Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
mBio ; : e0095122, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854239

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection induces inflammatory response, cytokine storm, venous thromboembolism, coagulopathy, and multiple organ damage. Resting endothelial cells prevent coagulation, control blood flow, and inhibit inflammation. However, it remains unknown how SARS-CoV-2 induces strong molecular signals in distant cells for immunopathogenesis. In this study, we examined the consequence of human endothelial cells, microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), and liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1) to exosomes isolated from plasma of mild or severe COVID-19 patients. We observed a significant induction of NLRP3, caspase-1, and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression in endothelial cells following exposure to exosomes from severe COVID-19 patients compared with that from patients with mild disease or healthy donors. Activation of caspase-1 was noted in the endothelial cell culture medium following exposure to the COVID-19 exosomes. Furthermore, COVID-19 exosomes significantly induced mature IL-1ß secretion in both HMEC-1 and TMNK-1 endothelial cell culture medium. Thus, our results demonstrated for the first time that exosomes from COVID-19 plasma trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in endothelial cells of distant organs resulting in IL-1ß secretion and inflammatory response. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a global health problem. Although the vaccine controls infection, understanding the molecular mechanism of pathogenesis will help in developing future therapies. Furthermore, several investigators predicted the involvement of endothelial cell-related inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infection and using extracellular vesicles as a cargo to carry a drug or vaccine for combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the mechanism by which endothelial cells are inflamed remains unknown. Our present study highlights that exosomes from severe COVID-19 patients can enhance inflammasome activity in distant endothelial cells for augmentation of immunopathogenesis and opens an avenue for developing therapies.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327392

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection induces inflammatory response, cytokine storm, venous thromboembolism, coagulopathy, and multiple organ damage. Resting endothelial cells prevent coagulation, control blood flow and inhibit inflammation. However, it remains unknown how SARS-CoV-2 induces strong molecular signals in distant cells for immunopathogenesis. In this study, we examined the consequence of human endothelial cells (microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) and liver endothelial cells (TMNK-1)) to exosomes from plasma of severe COVID-19 patients. We observed a significant induction of NLRP3, caspase-1 and IL-1β mRNA expression in the endothelial cells following exposure to exosomes from plasma of COVID-19 patients as compared to that of healthy donors. Activation of caspase-1 was noted in the endothelial cell culture medium following exposure to the COVID-19 exosomes. Further, COVID-19 exosomes significantly induced mature IL-1β secretion in the endothelial cell culture medium. Thus, our results demonstrated for the first time that exosomes from COVID-19 plasma trigger NLRP3 inflammasome in endothelial cells of distant organs.

3.
J Virol ; 95(17): e0079421, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350003

ABSTRACT

Increased mortality in COVID-19 cases is often associated with microvascular complications. We have recently shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein promotes an inflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6)/IL-6R-induced trans signaling response and alarmin secretion. Virus-infected or spike-transfected human epithelial cells exhibited an increase in senescence, with a release of senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)-related inflammatory molecules. Introduction of the bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitor AZD5153 to senescent epithelial cells reversed this effect and reduced SASP-related inflammatory molecule release in TMNK-1 or EAhy926 (representative human endothelial cell lines), when cells were exposed to cell culture medium (CM) derived from A549 cells expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Cells also exhibited a senescence phenotype with enhanced p16, p21, and senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-Gal) expression and triggered SASP pathways. Inhibition of IL-6 trans signaling by tocilizumab and inhibition of inflammatory receptor signaling by the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor zanubrutinib, prior to exposure of CM to endothelial cells, inhibited p21 and p16 induction. We also observed an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in A549 spike-transfected and endothelial cells exposed to spike-transfected CM. ROS generation in endothelial cell lines was reduced after treatment with tocilizumab and zanubrutinib. Cellular senescence was associated with an increased level of the endothelial adhesion molecules vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which have in vitro leukocyte attachment potential. Inhibition of senescence or SASP function prevented VCAM-1/ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte attachment. Taken together, we identified that human endothelial cells exposed to cell culture supernatant derived from SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression displayed cellular senescence markers, leading to enhanced leukocyte adhesion. IMPORTANCE The present study was aimed at examining the underlying mechanism of extrapulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-associated pathogenesis, with the notion that infection of the pulmonary epithelium can lead to mediators that drive endothelial dysfunction. We utilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein expression in cultured human hepatocytes (Huh7.5) and pneumocytes (A549) to generate conditioned culture medium (CM). Endothelial cell lines (TMNK-1 or EAhy926) treated with CM exhibited an increase in cellular senescence markers by a paracrine mode and led to leukocyte adhesion. Overall, the link between these responses in endothelial cell senescence and a potential contribution to microvascular complication in productively SARS-CoV-2-infected humans is implicated. Furthermore, the use of inhibitors (BTK, IL-6, and BRD4) showed a reverse effect in the senescent cells. These results may support the selection of potential adjunct therapeutic modalities to impede SARS-CoV-2-associated pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cellular Senescence , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Leukocytes/metabolism , Paracrine Communication , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cell Adhesion , Cell Cycle Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring/pharmacology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Leukocytes/pathology , Leukocytes/virology , Piperazines/pharmacology , Pyrazoles , Pyridazines , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/antagonists & inhibitors , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143521

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause cytokine storm and may overshoot immunity in humans; however, it remains to be determined whether virus-induced soluble mediators from infected cells are carried by exosomes as vehicles to distant organs and cause tissue damage in COVID-19 patients. We took an unbiased proteomic approach for analyses of exosomes isolated from plasma of healthy volunteers and COVID-19 patients. Our results revealed that tenascin-C (TNC) and fibrinogen-ß (FGB) are highly abundant in exosomes from COVID-19 patients' plasma compared with that of healthy normal controls. Since TNC and FGB stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokines via the Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, we examined the status of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) expression upon exposure of hepatocytes to exosomes from COVID-19 patients and observed significant increase compared with that from healthy subjects. Together, our results demonstrate that TNC and FGB are transported through plasma exosomes and potentially trigger pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling in cells of distant organ.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Exosomes/chemistry , Exosomes/genetics , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Tenascin/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Chemokine CCL5/metabolism , Exosomes/metabolism , Exosomes/ultrastructure , Female , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Middle Aged , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps , Proteome/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1009128, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992722

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is suggested as one of the major pathological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection, although the mechanism for initiation of a hyper-inflammatory response, and multi-organ damage from viral infection is poorly understood. In this virus-cell interaction study, we observed that SARS-CoV-2 infection or viral spike protein expression alone inhibited angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor protein expression. The spike protein promoted an angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) mediated signaling cascade, induced the transcriptional regulatory molecules NF-κB and AP-1/c-Fos via MAPK activation, and increased IL-6 release. SARS-CoV-2 infected patient sera contained elevated levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R. Up-regulated AT1 receptor signaling also influenced the release of extracellular soluble IL-6R by the induction of the ADAM-17 protease. Use of the AT1 receptor antagonist, Candesartan cilexetil, resulted in down-regulation of IL-6/soluble IL-6R release in spike expressing cells. Phosphorylation of STAT3 at the Tyr705 residue plays an important role as a transcriptional inducer for SOCS3 and MCP-1 expression. Further study indicated that inhibition of STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation in SARS-CoV-2 infected and viral spike protein expressing epithelial cells did not induce SOCS3 and MCP-1 expression. Introduction of culture supernatant from SARS-CoV-2 spike expressing cells on a model human liver endothelial Cell line (TMNK-1), where transmembrane IL-6R is poorly expressed, resulted in the induction of STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation as well as MCP-1 expression. In conclusion, our results indicated that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in epithelial cells promotes IL-6 trans-signaling by activation of the AT1 axis to initiate coordination of a hyper-inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Receptors, Angiotensin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Transcriptional Activation
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL