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Acad Radiol ; 28(11): 1530-1540, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377636


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Hyposmia/anosmia is common among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Various imaging modalities have been used to assess olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19. In this systematic review, we sought to categorize and summarize the imaging data in COVID-19-induced anosmia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible articles were included after a comprehensive review using online databases including Google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, Web of science and Elsevier. Duplicate results, conference abstracts, reviews, and studies in languages other than English were excluded. RESULTS: In total, 305 patients undergoing MRI/functional MRI (177), CT of paranasal sinuses (129), and PET/CT or PET/MRI scans (14) were included. Out of a total of 218 findings reported on MRI, 80 were reported on early (≤ 1 month) and 85 on late (>1 month) imaging in relation to the onset of anosmia. Overall, OB morphology and T2-weighted or FLAIR signal intensity were normal in 68/218 (31.2%), while partial or complete opacification of OC was observed in 60/218 (27.5%). T2 hyperintensity in OB was detected in 11/80 (13.75%) and 18/85 (21.17%) on early and late imaging, respectively. Moreover, OB atrophy was reported in 1/80 (1.25%) on early and in 9/85 (10.58%) on late imaging. Last, among a total of 129 CT scans included, paranasal sinuses were evalualted in 88 (68.21%), which were reported as normal in most cases (77/88, [87.5%]). CONCLUSION: In this systematic review, normal morphology and T2/FLAIR signal intensity in OB and OC obstruction were the most common findings in COVID-19-induced anosmia, while paranasal sinuses were normal in most cases. OC obstruction is the likely mechanism for olfactory dysfunction in COVID-19. Abnormalities in OB signal intensity and OB atrophy suggest that central mechanisms may also play a role in late stage in COVID-19-induced anosmia.

COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Olfaction Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , SARS-CoV-2
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813363


The present study aimed at evaluating the prevalence of general and sinonasal symptoms in patients with olfactory symptoms and mild coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and determining the patterns in emergence and resolution of olfactory/gustatory symptoms relative to general and sinonassal symptoms. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the outpatient otorhinolaryngology clinic at a COVID-19-designated referral Hospital. We included consecutive patients with new-onset olfactory dysfunction and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of COVID-19. We asked the patients to fill in a questionnaire about general and sinonasal symptoms in association with anosmia, hyposmia or hypogeusia, and recorded the time course of the olfactory/gustatory symptoms during 2-weeks of follow-up. 76 patients with average age of 38.5 ± 10.6 years were included. Majority of participants (94.7%) had general or sinonasal symptom. There was anosmia in 60.5% and hyposmia in 39.5%, with sudden onset of olfactory symptoms reported in 63.2% of patients. During the follow-up, 30.3% of patients completely and 44.7% partially recovered from anosmia/hyposmia. Regardless of whether the general or olfactory symptoms appeared initially, the general symptoms resolved first while a degree of olfactory dysfunction persisted during the follow-up. Our study showed that hyposmia and anosmia in mild COVID-19 are frequently associated with general and sinonasal symptoms and tend to persist longer than the general and sinonasal symptoms during the course of the disease.