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2.
Journal of Communicable Diseases ; 2022:186-194, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1848050

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV 2) infection elicits an inflammatory response which is responsible for severe clinical manifestations, disease progression and, poor outcomes. Objectives: This study aims to assess the pattern of elevation of inflammatory markers in COVID-19 and to determine their association with clinical, radiological severity and outcome of COVID 19. Methodology: This is a retrospective single-center cross-sectional study conducted at Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, a tertiary care Hospital in Tamil Nadu, India, encompassing a cohort of 1220 patients. The source population was all cases of COVID-19 admitted at the hospital with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 using RT PCR. The data was obtained from the patient’s case sheets and laboratory investigations and from the electronic data management system. The patient’s clinical severity on admission, baseline characteristics, co-morbid illnesses, presenting complaints, vitals, and inflammatory markers like D-dimer, C-reactive protein IL-6, Serum ferritin, and Lactate dehydrogenase were collected. The data for radiological severity and outcome were coded and analysed. Results: Diabetes and hypertension were found to be the most common comorbidities in the study population;females more affected than males. Fever and cough are the most common presenting symptoms. The clinical severity of patients was found to have a significant association with radiological severity. D-dimer is having a strong correlation with disease severity and outcome at any point in time. IL-6, CRP, Serum ferritin also showed a strong correlation with outcome in COVID-19. Conclusion: Our study suggests D-dimer at any point of time in a hospitalized COVID-19 patient as a promising marker for the same. IL-6 is the next best inflammatory marker followed by CRP and Serum ferritin. LDH is the least significant one among these. Copyright (c) 2022: Author(s).

3.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research ; 14(1):697-700, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1766833

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has developed into a universal pandemic. The harmful effects of corona virus have provoked the advance of diagnostic tools to supervise the spread of disease. While conservative technologies have been mostly used to detect COVID-19, they are protracted, manual and are unavailable in distant settings. Point-of-care (POC) biosensors, including paper-based biosensors are characteristicallylow-priced and accessible, which presentincredibleprospective for speedy medical diagnosis. In view of the risinginsist for quick diagnosis of COVID-19, a mini review that summarizes the currentadvancement in developing POC biosensors for COVID-19 is exceedinglyattractive. In this article, the most modern advances in POC biosensors, including paper-based biosensors for the recognition of COVID-19 infection are reviewed.

4.
Open Public Health Journal ; 14(1):388-398, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1511928

ABSTRACT

Introduction: People’s confidence in the health system's capability in managing the COVID-19 pandemic can determine public support, risk perceptions, and compliance to the required behaviors during the pandemic. Therefore, this paper investigated people’s perception of health system capability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic in different spatial areas across the country using data from an online survey. Methods: Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with people’s perception of the health system capability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic at the national and provincial levels. Spatial comparative analysis was conducted to contrast spatial density indicators of the number of hospitals, hospital beds, and ICU beds per given population across various provinces. Results: Findings showed that South Africans had low confidence in the health system capability, with only two in five (40.7%) reporting that they thought that the country’s health system was able to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. Sex and knowledge on COVID-19 were significantly associated with the people’s perception of the health system capability to manage the pandemic at the national level and in four of the nine provinces. Conclusion: Overall, the findings of this study clearly highlight challenges facing the country’s health system, both perceived or real, that needed to be addressed as part of the preparation for the COVID-19 pandemic. Timeous implementation of a countrywide National Health Insurance (NHI) system is now more critical than ever in improving healthcare outcomes of the South African population beyond the existence of the COVID-19 epidemic.

6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 894-902, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak is in an accelerating phase, and South Africa (SA) has had the highest number of documented cases during the early phase of the pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To assess South Africans' understanding of and response to COVID-19 during the first week of the country's lockdown period. METHODS: An online survey was conducted in SA from 27 March to 2 April 2020. The survey was distributed widely among several websites and social media networks, including on a data-free platform. Descriptive statistics of knowledge, risk perception, access to and trust in information sources, and public and media opinions were calculated. Estimates were benchmarked to the 2019 national adult population estimates. RESULTS: Of the 55 823 participants, the majority (83.4%) correctly identified the main symptoms of COVID-19. Over 90% had correct knowledge of the incubation period, with lower rates for 18 - 29-year-olds. Knowledge of symptoms and the incubation period varied significantly by population group (p<0.001), dwelling type (p<0.001) and sex (p<0.001). A quarter (24.9%) perceived themselves as at high risk of contracting COVID-19. Risk perception varied by age, population group, employment status and dwelling type (p<0.001). The most prevalent COVID-19 information sources were government sources (72.9%), news websites/apps (56.3%), satellite television (51.6%) and local television (51.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of people facing the COVID-19 pandemic is crucial for guiding strategic policy. These findings provide public understanding of COVID-19 as the phases of the country-level epidemic progress, and also directly inform communication needs and gaps.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Access to Information , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Policy , Humans , Internet , Male , Mass Media , Middle Aged , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust , Young Adult
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