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1.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715583

ABSTRACT

Immunomodulation is influenced by the consumption of nutrients, and healthy immunity is pivotal to defending an individual from a variety of pathogens. The immune system is a network of intricately regulated biological processes that is comprised of many organs, cellular structures, and signaling molecules. A balanced diet, rich in vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, is key to a strengthened immune system and, thus, crucial to proper functioning of various physiological activities. Conversely, deficiencies of these micronutrients, involving impaired immunity, are linked to numerous health complications, along with a host of pathologies. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a dangerous infectious disease caused by a ß-form of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its genomic variants, which enter host cells upon binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptors, and is associated with substantial morbidities and mortalities globally. Patients afflicted with COVID-19 display asymptomatic to severe symptoms, occurrences of which are multifactorial and include diverse immune responses, sex and gender differences, aging, and underlying medical conditions. Geriatric populations, especially men in comparison to women, regardless of their states, are most vulnerable to severe COVID-19-associated infections and complications, with fatal outcomes. Advances in genomic and proteomic technologies help one understand molecular events, including host-pathogen interactions and pathogenesis of COVID-19 and, subsequently, have developed a variety of preventive measures urgently, ranging from mask wearing to vaccination to medication. Despite these approaches, no unique strategy is available today that can effectively prevent and/or treat this hostile disease. As a consequence, the maintenance of a boosted immune system could be considered a high priority of preventive medicine for combating COVID-19. Herein, we discuss the current level of understanding underlining the contribution of healthy immunity and its relevance to COVID-19 molecular pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic strategies, in the management of this devastating disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Female , Genomics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cells ; 10(12)2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542427

ABSTRACT

Hyperactivation of immune responses resulting in excessive release of pro-inflammatory mediators in alveoli/lung structures is the principal pathological feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The cytokine hyperactivation in COVID-19 appears to be similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence conferred the severity and risk of COVID-19 to RA patients. Amid the evidence of musculoskeletal manifestations involving immune-inflammation-dependent mechanisms and cases of arthralgia and/or myalgia in COVID-19, crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA is often debated. The present article sheds light on the pathological crosstalk between COVID-19 and RA, the risk of RA patients in acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection, and the aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in RA development. We also conferred whether RA can exacerbate COVID-19 outcomes based on available clinical readouts. The mechanistic overlapping in immune-inflammatory features in both COVID-19 and RA was discussed. We showed the emerging links of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-dependent and macrophage-mediated pathways in both diseases. Moreover, a detailed review of immediate challenges and key recommendations for anti-rheumatic drugs in the COVID-19 setting was presented for better clinical monitoring and management of RA patients. Taken together, the present article summarizes available knowledge on the emerging COVID-19 and RA crosstalk and their mechanistic overlaps, challenges, and therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533782

ABSTRACT

The emergence of a novel coronavirus viz., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019 and its subsequent substantial spread produced the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic worldwide. Given its unprecedented infectivity and pathogenicity, the COVID-19 pandemic had a devastating impact on human health, and its clinical management has been a great challenge, which has led to the development and speedy trials of several vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 at an exceptional pace. As a result, several COVID-19 vaccines were made commercially available in the first half of 2021. Although several COVID-19 vaccines showed promising results, crucial insights into their epidemiology, protective mechanisms, and the propensities of reinfection are not largely reviewed. In the present report, we provided insights into the prospects of vaccination against COVID-19 and assessed diverse vaccination strategies including DNA, mRNA, protein subunits, vector-based, live attenuated, and inactivated whole/viral particle-based vaccines. Next, we reviewed major aspects of various available vaccines approved by the World Health Organization and by the local administrations to use against COVID-19. Moreover, we comprehensively assessed the success of these approved vaccines and also their untoward effects, including the possibility of reinfection. We also provided an update on the vaccines that are under development and could be promising candidates in the future. Conclusively, we provided insights into the COVID-19 vaccine epidemiology, their potency, and propensity for SARS-CoV-2 reinfection, while a careful review of their current status, strategies, success, and future challenges was also presented.

4.
Ageing Res Rev ; 70: 101406, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353794

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has pushed the medical system to its breaking point. While the virus does not discriminate, the elderly and those with comorbidities, including hypertension severe obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary disease, pneumonia and dementia, are at a greater risk for adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. While many people navigate their new normal, the question of what the long-lasting effects of the pandemic may be, lingers. To investigate how vulnerable populations are affected by the pandemic, we focused on Alzheimer's disease, a vector to understanding how the virus has impacted AD progression and risk via aging. By assessing the effect of COVID-19 on AD patients, we explore genetics, metabolism, and lifestyle factors in both COVID-19 and Alzheimer's disease that can work synergistically to precipitate adverse outcomes. This article also discusses how age-related conditions and/or age-related comorbidities susceptible to COVID-19. We also discuss possible healthy lifestyle factors reduce and/or combat COVID-19 now and in the future.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Aged , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Disease Progression , Healthy Lifestyle , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(9): 4694-4715, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281328

ABSTRACT

The unremitting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) marked a year-long phase of public health adversaries and has severely compromised healthcare globally. Early evidence of COVID-19 noted its impact on the pulmonary and cardiovascular functions, while multiple studies in recent time shed light on its substantial neurological complications, though a comprehensive understanding of the cause(s), the mechanism(s), and their neuropathological outcomes is scarce. In the present review, we conferred evidence of neurological complications in COVID-19 patients and shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 infection routes including the hematogenous, direct/neuronal, lymphatic tissue or cerebrospinal fluid, or infiltration through infected immune cells, while the underlying mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 invasion to the central nervous system (CNS) was also discussed. In an up-to-date manner, we further reviewed the impact of COVID-19 in developing diverse neurologic manifestations associated with CNS, peripheral nervous system (PNS), skeletal muscle, and also pre-existing neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, we discussed the involvement of key factors including age, sex, comorbidity, and disease severity in exacerbating the neurologic manifestations in COVID-19 patients. An outlook of present therapeutic strategies and state of existing challenges in COVID-19 management was also accessed. Conclusively, the present report provides a comprehensive review of COVID-19-related neurological complications and emphasizes the need for their early clinical management in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immune System/virology , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/drug therapy , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Neurons/virology , Organ Specificity , Sex Factors , Viremia/chemically induced , Viremia/immunology , Virus Internalization
6.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 12: 614650, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027256

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a deadly pandemic with surging mortality rates and no cure. COVID-19 is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with a range of clinical symptoms, including cough, fever, chills, headache, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, muscle pain, and a loss of smell or taste. Aged individuals with compromised immunity are highly susceptible to COVID-19 and the likelihood of mortality increases with age and the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emerging evidence suggests that COVID-19 highjacks mitochondria of immune cells, replicates within mitochondrial structures, and impairs mitochondrial dynamics leading to cell death. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell and are largely involved in maintaining cell immunity, homeostasis, and cell survival/death. Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondria from COVID-19 infected cells are highly vulnerable, and vulnerability increases with age. The purpose of our article is to summarize the role of various age-related comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, and neurological diseases in increasing mortality rates amongst the elderly with COVID-19. Our article also highlights the interaction between coronavirus and mitochondrial dynamics in immune cells. We also highlight the current treatments, lifestyles, and safety measures that can help protect against COVID-19. Further research is urgently needed to understand the molecular mechanisms between the mitochondrial virus and disease progression in COVID-19 patients.

7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(2): 166014, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938765

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been threatening the globe since the end of November 2019. The disease revealed cracks in the health care system as health care providers across the world were left without guidelines on definitive usage of pharmaceutical agents or vaccines. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. Individuals with underlying systemic disorders have reported complications, such as cytokine storms, when infected with the virus. As the number of positive cases and the death toll across the globe continue to rise, various researchers have turned to cell based therapy using stem cells to combat COVID-19. The field of stem cells and regenerative medicine has provided a paradigm shift in treating a disease with minimally invasive techniques that provides maximal clinical and functional outcome for patients. With the available evidence of immunomodulatory and immune-privilege actions, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can repair, regenerate and remodulate the native homeostasis of pulmonary parenchyma with improved pulmonary compliance. This article revolves around the usage of novel MSCs therapy for combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/pathology
8.
Neuroscientist ; 27(4): 331-339, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-797803

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease, originated in Wuhan City, China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its biology is still poorly understood. Currently, there are no vaccines and drugs/or agents that can reduce severity of this new disease. Recent data suggest that patients with age-related comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and dementia are highly susceptible to severe respiratory illness due to coronavirus infection. Recent research also revealed that aged individuals with elevated baseline inflammation cause defects in T and B cells, leading to decreased body's immune response to viral infection. In the current article, we discuss the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on age-related chronic diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Our article also highlights the interaction between coronavirus and immune cells, and how COVID-19 alters mitochondrial activities in host cells. Based on new and compelling evidence, we propose that mitochondrial fission is inhibited while fusion is promoted, causing mitochondrial elongation and providing a receptive intracellular environment for viral replication in infected cells. Further research is still needed to understand the cross talk between viral replication in mitochondria and disease progression in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Dementia/immunology , Dementia/pathology , Diabetes Complications/immunology , Diabetes Complications/pathology , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/pathology , Immune System/pathology , Mitochondria/pathology , Mitochondrial Dynamics , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/pathology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular
9.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(11): 4856-4877, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718489

ABSTRACT

The whole world is currently facing a pandemic of an infectious disease known as novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) . This outbreak emerged unexpectedly and imposed a potential threat to humans, associated with the social and economic burden on the individual and federal governments. COVID-19, which initially started in Wuhan City of China and then spread to the whole world, has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The continuous increase in the number of confirmed cases leads to high mortality across the world. Growing evidence indicates that the mortality rate is very predominant in elderly people and those with preexisting health conditions. However, the potential pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans is still unknown. The dysregulated/exuberant immune response may have substantially contributed to the SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathology. Nevertheless, there is no clinically approved drug/vaccine currently available that can restrict its pathogenesis. However, several drugs are currently shown to provide some therapeutic benefits for COVID-19 patients, including antiviral drugs that might have a significant role in restricting the current pandemic of COVID-19. In this article, we highlighted the pharmacological treatment strategies for COVID-19 and purposed the therapeutic targets for the development of vaccines or anti-viral drug molecules against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Development , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Viral Vaccines , Animals , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(10): 4106-4116, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-645016

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease that has taken the lives of many around the world. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). To date, the USA, Italy, Spain, France, Russia, and the UK have been hit the hardest by the virus. However, death counts are still rising. Some nations have managed to "flatten" the death rate via protective measures such physical distancing, quarantine measures, and therapeutic management. The structure of the SARS-CoV-2 virus comprises of S proteins, M proteins, E proteins, hemagglutinin esterases, nucleocapsid proteins, and a 30-kb RNA genome. Viral proteases cleave these polyproteins and RNA-dependent polymerases replicate the genome. Currently, there are no effective therapies against this new disease. Numerous investigators are developing novel protease inhibitors, some of which have made it into clinical trials. Researchers are also attempting to develop a vaccine. In this review paper, we discuss the latest therapeutic developments against COVID-19. Graphical Abstract.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1866(10): 165889, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627951

ABSTRACT

The novel Coronavirus disease of 2019 (nCOV-19) is a viral outbreak noted first in Wuhan, China. This disease is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (CoV)-2. In the past, other members of the coronavirus family, such as SARS and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), have made an impact in China and the Arabian peninsula respectively. Both SARS and COVID-19 share similar symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty in breathing that can become fatal in later stages. However, SARS and MERS infections were epidemic diseases constrained to limited regions. By March 2020 the SARS-CoV-2 had spread across the globe and on March 11th, 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as pandemic disease. In severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, many patients succumbed to pneumonia. Higher rates of deaths were seen in older patients who had co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and dementia. In this review paper, we discuss the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's-like dementia, and diabetes mellitus. We also focus on the virus genome, pathophysiology, theranostics, and autophagy mechanisms. We will assess the multiorgan failure reported in advanced stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our paper will provide mechanistic clues and therapeutic targets for physicians and investigators to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Viral Fusion Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Fusion Proteins/metabolism , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
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