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Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1280-1285, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526937


INTRODUCTION: There is strong evidence for the use of corticosteroid in the management of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still uncertainty about the timing of corticosteroids. We undertook a modified Delphi study to develop expert consensus statements on the early identification of a subset of patients from non-severe COVID-19 who may benefit from using corticosteroids. METHODS: A modified Delphi was conducted with two anonymous surveys between April 30, 2021, and May 3, 2021. An expert panel of 35 experts was selected and invited to participate through e-mail. The consensus was defined as >70% votes in multiple-choice questions (MCQ) on Likert-scale type statements, while strong consensus as >90% votes in MCQ or >50% votes for "very important" on Likert-scale questions in the final round. RESULTS: Twenty experts completed two rounds of the survey. There was strong consensus for the increased work of breathing (95%), a positive six-minute walk test (90%), thorax computed tomography severity score of >14/25 (85%), new-onset organ dysfunction (using clinical or biochemical criteria) (80%), and C-reactive protein >5 times the upper limit of normal (70%) as the criteria for patients' selection. The experts recommended using oral or intravenous (IV) low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days and monitoring of oxygen saturation, body temperature, clinical scoring system, blood sugar, and inflammatory markers for any "red-flag" signs. CONCLUSION: The experts recommended against indiscriminate use of corticosteroids in mild to moderate COVID-19 without the signs of clinical worsening. Oral or IV low-dose corticosteroids (the equivalent of 6 mg/day dexamethasone) for 5-10 days are recommended for patients with features of disease progression based on clinical, biochemical, or radiological criteria after 5 days from symptom onset under close monitoring. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: How to cite this article: Nasa P, Chaudhry D, Govil D, Daga MK, Jain R, Chhallani AA, et al. Expert Consensus Statements on the Use of Corticosteroids in Non-severe COVID-19. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1280-1285.

Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(11): 1106-1113, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116792


PURPOSE: The present study systematically searched important medical databases, assessed the quality of available pieces of evidence, and performed a meta-analysis to test the efficacy of different therapeutic options currently available for treating COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, CNKI, LILACS, Koreamed, WHO clinical trial registry, and medRxiv were searched since December 2019. Any observational or controlled study that tested the efficacy of any pharmacological intervention in COVID-19 patients either prospectively or retrospectively was included in the qualitative analysis. We assessed outcomes as dichotomous variables, i.e., a patient having a positive clinical outcome. Relative risks/risk ratios (RR) having a 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived. Studies conforming to inclusion criteria were pooled using the random-effect model. RESULTS: Nine trials on hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), six studies on antiviral, four studies on monoclonal antibodies, two on corticosteroids, two on convalescent plasma (CP), and one on interferon-α2b were included in the systematic review. Meta-analysis containing six scientific trials and analyzing 522 patients revealed that the relative risk of positive clinical outcomes with HCQ treatment was 1.042 (95% CI, 0.884 to 1.874) with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 12.6. A meta-analysis of two studies analyzing 285 patients showed that the relative risk of clinical resolution with lopinavir and ritonavir combination was 1.152 (95% CI 0.709 to 1.87). Out of various antiviral used, the only remdesivir showed a positive result in a case series. Monoclonal antibodies showed decreased C-reactive protein, decreased oxygen, and ventilator requirements. A corticosteroid may increase mortality with increased dose. Two small case series on CP showed some promising results. CONCLUSION: The study showed slightly favorable results with HCQ, monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, and CP in treating COVID-19 patients. Further research is warranted in establishing the efficacy of studied interventions. PROSPERO IDENTIFIER: CRD42020180979. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Choupoo NS, Das SK, Haldar R, Sarkar H, Tewari R, Ray S. Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of the Existing Repurposed Pharmacological Agents for Treating COVID-19: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review of Clinical Trials. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(11):1106-1113.