated not only includes SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus detection-(Spike protein fragments S1, S2b, S2a peaks), but other respiratory viral infections detected as well as an assessment of generalised oral upper respiratory immune response (elevated total Ig light chain peak) and a measure of the viral immune response (elevated intensity of IgA heavy chain peak). The advantages of the method include;(1) ease of sampling, (2) speed of analysis, and much reduced cost of testing. These features reveal the diagnostic utility of MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry as a powerful and economically attractive global solution

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