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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia. METHODS: We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children's of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing. RESULTS: A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care. CONCLUSIONS: Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children's of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

2.
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine ; 146(8):921-923, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1989893

ABSTRACT

The authors correctly stated that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) performed testing for SARS-CoV-2 and found no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in autopsy tissues from the decedents. Molecular analysis included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays on nucleic acid extracted from FFPE heart tissue, including SARS-CoV-2 and enterovirus reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays2,3 and conventional PCR for parvovirus B19. Clostridium septicum produces multiple toxins that cause necrosis of striated muscle cells9,11 and inhibit influx of neutrophils to infected tissues;indeed, paucity of neutrophilic infiltrates in tissues infected with C septicum is considered a hallmark of this disease.9,12 Clostridium septicum is not considered normal flora of the human intestinal tract,13,14 but rather an opportunistic invader of immunologically compromised hosts, particularly persons with colonic adenocarcinoma, leukemia, diabetes, bowel ischemia, or cyclic, congenital, or acquired neutropenia.7,8 Spontaneous infections have been described for a few pediatric patients with no recognized risk factor and for whom microscopic breaches in the mucosa of the large intestine were considered the likely portal of entry.8,15 No representative samples of the small or large intestine were provided to the IDPB for evaluation;however, histologic evidence of bacterial invasion of the external surfaces of the adrenals, kidneys, liver, and spleen support an intraabdominal source of infection. The findings and conclusions in this letter are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2022-0084-LE In Reply.-We thank the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch laboratory for performing these tests and for sharing the full extent of its workup.

5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 852-858, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912315

ABSTRACT

On April 21, 2022, CDC issued a health advisory† encouraging U.S. clinicians to report all patients aged <10 years with hepatitis of unknown etiology to public health authorities, after identification of similar cases in both the United States (1) and Europe.§ A high proportion of initially reported patients had adenovirus detected in whole blood specimens, thus the health advisory encouraged clinicians to consider requesting adenovirus testing, preferentially on whole blood specimens. For patients meeting the criteria in the health advisory (patients under investigation [PUIs]), jurisdictional public health authorities abstracted medical charts and interviewed patient caregivers. As of June 15, 2022, a total of 296 PUIs with hepatitis onset on or after October 1, 2021, were reported from 42 U.S. jurisdictions. The median age of PUIs was 2 years, 2 months. Most PUIs were hospitalized (89.9%); 18 (6.1%) required a liver transplant, and 11 (3.7%) died. Adenovirus was detected in a respiratory, blood, or stool specimen of 100 (44.6%) of 224 patients.¶ Current or past infection with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) was reported in 10 of 98 (10.2%) and 32 of 123 (26.0%) patients, respectively. No common exposures (e.g., travel, food, or toxicants) were identified. This nationwide investigation is ongoing. Further clinical data are needed to understand the cause of hepatitis in these patients and to assess the potential association with adenovirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel , United States/epidemiology
6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 510-517, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686417

ABSTRACT

Severe coronavirus disease in neonates is rare. We analyzed clinical, laboratory, and autopsy findings from a neonate in the United States who was delivered at 25 weeks of gestation and died 4 days after birth; the mother had asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and preeclampsia. We observed severe diffuse alveolar damage and localized SARS-CoV-2 by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy of the lungs of the neonate. We localized SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal heart and liver vascular endothelium by using in situ hybridization and detected SARS-CoV-2 RNA in neonatal and placental tissues by using reverse transcription PCR. Subgenomic reverse transcription PCR suggested viral replication in lung/airway, heart, and liver. These findings indicate that in utero SARS-CoV-2 transmission contributed to this neonatal death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Autopsy , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Lung , Placenta , Pregnancy , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
JAMA ; 327(4): 331-340, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649976

ABSTRACT

Importance: Vaccination against COVID-19 provides clear public health benefits, but vaccination also carries potential risks. The risks and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination are unclear. Objective: To describe reports of myocarditis and the reporting rates after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: Descriptive study of reports of myocarditis to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) that occurred after mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine administration between December 2020 and August 2021 in 192 405 448 individuals older than 12 years of age in the US; data were processed by VAERS as of September 30, 2021. Exposures: Vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Main Outcomes and Measures: Reports of myocarditis to VAERS were adjudicated and summarized for all age groups. Crude reporting rates were calculated across age and sex strata. Expected rates of myocarditis by age and sex were calculated using 2017-2019 claims data. For persons younger than 30 years of age, medical record reviews and clinician interviews were conducted to describe clinical presentation, diagnostic test results, treatment, and early outcomes. Results: Among 192 405 448 persons receiving a total of 354 100 845 mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines during the study period, there were 1991 reports of myocarditis to VAERS and 1626 of these reports met the case definition of myocarditis. Of those with myocarditis, the median age was 21 years (IQR, 16-31 years) and the median time to symptom onset was 2 days (IQR, 1-3 days). Males comprised 82% of the myocarditis cases for whom sex was reported. The crude reporting rates for cases of myocarditis within 7 days after COVID-19 vaccination exceeded the expected rates of myocarditis across multiple age and sex strata. The rates of myocarditis were highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males aged 12 to 15 years (70.7 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), in adolescent males aged 16 to 17 years (105.9 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine), and in young men aged 18 to 24 years (52.4 and 56.3 per million doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and the mRNA-1273 vaccine, respectively). There were 826 cases of myocarditis among those younger than 30 years of age who had detailed clinical information available; of these cases, 792 of 809 (98%) had elevated troponin levels, 569 of 794 (72%) had abnormal electrocardiogram results, and 223 of 312 (72%) had abnormal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging results. Approximately 96% of persons (784/813) were hospitalized and 87% (577/661) of these had resolution of presenting symptoms by hospital discharge. The most common treatment was nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (589/676; 87%). Conclusions and Relevance: Based on passive surveillance reporting in the US, the risk of myocarditis after receiving mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines was increased across multiple age and sex strata and was highest after the second vaccination dose in adolescent males and young men. This risk should be considered in the context of the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/adverse effects , Male , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2914-2918, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504024

ABSTRACT

We describe a fatal case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in an adult with onset 22 days after a second dose of mRNA coronavirus disease vaccine. Serologic and clinical findings indicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred before vaccination. The immunopathology of this syndrome, regardless of vaccination status, remains poorly understood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Vaccination
9.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2914-2918, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444024

ABSTRACT

We describe a fatal case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in an adult with onset 22 days after a second dose of mRNA coronavirus disease vaccine. Serologic and clinical findings indicated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection occurred before vaccination. The immunopathology of this syndrome, regardless of vaccination status, remains poorly understood.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome , Vaccination
10.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357451

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , United States/epidemiology
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1517-1519, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127972

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shares common clinicopathologic features with other severe pulmonary illnesses. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients in Arizona, USA, suspected of dying from infection with SARS-CoV-2. Differential diagnoses and possible co-infections should be considered for cases of respiratory distress during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Arizona , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Infect Dis ; 223(5): 752-764, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to produce substantial morbidity and mortality. To understand the reasons for the wide-spectrum complications and severe outcomes of COVID-19, we aimed to identify cellular targets of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tropism and replication in various tissues. METHODS: We evaluated RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy tissues from 64 case patients (age range, 1 month to 84 years; 21 COVID-19 confirmed, 43 suspected COVID-19) by SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and viral characterization, we performed in situ hybridization (ISH), subgenomic RNA RT-PCR, and whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR in 32 case patients (21 COVID-19 confirmed, 11 suspected). ISH was positive in 20 and subgenomic RNA RT-PCR was positive in 17 of 32 RT-PCR-positive case patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was localized by ISH in hyaline membranes, pneumocytes, and macrophages of lungs; epithelial cells of airways; and endothelial cells and vessel walls of brain stem, leptomeninges, lung, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas. The D614G variant was detected in 9 RT-PCR-positive case patients. CONCLUSIONS: We identified cellular targets of SARS-CoV-2 tropism and replication in the lungs and airways and demonstrated its direct infection in vascular endothelium. This work provides important insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and mechanisms of severe outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization , Infant , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Tropism , Whole Genome Sequencing , Young Adult
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1364-1368, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792334

ABSTRACT

As of September 21, 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had resulted in 6,786,352 cases and 199,024 deaths in the United States.* Health care personnel (HCP) are essential workers at risk for exposure to patients or infectious materials (1). The impact of COVID-19 on U.S. HCP was first described using national case surveillance data in April 2020 (2). Since then, the number of reported HCP with COVID-19 has increased tenfold. This update describes demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, hospitalizations, and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, stratified by vital status, among 100,570 HCP with COVID-19 reported to CDC during February 12-July 16, 2020. HCP occupation type and job setting are newly reported. HCP status was available for 571,708 (22%) of 2,633,585 cases reported to CDC. Most HCP with COVID-19 were female (79%), aged 16-44 years (57%), not hospitalized (92%), and lacked all 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form† (56%). Of HCP with COVID-19, 641 died. Compared with nonfatal COVID-19 HCP cases, a higher percentage of fatal cases occurred in males (38% versus 22%), persons aged ≥65 years (44% versus 4%), non-Hispanic Asians (Asians) (20% versus 9%), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) (32% versus 25%), and persons with any of the 10 underlying medical conditions specified on the case report form (92% versus 41%). From a subset of jurisdictions reporting occupation type or job setting for HCP with COVID-19, nurses were the most frequently identified single occupation type (30%), and nursing and residential care facilities were the most common job setting (67%). Ensuring access to personal protective equipment (PPE) and training, and practices such as universal use of face masks at work, wearing masks in the community, and observing social distancing remain critical strategies to protect HCP and those they serve.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/mortality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(9): 2005-2015, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326269

ABSTRACT

An ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Characterization of the histopathology and cellular localization of SARS-CoV-2 in the tissues of patients with fatal COVID-19 is critical to further understand its pathogenesis and transmission and for public health prevention measures. We report clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic findings in tissues from 8 fatal laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States. All cases except 1 were in residents of long-term care facilities. In these patients, SARS-CoV-2 infected epithelium of the upper and lower airways with diffuse alveolar damage as the predominant pulmonary pathology. SARS-CoV-2 was detectable by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy in conducting airways, pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages, and a hilar lymph node but was not identified in other extrapulmonary tissues. Respiratory viral co-infections were identified in 3 cases; 3 cases had evidence of bacterial co-infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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