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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270060, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021817

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An ideal test for COVID-19 would combine the sensitivity of laboratory-based PCR with the speed and ease of use of point-of-care (POC) or home-based rapid antigen testing. We evaluated clinical performance of the Diagnostic Analyzer for Selective Hybridization (DASH) SARS-CoV-2 POC rapid PCR test. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults with and without symptoms of COVID-19 at four clinical sites where we collected two bilateral anterior nasal swabs and information on COVID-19 symptoms, vaccination, and exposure. One swab was tested with the DASH SARS-CoV-2 POC PCR and the second in a central laboratory using Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 PCR. We assessed test concordance and calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values using Xpert as the "gold standard". RESULTS: We enrolled 315 and analyzed 313 participants with median age 42 years; 65% were female, 62% symptomatic, 75% had received ≥2 doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and 16% currently SARS-CoV-2 positive. There were concordant results for 307 tests indicating an overall agreement for DASH of 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 0.99] compared to Xpert. DASH performed at 0.96 [95% CI 0.86, 1.00] sensitivity and 0.98 [95% CI 0.96, 1.00] specificity, with a positive predictive value of 0.85 [95% CI 0.73, 0.96] and negative predictive value of 0.996 [95% CI 0.99, 1.00]. The six discordant tests between DASH and Xpert all had high Ct values (>30) on the respective positive assay. DASH and Xpert Ct values were highly correlated (R = 0.89 [95% CI 0.81, 0.94]). CONCLUSIONS: DASH POC SARS-CoV-2 PCR was accurate, easy to use, and provided fast results (approximately 15 minutes) in real-life clinical settings with an overall performance similar to an EUA-approved laboratory-based PCR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Point-of-Care Systems , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
2.
Vaccines ; 10(8):1319, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1988062

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted racial and ethnic minority communities, particularly African American and Latino communities. The impacts of social determinants of health, structural racism, misinformation, and mistrust have contributed to a decreased COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Effective methods of addressing and combatting these barriers are essential. Accurate and targeted messaging delivered by trusted voices from community-based organizations, government health systems and organizations, and healthcare and academic systems is imperative. Outreach and communication should be culturally sensitive, provided in the preferred language of the community, flexible, and tailored for in-person and virtual outlets. This communication must also increase trust, combat misinformation, and inspire COVID-19 vaccine confidence. In this manuscript, we outline a framework for inspiring COVID-19 vaccine confidence in African American and Latino communities. These methods of targeted outreach should be considered and implemented for urgent and nonurgent community public health efforts beyond the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., monkeypox) and as a framework to inspire vaccine confidence in those living in racial and ethnic minority communities globally.

3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9950, 2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900650

ABSTRACT

The objective of this systematic review and meta-analyses is to estimate the prevalence of long-COVID in children and adolescents and to present the full spectrum of symptoms present after acute COVID-19. We have used PubMed and Embase to identify observational studies published before February 10th, 2022 that included a minimum of 30 patients with ages ranging from 0 to 18 years that met the National Institute for Healthcare Excellence (NICE) definition of long-COVID, which consists of both ongoing (4 to 12 weeks) and post-COVID-19 (≥ 12 weeks) symptoms. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewers and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed (registration PROSPERO CRD42021275408). The literature search yielded 8373 publications, of which 21 studies met the inclusion criteria, and a total of 80,071 children and adolescents were included. The prevalence of long-COVID was 25.24%, and the most prevalent clinical manifestations were mood symptoms (16.50%), fatigue (9.66%), and sleep disorders (8.42%). Children infected by SARS-CoV-2 had a higher risk of persistent dyspnea, anosmia/ageusia, and/or fever compared to controls. Limitations of the studies analyzed include lack of standardized definitions, recall, selection, misclassification, nonresponse and/or loss of follow-up, and a high level of heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Investig Med ; 70(6): 1406-1415, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 readmissions are associated with increased patient mortality and healthcare system strain. This retrospective cohort study of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 positive adults (>18 years) hospitalized and readmitted within 30 days of discharge from index admission was performed at eight Atlanta hospitals from March to December 2020. The objective was to describe COVID-19 patient-level demographics and clinical characteristics, and community-level social determinants of health (SDoH) that contribute to 30-day readmissions. Demographics, comorbidities, COVID-19 treatment, and discharge disposition data were extracted from the index admission. ZIP codes were linked to a demographic/lifestyle database interpolating to community-level SDoH. Of 7155 patients with COVID-19, 463 (6.5%) had 30-day, unplanned, all-cause hospital readmissions. Statistically significant differences were not found in readmissions stratified by age, sex, race, or ethnicity. Patients with a high-risk Charlson Comorbidity Index had higher odds of readmission (OR 4.8 (95% CI: 2.1 to 11.0)). Remdesivir treatment and intensive care unit (ICU) care were associated with lower odds of readmission (OR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.8) and OR 0.5 (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7), respectively). Patients residing in communities with larger average household size were less likely to be readmitted (OR 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9). In this cohort, patients who received remdesivir, were cared for in an ICU, and resided in ZIP codes with higher proportions of residents with increased social support had lower odds of readmission. These patient-level factors and community-level SDoH may be used to identify patients with COVID-19 who are at increased risk of readmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Readmission , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Determinants of Health
5.
Antimicrob Steward Healthc Epidemiol ; 2(1)2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860203

ABSTRACT

We assessed the prevalence of antibiotic prescriptions among ambulatory patients tested for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large public US healthcare system and found a low overall rate of antibiotic prescriptions (6.7%). Only 3.8% of positive severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) tests were associated with an antibiotic prescription within 7 days.

6.
Cell Rep Methods ; 2(5): 100222, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the development of point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing accelerated in an unparalleled fashion. As a result, there has been an increased need for accurate, robust, and easy-to-use POC testing in a variety of non-traditional settings (i.e., pharmacies, drive-thru sites, schools). While stakeholders often express the desire for POC technologies that are "as simple as digital pregnancy tests," there is little discussion of what this means in regards to device design, development, and assessment. The design of POC technologies and systems should take into account the capabilities and limitations of the users and their environments. Such "human factors" are important tenets that can help technology developers create POC technologies that are effective for end-users in a multitude of settings. Here, we review the core principles of human factors and discuss lessons learned during the evaluation process of SARS-CoV-2 POC testing.

7.
Am J Med Sci ; 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimates of the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and factors associated with infection among healthcare personnel (HCP) vary widely. We conducted a serosurvey of HCP at a large public healthcare system in the Atlanta area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All employees of Grady Health System were invited to participate in mid-2020; a volunteer sample of those completing testing was included. Asymptomatic HCP were offered testing for IgG antibody and for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Symptomatic HCP were offered PCR testing. Antibody index values for IgG and cycle threshold values for PCR were evaluated for those with a positive result. An online survey was distributed at the time of testing. RESULTS: 624 of 1677 distributed surveys (37.2%) were completed by 608 unique HCP. The majority were female (76.4%) and provided clinical care (70.9%). The most common occupations were clinician (24.8%) and nurse (23.5%). 37 of 608 (6.1%) HCP had detectable IgG. Exposure to a confirmed case of COVID-19 outside of the hospital was associated with detectable IgG (12.8% vs 4.4%, p = 0.02), but exposure to a patient with COVID-19 was not. CONCLUSIONS: Among HCP in a large healthcare system, 6.1% had detectable SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Seropositivity was associated with exposures outside of the healthcare setting.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 809356, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792881

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment; this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78-16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.03-4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85; 95%CI = 1.44-97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78; 95%CI = 1.70-19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility; adjusted OR = 2.15; 95%CI = 1.07-4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Georgia/epidemiology , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Medicare , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
9.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787454

ABSTRACT

We aimed to describe frequency of COVID-19 exposure risk factors among patients presenting for medical care at an urban, public hospital serving mostly uninsured/Medicare/Medicaid clients and risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consenting, adult patients seeking care at a public hospital from August to November 2020 were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation. Saliva, anterior nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR. Participant demographics, close contact, and activities ≤14 days prior to enrollment were collected through interview. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Among 1,078 participants, 51.8% were male, 57.0% were aged ≥50 years, 81.3% were non-Hispanic Black, and 7.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 tests. Only 2.7% reported COVID-19 close contact ≤14 days before enrollment;this group had 6.79 adjusted odds of testing positive (95%CI = 2.78–16.62) than those without a reported exposure. Among participants who did not report COVID-19 close contact, working in proximity to ≥10 people (adjusted OR = 2.17;95%CI = 1.03–4.55), choir practice (adjusted OR = 11.85;95%CI = 1.44–97.91), traveling on a plane (adjusted OR = 5.78;95%CI = 1.70–19.68), and not participating in an essential indoor activity (i.e., grocery shopping, public transit use, or visiting a healthcare facility;adjusted OR = 2.15;95%CI = 1.07–4.30) were associated with increased odds of testing positive. Among this population of mostly Black, non-Hispanic participants seeking care at a public hospital, we found several activities associated with testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in addition to close contact with a case. Understanding high-risk activities for SARS-CoV-2 infection among different communities is important for issuing awareness and prevention strategies.

10.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736504

ABSTRACT

Self-collected specimens can expand access to SARS-CoV-2 testing. At a large inner-city hospital 1,082 participants self-collected saliva and anterior nasal swab (ANS) samples before healthcare workers collected nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples on the same day. To characterize patient preferences for self-collection, this investigation explored ability, comfort, and ease of ANS and saliva self-collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing along with associated patient characteristics, including medical history and symptoms of COVID-19. With nearly all participants successfully submitting a specimen, favorable ratings from most participants (at least >79% in ease and comfort), and equivocal preference between saliva and ANS, self-collection is a viable SARS-CoV-2 testing option.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Georgia , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Young Adult
11.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703768

ABSTRACT

We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687072

ABSTRACT

Evidence shows that White and non-Hispanic individuals are overrepresented in clinical trials. The development of new vaccines and drugs, however, necessitates that clinical research trials include representative participants, particularly in light of evidence showing that underrepresented minorities may have a different response to certain medications and vaccines. Racial and ethnic disparities among clinical trials are multilayered and complex, and this requires action. The results of this study indicate that significant racial and ethnic disparities consistently exist among the most recent early SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials as compared to the pandemic H1N1 vaccine clinical trials of 2009. New strategies, policies, training programs, and reforms are required to address these disparities among clinical trials.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 225(2): 229-237, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The natural history and clinical progression of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections can be better understood using combined serological and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs and serum were collected at a single time-point from patients at an urban, public hospital during August-November 2020 and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR, viral culture, and anti-spike pan-immunoglobulin antibody testing. Participant demographics and symptoms were collected through interview. The χ 2 and Fisher exact tests were used to identify associations between RT-PCR and serology results with presence of viable virus and frequency of symptoms. RESULTS: Among 592 participants, 129 (21.8%) had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR or serology. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was strongly associated with lack of viable virus (P = .016). COVID-19 symptom frequency was similar for patients testing RT-PCR positive/seronegative and patients testing RT-PCR positive/seropositive. Patients testing RT-PCR positive/seronegative reported headaches, fatigue, diarrhea, and vomiting at rates not statistically significantly different from those testing RT-PCR negative/seropositive. CONCLUSIONS: While patients testing SARS-CoV-2 seropositive were unlikely to test positive for viable virus and were therefore at low risk for forward transmission, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms were common. Paired SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and antibody testing provides more nuanced understanding of patients' COVID-19 status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-3, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555770

ABSTRACT

We performed an epidemiological investigation and genome sequencing of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to define the source and scope of an outbreak in a cluster of hospitalized patients. Lack of appropriate respiratory hygiene led to SARS-CoV-2 transmission to patients and healthcare workers during a single hemodialysis session, highlighting the importance of infection prevention precautions.

16.
Science ; 373(6561):1372-1377, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1426840

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)Ð competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Science is the property of American Association for the Advancement of Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

17.
Science ; 373(6561): 1372-1377, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356908

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mutations may diminish vaccine-induced protective immune responses, particularly as antibody titers wane over time. Here, we assess the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma), B.1.429 (Epsilon), B.1.526 (Iota), and B.1.617.2 (Delta) on binding, neutralizing, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)­competing antibodies elicited by the messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine mRNA-1273 over 7 months. Cross-reactive neutralizing responses were rare after a single dose. At the peak of response to the second vaccine dose, all individuals had responses to all variants. Binding and functional antibodies against variants persisted in most subjects, albeit at low levels, for 6 months after the primary series of the mRNA-1273 vaccine. Across all assays, B.1.351 had the lowest antibody recognition. These data complement ongoing studies to inform the potential need for additional boost vaccinations.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Time Factors , Young Adult
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16144, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349688

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17-87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.


Subject(s)
Alopecia/diagnosis , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Fatigue/diagnosis , Headache/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alopecia/complications , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/complications , COVID-19/virology , Dyspnea/complications , Fatigue/complications , Headache/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14903, 2021 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320242

ABSTRACT

The impact of repeated sample collection on COVID-19 test performance is unknown. The FDA and CDC currently recommend the primary collection of diagnostic samples to minimize the perceived risk of false-negative findings. We therefore evaluated the association between repeated sample collection and test performance among 325 symptomatic patients undergoing COVID-19 testing in Atlanta, GA. High concordance was found between consecutively collected mid-turbinate samples with both molecular (n = 74, 100% concordance) and antigen-based (n = 147, 97% concordance, kappa = 0.95, CI = 0.88-1.00) diagnostic assays. Repeated sample collection does not decrease COVID-19 test performance, demonstrating that multiple samples can be collected for assay validation and clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Turbinates/virology
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