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J Infect Public Health ; 15(12): 1546-1550, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120078


OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of Zafirlukast as a SARS-CoV-2 Helicase Inhibitor in adult patients with moderate COVID-19 symptoms (hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who were not admitted to an intensive care unit). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with adult patients with moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. The sample was randomized to Zafirlukast 10 mg BD for 10 days plus standard care vs placebo plus standard care. The primary outcome was the complete resolution of all symptoms. The secondary outcomes were the duration of oxygen therapy, and length of hospital stay (LOS). RESULTS: In total, 40 patients were randomized (20 to Zafirlukast and 20 to the control). The time to the resolution of clinical symptoms in both groups was not significantly different. Regarding the fever, 0.3 days [95 % CI, - 1.19, 0.69], p = 0.76, for shortness of breath, the difference was 0.4 days [95 % CI, - 2.67, 3.46], p = 0.68, for cough the difference was 0.2 days [95 % CI, - 1.45, 1.95], p = 0.98, for sputum the difference was 0.5 days [95 % CI, - 0.75, 1.85], p = 0.09, for vomiting the difference was 0.1 days [95 % CI, - 0.50, 0.30], p = 0.93, for fatigue the difference was 0.3 days [95 % CI, - 4.32, 3.62], p = 0.64. The LOS per day for the two groups was not significantly different, 1.1 days [95 % CI,- 2.03, 4.28], p = 0.94, nor was the duration of oxygen therapy per days, 1.3 days [95 % CI, - 1.79, 4.49], p = 0.49. Regarding the 7 category ordinary scale, there was no significant difference between the two groups at day 7 (p-value = 0.62), day 14 (p-value = 0.60) and day 28 (p-value = 0.48). CONCLUSION: Among adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia, the treatment with Zafirlukast, compared to placebo, did not significantly improve symptoms resolution.

SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , Pilot Projects , Oxygen
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research ; 56(4):1226-1231, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056097


Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of anemia among COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia and evaluate their hematological parameters. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted between February 2021 to March 2021, data collection covered the period between September 2020 to March 2021. All the patients were hospitalized for confirmed COVID-19. Results: A total of 6048 COVID-19 patients included in our study, 2358 (48.9%) were anemic, 3666 (60.61%) were normal HGB level, and only 24 (0.49%) were having polycythemia. Hemoglobin level ranged from 5 g/dL to 18 g/dL with a median (interquartile range) of 11.8 g/dL (8.9 to 13.1) g/dL. The median for male (interquartile range) was for anemic patient’s 9.8 g/dL (8.5 to 11.4) g/dL, normal 14 g/dL (13.5 to 14.8) g/dL, and polycythemia 17.4 g/dL (17.2 to 17.7) g/dL. The median for female (interquartile range) was for anemic patient’s 9.1 g/dL (8.2 to 10.2) g/dL, normal 13.5 g/ dL (12.5 to 14.5) g/dL, and polycythemia 17 g/dL (16.82 to 17.2) g/dL. Hematological parameters detected are indicative of severe complications in anemic patients compared to non-anemic patients. Conclusion: Our findings were consistent with other studies that reported poor outcomes of anemia in COVID-19 patients. © 2022, Association of Pharmaceutical Teachers of India. All rights reserved.

European Journal of Inflammation ; 19, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1367669


Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory virus, the spread of which has caused a global pandemic with catastrophic consequences. The current study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and the clinical presentation of COVID-19. Patients and methods: The current study included 166 COVID-19 patients recruited from Prince Mohammad Bin Abdulaziz Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from October 2020 to January 2021. Patients were diagnosed by positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results. History and clinical data were collected for all subjects. In addition, laboratory analysis was done to estimate blood levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), D-dimer, calcium, and relative lymphocytic count. COVID-19 patients were divided into three subgroups according to their vitamin D status. Patients were considered sufficient when their vitamin D level was above 30 ng/mL. Patients with vitamin D levels below 20 ng/mL were considered deficient. Patients with vitamin D levels ranging from 20 ng/mL to 30 ng/mL were considered insufficient. Results: Our results showed that 81 patients (49%) were deficient in vitamin D, and 48 patients (29%) were insufficient in vitamin D. Only 37 patients (22%) had normal vitamin D levels. Moreover, a significant difference was found regarding the inflammatory markers of COVID-19 severity. Also, vitamin D levels were inversely correlated with the markers used for monitoring the condition of COVID-19 patients: ferritin, CRP, and D-dimer. Conclusion: Our results showed that vitamin D deficiency was associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers of COVID-19 infection. © The Author(s) 2021.