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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792368

ABSTRACT

Background. Limited evidence exists on the balance between the benefits and harms of the COVID-19 vaccines. The aim of this study is to compare the benefits and safety of mRNA-based (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) and adenovirus-vectored (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccines in subpopulations defined by age and sex. Methods. All citizens who are newly vaccinated from 27 December 2020 to 3 May 2021 are matched to unvaccinated controls according to age, sex, and vaccination date. Study outcomes include the events that are expected to be avoided by vaccination (i.e., hospitalization and death from COVID-19) and those that might be increased after vaccine inoculation (i.e., venous thromboembolism). The incidence rate ratios (IRR) of vaccinated and unvaccinated citizens are separately estimated within strata of sex, age category and vaccine type. When suitable, number needed to treat (NNT) and number needed to harm (NNH) are calculated to evaluate the balance between the benefits and harm of vaccines within each sex and age category. Results. In total, 2,351,883 citizens are included because they received at least one dose of vaccine (755,557 Oxford-AstraZeneca and 1,596,326 Pfizer/Moderna). A reduced incidence of COVID-19-related outcomes is observed with a lowered incidence rate ranging from 55% to 89% and NNT values ranging from 296 to 3977. Evidence of an augmented incidence of harm-related outcomes is observed only for women aged <50 years within 28 days after Oxford-AstraZeneca (being the corresponding adjusted IRR of 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6, and NNH value of 23,207, 95% CI 10,274-89,707). Conclusions. A favourable balance between benefits and harms is observed in the current study, even among younger women who received Oxford-AstraZeneca.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320241

ABSTRACT

Objective: to investigate both muscular manifestations and CK levels of a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine whether hyperckemia is associated with morbidity and mortality. Methods: Data of 615 patients discharged from ASST Ovest Milanese (Milan, Lombardy, Italy) with final diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively extracted from electronical medical records from 21 February to 1 May 2020. Patients were descriptively analyzed with respect to the following variables: sex, age, muscular manifestations (including myalgia/arthralgia and fatigue), respiratory involvement (SARS pneumonia or respiratory failure) and history of falls. Association between patients’ characteristics and CK levels was investigated. In addition, the proportion of patients who died following access to the ER was calculated. Finally, the effect of CK levels and other patients’ features on mortality was estimated using a logistic regression model. Results: 176 (28.6%) patients had raised serum CK levels. 88 (14.3%) had muscular manifestations, of which 81 (13.2%) complained fatigue and 17 (2.8%) had myalgia and/or arthralgia. CK levels were significantly associated with respiratory involvement and fatal outcome. Conclusions: Our study provides preliminary evidence that hyperckemia is a predictor of respiratory involvement and fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 infection. For patients with muscle damage symptoms, screening for COVID-19 infection is recommended together with the dosage of CK level.

3.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 52, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has led to the emergence of several new variants, and few data are available on the impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 variants. We aimed to assess the association between natural (previous infection) and induced (partial or complete vaccination) exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the onset of new infection supported by the delta variant, and of comparing it with that supported by alpha. METHODS: We performed a test-negative case-control study, by linking population-based registries of confirmed diagnoses of infection with SARS-CoV-2, vaccinations against Covid-19 and healthcare utilization databases of the Italian Lombardy Region. Four hundred ninety-six persons who between 27 December 2020 and 16 July 2021 had an infection by the delta variant were 1:1 matched with citizens affected by alphavariant and 1:10 matched with persons who had a negative molecular test, according to gender, age and date of molecular ascertainment. We used a conditional logistic regression for estimating relative risk reduction of either variants associated with natural and/or induced immunization and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Previous infection was associated with 91% (95% CI 85% to 95%) reduced relative risk of reinfection, without evidence of significant differences between delta and alpha cases (p=0.547). Significant lower vaccinal protection against delta than alpha variant infection was observed with reduced relative risk associated with partial vaccination respectively of 29% (7% to 45%), and 62% (48% to 71%) (p=0.001), and with complete vaccination respectively of 75% (66% to 82%) and 90% (85% to 94%) (p=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Lower protection towards infections caused by the delta variant with respect to alpha variant was noticed, even after the completion of the vaccination cycle. This finding would support efforts to maximize both vaccine uptake with two doses and fulfilment with individual protection measures, especially as the delta variant is rampant worldwide presently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Vaccination
4.
Neurol Sci ; 43(3): 1513-1520, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606580

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess whether the role of neurologists in the emergency department changed during the coronavirus (COVID)-19 pandemic. METHODS: Data from an Italian national survey investigating the role of neurologists in the emergency room conducted in December 2020 were compared with those of the same survey of the previous year. These surveys involved a questionnaire being completed filled in for patients who received a neurological consultation following a visit to the emergency room. Information gathered included demographic characteristics, triage level according to both the emergency physician and neurologist, reason for the consultation, neurological evaluation, and discharge mode. RESULTS: In both years, approximately half of the patients were women, and the median age was 61 years. More patients in 2020 arrived by ambulance and had a greater need for assistance based on triage level than in 2019. During 2020, the proportion of consultancy requests judged by the neurologist was higher than that in 2019 (77% vs. 73%). Moreover, in 2020, fewer patients required consultation for headache, muscle pain, fever, and neurological signs, whereas coma was more prevalent. The diagnosis of ischemic stroke was the most prevalent in both years, followed by transient ischemic attack. In 2020, the status epilepticus increased and discopathy decreased. CONCLUSION: This study showed the significant role played by neurologists in emergency activities, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, and highlighted the differences in patients admitted between the year of the epidemic and the year previous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Neurologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e053281, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526504

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop a population-based risk stratification model (COVID-19 Vulnerability Score) for predicting severe/fatal clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the multiple source information provided by the healthcare utilisation databases of the Italian National Health Service. DESIGN: Retrospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Population-based study using the healthcare utilisation database from five Italian regions. PARTICIPANTS: Beneficiaries of the National Health Service, aged 18-79 years, who had the residentship in the five participating regions. Residents in a nursing home were not included. The model was built from the 7 655 502 residents of Lombardy region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The score included gender, age and 29 conditions/diseases selected from a list of 61 conditions which independently predicted the primary outcome, that is, severe (intensive care unit admission) or fatal manifestation of COVID-19 experienced during the first epidemic wave (until June 2020). The score performance was validated by applying the model to several validation sets, that is, Lombardy population (second epidemic wave), and the other four Italian regions (entire 2020) for a total of about 15.4 million individuals and 7031 outcomes. Predictive performance was assessed by discrimination (areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and calibration (plot of observed vs predicted outcomes). RESULTS: We observed a clear positive trend towards increasing outcome incidence as the score increased. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the COVID-19 Vulnerability Score ranged from 0.85 to 0.88, which compared favourably with the areas of generic scores such as the Charlson Comorbidity Score (0.60). A remarkable performance of the score on the calibration of observed and predicted outcome probability was also observed. CONCLUSIONS: A score based on data used for public health management accurately predicted the occurrence of severe/fatal manifestations of COVID-19. Use of this score may help health decision-makers to more accurately identify high-risk citizens who need early preventive or treatment interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
6.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 142: 45-53, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482687

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Methodological challenges for investigating the changes in healthcare utilization during COVID-19 pandemic must be considered for obtaining unbiased estimates. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A population-based study in the Lombardy region (Italy) measured the association between the level of epidemic restrictions (increasing exposure during pre-epidemic, post-lockdown, and lockdown periods) and the recommended healthcare (outcome) for patients with schizophrenia, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, breast cancer, and pregnancy women. Two designs are applied: the self-controlled case series (SCCS) and the usual cohort design. Adjustments for between-patients unmeasured confounders and seasonality of medical services delivering were performed. RESULTS: Compared with pre-epidemic, reductions in delivering recommended healthcare during lockdown up to 73% (95% confidence interval: 63%-80%) for timeliness of breast cancer surgery, and up to 20% (16%-23%) for appropriated gynecologic visit during pregnancy were obtained from SCCS and cohort design, respectively. Healthcare provision came back to pre-epidemic levels during the post-lockdown, with the exception of schizophrenic patients for whom the SCCS showed a reduction in continuity of care of 11% (11%-12%). CONCLUSION: Strategies for investigating the changes in healthcare utilization during pandemic must be implemented. Recommendations for taking into account sources of systematic uncertainty are discussed and illustrated by using motivating examples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/trends , COVID-19/economics , Chronic Disease/economics , Cohort Studies , Cost of Illness , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Quarantine
8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 669786, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311381

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be a historic challenge for healthcare systems, particularly with regard to cancer patients. So far, very limited data have been presented on the impact on integrated care pathways (ICPs). METHODS: We reviewed the ICPs of lung cancer patients who accessed the Veneto Institute of Oncology (IOV)/University Hospital of Padua (Center 1) and the University Hospital of Verona (Center 2) before and after the COVID-19 pandemic, through sixteen indicators chosen by the members of a multidisciplinary team (MDT). RESULTS: Two window periods (March and April 2019 and 2020) were chosen for comparison. Endoscopic diagnostic procedures and major resections for early stage NSCLC patients increased at Center 1, where a priority pathway with dedicated personnel was established for cancer patients. A slight decrease was observed at Center 2 which became part of the COVID unit. Personnel shortage and different processing methods of tumor samples determined a slightly longer time for diagnostic pathway completion at both Centers. Personnel protection strategies led to a MDT reshape on a web basis and to a significant selection of cases to be discussed in both Centers. The optimization of patient access to healthcare units reduced first outpatient oncological visits, patient enrollment in clinical trials, and end-of-life cancer systemic treatments; finally, a higher proportion of hypofractionation was delivered as a radiotherapy approach for early stage and locally advanced NSCLC. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the experience of the two Centers, we identified the key steps in ICP that were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic so as to proactively put in place a robust service provision of thoracic oncology.

9.
J Hypertens ; 39(4): 604-606, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284908

Subject(s)
Bias , Humans
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278196

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate if reduced muscle mass, assessed with Computed Tomography (CT), is a predictor of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this Institution Review Board approved study, we retrospectively evaluated COVID-19 patients treated in our tertiary center from March to November 2020 who underwent an unenhanced chest CT scan within three weeks from hospitalization.We recorded the mean Hounsfield Unit (Hu) value of the right paravertebral muscle at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, the hospitalization unit (ICU and COVID-19 wards), clinical symptoms, Barthel Index, and laboratory findings.Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess if muscle loss (Hu<30) is a predictor of ICU admission and outcome.Fisher's exact and Student's tests were applied to evaluate if differences between patients with and without muscle loss occurred (p<0.05). RESULTS: One-hundred-fifty patients matched the inclusion criteria (46 females; mean age±SD 61.3±15 years-old), 36 treated in ICU. Patients in ICU showed significantly lower Hu values (29±24 vs 39.4±12, p = 0.001). Muscle loss was a predictor of ICU admission (p = 0.004).Patients with muscle loss were significantly older (73.4±10 vs 56.4±14 years), had lower Barthel Index scores (54.4±33 vs 85.1±26), red blood-cell count (3.9±1 vs 4.6±1×1012L-1), and Hb levels (11.5±2 vs 13.2±2g/l) as well as higher white blood-cell count (9.4±7 vs 7.2±4×109L-1), C-reactive protein (71.5±71 vs 44±48U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase levels (335±163 vs 265.8±116U/L) (p<0.05, each). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle loss seems to be a predictor of ICU hospitalization in COVID-19 patients and radiologists reporting chest CT at admission should note this finding in their reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Muscles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscles/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
11.
Acta Myol ; 40(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate both muscular manifestations and CK levels in a large cohort of patients with COVID-19 infection and to determine whether hyperckemia is associated with morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Data of 615 patients discharged from ASST Ovest Milanese (Milan, Lombardy, Italy) with final diagnosis of COVID-19 infection were retrospectively extracted from electronical medical records from 21 February to 1 May 2020. Patients were descriptively analyzed with respect to the following variables: sex, age, muscular manifestations (myalgia and/or arthralgia), fatigue, respiratory involvement (SARS pneumonia or respiratory failure) and history of falls. Association between patients' characteristics and CK levels was investigated. In addition, the proportion of patients who died following access to the ER was calculated. Finally, the effect of CK levels and other patients' features on mortality was estimated using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: 176 (28.6%) patients had raised serum CK levels. CK levels were significantly associated with history of falls, male gender, SARS pneumonia, respiratory failure and in-hospital death. No correlation was found between hyperckemia and muscular manifestations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides preliminary evidence that hyperckemia is associated with respiratory failure and fatal outcome in patients with COVID-19 infection.In these patients, among other testing, CK dosage is recommended.


Subject(s)
Arthralgia/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Creatine Kinase/blood , Hyperkalemia/blood , Hyperkalemia/mortality , Myalgia/blood , Aged , Arthralgia/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Hypertens ; 39(5): 856-860, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Several online sources provide up-to-date open-access data on numbers, rates and proportions of COVID-19 deaths. Our article aims of comparing and interpreting between-country trends of mortality rate, case-fatality and all-cause excess mortality. METHODS: We used data from open databases (Our World in Data mostly) for comparing mortality of eleven western countries (Austria, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, UK, USA). Between-country trends in mortality rate and case-fatality (both including deaths for COVID-19 as numerator and therefore labelled as COVID-19 mortality metrics) and all-cause excess mortality (i.e. observed deaths during the epidemic compared with those expected based on mortality in the same periods of previous years) were compared. RESULTS: Although Belgium ranks first in mortality from COVID-19 (possibly due to the broadest criterion for attributing a death to COVID-19), it does not rank first for all-cause excess mortality. Conversely, compared with Belgium, the UK, Italy and Spain have reported lower COVID-19 mortality (possibly due to the narrower definitions for a COVID-19 death) but higher all-cause excess mortality. Germany and Austria are the unique countries for which COVID-19 mortality, case-fatality and all-cause excess mortality consistently exhibited the lowest rates. CONCLUSION: Between-country heterogeneity of COVID-19 mortality metrics could be largely explained by differences of criteria for attributing a death to COVID-19; in age/comorbidity structures; in policies for identifying asymptomatic people affected from SARS-CoV-2 infection. All-cause excess mortality is recommended as a more reliable metric for comparing countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Models, Statistical , Mortality/trends
13.
J Pathol ; 254(2): 173-184, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098912

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumopathy is characterized by a complex clinical picture and heterogeneous pathological lesions, both involving alveolar and vascular components. The severity and distribution of morphological lesions associated with SARS-CoV-2 and how they relate to clinical, laboratory, and radiological data have not yet been studied systematically. The main goals of the present study were to objectively identify pathological phenotypes and factors that, in addition to SARS-CoV-2, may influence their occurrence. Lungs from 26 patients who died from SARS-CoV-2 acute respiratory failure were comprehensively analysed. Robust machine learning techniques were implemented to obtain a global pathological score to distinguish phenotypes with prevalent vascular or alveolar injury. The score was then analysed to assess its possible correlation with clinical, laboratory, radiological, and tissue viral data. Furthermore, an exploratory random forest algorithm was developed to identify the most discriminative clinical characteristics at hospital admission that might predict pathological phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2. Vascular injury phenotype was observed in most cases being consistently present as pure form or in combination with alveolar injury. Phenotypes with more severe alveolar injury showed significantly more frequent tracheal intubation; longer invasive mechanical ventilation, illness duration, intensive care unit or hospital ward stay; and lower tissue viral quantity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in this phenotype, superimposed infections, tumours, and aspiration pneumonia were also more frequent (p < 0.001). Random forest algorithm identified some clinical features at admission (body mass index, white blood cells, D-dimer, lymphocyte and platelet counts, fever, respiratory rate, and PaCO2 ) to stratify patients into different clinical clusters and potential pathological phenotypes (a web-app for score assessment has also been developed; https://r-ubesp.dctv.unipd.it/shiny/AVI-Score/). In SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, alveolar injury is often associated with other factors in addition to viral infection. Identifying phenotypical patterns at admission may enable a better stratification of patients, ultimately favouring the most appropriate management. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Machine Learning , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vascular System Injuries/etiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Vascular System Injuries/diagnosis , Vascular System Injuries/virology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0237202, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly worldwide increasing exponentially in Italy. To date, there is lack of studies describing clinical characteristics of the people at high risk of infection. Hence, we aimed (i) to identify clinical predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, (ii) to develop and validate a score predicting SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, and (iii) to compare it with unspecific scores. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study using administrative health-related database was carried out in Southern Italy (Campania region) among beneficiaries of Regional Health Service aged over than 30 years. For each person with SARS-CoV-2 confirmed infection (case), up to five controls were randomly matched for gender, age and municipality of residence. Odds ratios and 90% confidence intervals for associations between candidate predictors and risk of infection were estimated by means of conditional logistic regression. SARS-CoV-2 Infection Score (SIS) was developed by generating a total aggregate score obtained from assignment of a weight at each selected covariate using coefficients estimated from the model. Finally, the score was categorized by assigning increasing values from 1 to 4. Discriminant power was used to compare SIS performance with that of other comorbidity scores. RESULTS: Subjects suffering from diabetes, anaemias, Parkinson's disease, mental disorders, cardiovascular and inflammatory bowel and kidney diseases showed increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Similar estimates were recorded for men and women and younger and older than 65 years. Fifteen conditions significantly contributed to the SIS. As SIS value increases, risk progressively increases, being odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection among people with the highest SIS value (SIS = 4) 1.74 times higher than those unaffected by any SIS contributing conditions (SIS = 1). CONCLUSION: Conditions and diseases making people more vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified by the current study. Our results support decision-makers in identifying high-risk people and adopting of preventive measures to minimize the spread of further epidemic waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
15.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate a composed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest radiography score (CARE) based on the extension of ground-glass opacity (GG) and consolidations (Co), separately assessed, and to investigate its prognostic performance. METHODS: COVID-19-positive patients referring to our tertiary centre during the first month of the outbreak in our area and with a known outcome were retrospectively evaluated. Each lung was subdivided into three areas and a three-grade score assessing the extension of GG and Co was used. The CARE was derived from the sum of the subscores. A mixed-model ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used to evaluate whether differences related to the referring unit (emergency room, COVID-19 wards and intensive care unit (ICU)) occurred. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of CARE, patients' age and sex on the outcome. To evaluate the prognostic performance of CARE, receiver operating characteristic curves were computed for the entire stay and at admission only. RESULTS: A total of 1203 chest radiographs of 175 patients (120 males; mean age 67.81±15.5 years old) were examined. On average, each patient underwent 6.8±10.3 radiographs. Patients in ICU as well as deceased patients showed higher CARE scores (p<0.05, each). Age, Co and CARE significantly influenced the outcome (p<0.05 each). The CARE demonstrated good accuracy (area under the curve (AUC)=0.736) using longitudinal data as well as at admission only (AUC=0.740). A CARE score of 17.5 during hospitalisation showed 75% sensitivity and 69.9% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The CARE was demonstrated to be a reliable tool to assess the severity of pulmonary involvement at chest radiography with a good prognostic performance.

16.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 31(6): 895-899, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-889564

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made us aware of the weaknesses and often the inadequacies of our current technologies and practices and has presented us with a huge challenge: to reorganize the way we work and sometimes even think, in order to ensure the safety of our patients. The Italian Society of Thoracic Surgery has launched various initiatives in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, aimed at facilitating the exchange of information, strategies and personal experiences between institutions. This article presents the results of a survey amongst all Italian thoracic surgery units accredited to SICT, with the aim of providing a glimpse of the current working conditions in these units, and an understanding of the impact of COVID-19 on their daily activities and patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Neoplasms/surgery , Pandemics , Societies, Medical , Thoracic Surgery/organization & administration , Thoracic Surgical Procedures/methods , Comorbidity , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Am J Transplant ; 20(10): 2933-2937, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-843550

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared pandemic since March 2020. In Europe, Italy was the first nation affected by this infection. We report anamnestic data, clinical features, and therapeutic management of 2 lung transplant recipients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Both patients were in good clinical condition before the infection and were receiving immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids. Whereas mycophenolate mofetil was withdrawn in both cases, CNI were suspended only in the second patient. The first patient always maintained excellent oxygen saturation throughout hospitalization with no need for additional oxygen therapy. He was discharged with a satisfactory pulmonary function and a complete resolution of radiological and clinical findings. However, at discharge SARS-CoV-2 RNA could still be detected in the nasopharyngeal swab and in the stools. The second patient required mechanical ventilation, had a progressive deterioration of his clinical conditions, and had a fatal outcome. Further insight into SARS-CoV-2 infection is eagerly awaited to improve the outcome of transplant recipients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Transplant Recipients , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cystic Fibrosis/surgery , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Postoperative Period , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/surgery , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(7):e036418-e036418, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Poor worldwide rate of blood pressure control is largely due to poor adherence to antihypertensive (AHT) drug treatment. The question of whether sex affects adherence has long been debated but conflicting findings have been reported on this issue. Our objective was to evaluate sex differences in the adherence to AHT therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Studies were identified through a systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Google Scholar (through January 2020) and manual handsearching of relevant articles. Observational studies reporting adherence to AHT drugs measured by self-report or pharmacy refill prescription-based methods among men and women were included. Summarised estimates of ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects model and meta-regression models. RESULTS: From 12 849 potentially relevant publications, 82 studies (15 517 457 men and 18 537 599 women) were included. No significant between-sex differences in adherence to AHT were observed, whether all study-specific estimates were summarised (ORs 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.09, p=0.07), nor estimates were pooled according to the method for measuring adherence. Among patients aged 65 years or older, lower self-reported adherence was observed in women (ORs 0.84, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.97, p=0.02), while the main result remained unchanged according to other subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Definitive evidence of sex differences in adherence to AHT therapy cannot be drawn. Our little knowledge about factors affecting adherence, in particular of sex effect among elderly, urgently requires high-quality studies investigating these issues.

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