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1.
6th International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems, ICICCS 2022 ; : 1087-1091, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922683

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created havoc on the lives of many people and their health all over the world. It has been increasing very rapidly, one must find an effective model/method to detect COVID-19 in order to help the Health Care System. Chest X-ray is one of the reliable diagnostic technologies, which helps in the identification of COVID-19. Despite the fact that there are numerous deep learning methodologies for identifying COVID -19, these methodologies are useless if they only detect one type of illness while ignoring the others. This study proposed a Hybrid Classification model based on CNN (Convolutional Neural Network) for more efficient detection of COVID-19 from Chest X-Rays. Using CNN, this study differentiates COVID-19 affected chest X-Ray images from normal chest X-Ray images and eight additional chest disorders (Cardiomegaly, Atelectasis, Infiltration, Effusion, Nodule, Pneumonia, Mass, Pneumothorax). The Hybrid Classification Model contains two classifiers, Classifier-1 and Classifier-2. In Classifier-1, it contains the information about Normal Chest X-rays images and chest X-ray images that have been affected by COVID-19 and whereas in the Classifier-2, it contains the information about other 8 chest diseases. For getting highest accuracy of Classifier-1 and Classifier-2 models, this research work utilizes several models i.e., ResNet50, InceptionResNetV2, VGG16, DensNet121 and Mobile Net. Based on all these models, this research work considers ResNet50 for Classifier-1, and DensNet121 for Classifier-2, Because these two models had given the highest accuracy compared to other models. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Journal of Information & Knowledge Management ; 20(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1902087

ABSTRACT

With the increasing advance of computer and information technologies, numerous documents have been published online as well as offline, and as new research fields have been continuingly created, users have a lot of trouble in finding their interesting documents. These documents can be in the form of blogs, research papers, and thesis. There is a heterogeneous set of documents which has information linked with each other. Traditional search is about taking an input of the query text from the user and checking if the subsequence is a part of any sentence in the set of documents and showing the set to the user. In this paper, we have proposed a Bidiection Encoding Contextual algorithm that can be applied to different types of documents and do a semantic search across the corpus. The algorithm used to understand the meaning of the word, their relative relationship between other words and provide the user with the documents that not just has the textual reference but also contain the relative meaning of the query. On the COVID-19 dataset, test been performed on the reliability of the interpretation through the function of linguistic similarities. The experimental findings demonstrate the strong association between the conceptual term interpretation of human consciousness in the role of measuring the similarity. Experiments show that the Bidirectional Encoding Contextual model has the best accuracy of 85.6% when compared with other traditional models like RNN, CNN and LSTM models.

3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):300-301, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880872

ABSTRACT

Background: South Africa is one of the African countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveys provide valuable epidemiological information given the existence of asymptomatic cases. We report the findings of the first nationwide household-based population estimates of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among people aged 12 years and older in South Africa. Methods: The survey used a cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster design undertaken over two separate time periods (November 2020-February 2021 and April-June 2021) which coincided with the second and third waves of the pandemic in South Africa. The Abbott® and Euroimmun® ani-SARS CoV-2 antibody assays were used to test for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, the latter being the final result. The survey data was weighted with final individual weights benchmarked against 2020 mid-year population estimates by age, race, sex, and province. Frequencies were used to describe characteristics of the study population and SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. Bivariate and multivariate logistics regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity. Results: 13640 participants gave a blood sample. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence using the Euroimmun assay was 19.6% (95% CI 17.9-21.3) over the study period, translating to an estimated 8 675 265 (95% CI 7 508 393-9 842 137) estimated infections among people aged 12 years and older across South Africa by June 2021. Seroprevalence was higher in the Free State (26.8%), and Eastern Cape (26.0%) provinces (Figure). Increased odds of seropositivity were associated with prior PCR testing [aOR=1.29 (95% CI: 0.99-1.66)], being female [aOR=1.28 (95% CI 1.00-1.64), p=0.048] and hypertension, [aOR=1.28 (95% CI 1.00-1.640, p=0.048]. Conclusion: These findings highlight the burden of infection in South Africa by June 2021, and support testing strategies that focus on individuals with known exposure or symptoms since universal testing is not feasible. Females and younger people were more likely to be infected suggesting need for additional strategies targeting these populations. The estimated number of infections was 6.5 times higher than the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases reported nationally, suggesting that the country's testing strategy and capacity partly explain the dynamics of the pandemic. It is therefore essential to bolster testing capacity and to rapidly scale up vaccinations in order to contain the spread of the virus in the country.

4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):332, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880610

ABSTRACT

Background: Accurate and reliable serological assays are essential for epidemiological surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. Several commercial anti-SARS assays are available and use cases for serological testing includes surveillance. However, there is growing evidence of varying performance of SARS-CoV-2 assays dependent of their format. We compare the performance of 3 different assays used in a national serosurvey undertaken between April and June 2021, in South Africa before widescale vaccination roll out. Methods: Venous blood samples from participants ≥12 years were transported under cold chain to a central testing laboratory within 24 hours of collection. Samples were tested for SARS CoV-2 antibodies with the Abbott nucleocapsid (NC)-based Architect anti-SARS CoV-2 chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), the EuroImmun Spike (S)-based assay and the Roche total IgG NC-based Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on the Cobas e411 platform. We compared antibody detection proportions. Results: 8146 participants (median age 40 years, IQR 26-55) 5.6% of whom reported ≥1 SARS-CoV-2 symptom in the preceding 3 months gave a blood sample. Samples were tested on the Abbott assay with different cut-offs:-15.5% tested positive at the 1.40 cut-off and 26.8% at the 0.49 lower cut-off. 21.6% of the samples tested positive on the Euroimmun and 39.0% tested positive on the Roche assay (Table). 286 samples were from respondents self-reporting a prior positive PCR test, and among them 149(52.1%), 156(54.6%), and 206(72.3%) were positive on the Abbott (1.40 cut-off), Euroimmun and Roche assays respectively. 116/286(40.6%) of these were positive on all three assays and with 21(7.3%) positive on Roche only. 224/286(78.3%) of those reporting prior PCR test positivity were positive at the lower Abbott cut-off, with 47(16.4%) positive on Abbott only. Conclusion: These samples collected before wide scale vaccination roll out in South Africa show variable performance of these assays with the Roche NC assay detecting more infections that both the Abbott NC assay(0.40 cut-off) and the Euroimmun S assay.This could be reflective of seroreversion previously reported with Abbott and Euroimmun, and the greater sensitivity of Roche assay targeting the more abundant NC as an epitope. Use of direct, double Antigen-sandwich-based assays that are stable and have increased sensitivity over time may be optimal to detect both natural and vaccine-induced immunity in serosurveys.

5.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):18, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880294

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sisonke Phase IIIB open-label implementation study vaccinated health care workers (HCWs) with the single dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine during two phases of the South African Covid-19 epidemic, dominated first by the Beta followed by the Delta variant of concern. Methods: HCWs were vaccinated over 3 months (17 February-17 May 2021). Safety was monitored by self-reporting, facility reporting and linkage to national databases. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against Covid-19 related hospitalisation, hospitalisation requiring critical or intensive care and death, ascertained 28 days or more post vaccination was assessed up until 17 July 2021. Nested sub-cohorts (A and B) from two national medical schemes were evaluated to assess VE using a matched retrospective cohort design. Results: Over the 3-month period, 477234 HCWs were vaccinated in 122 vaccination sites across South Africa. VE derived from the sub-cohorts comprising 215 813 HCWs was 83% (95% CI 75-89) to prevent Covid-19 deaths, 75% (95% CI 69-82) to prevent hospital admissions requiring critical or intensive care and 67% (95% CI 62-71) to prevent Covid-19 related hospitalisations. The VE was maintained in older HCWs and those with comorbidities including HIV infection. VE remained consistent throughout the Beta and Delta dominant phases of the study. 10279 adverse events were reported and 139 (1.4%) were serious, including two cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and four cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who recovered. Conclusion: The single dose Ad26.COV2.S was safe and effective against severe Covid-19 disease and death post-vaccination, and against both Beta and Delta variants providing real-world evidence for its use globally.

6.
Frontiers in Education ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1793034

ABSTRACT

Gender related vulnerabilities and inequalities place female learners at high risk of school disengagement due to COVID-19 disruptions. Understanding the impacts of school closures and educational disruptions on female learners in South Africa is critical to inform appropriate, gender-sensitive policies, and programs, to mitigate further exacerbation of educational inequalities. We examined the effects that COVID-19 and lockdowns have had on the educational experiences of adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) aged 15–24, in six districts of South Africa characterized by high rates of HIV, teenage pregnancy and socio-economic hardship. Following a concurrent triangulation mixed-methods approach, we conducted a cross-sectional survey with 515 AGYW, and qualitative interviews with 50 AGYW. More than half of survey participants enrolled in education had been unable to continue with their studies. Factors associated with educational disruption included low socio-economic status, lack of cell phone access and household food insecurity. Qualitative narratives included challenges with online learning and studying at home in resource restricted settings, and insufficient support from schools and teachers. However, despite multiple barriers to continuing education, some AGYW demonstrated educational resilience, enabled by psychosocial and structural support, and resource access. Our findings lend support to an emerging evidence base showing that the closure of schools and tertiary institutions, combined with challenging home environments, and a lack of access to appropriate technology, has disproportionately impacted the most vulnerable AGYW, exacerbating pre-existing educational inequalities within the South African education system. Addressing structural barriers to educational equity, particularly in the pandemic context, including access of technology and the internet, is urgent. Copyright © 2022 Duby, Jonas, Bunce, Bergh, Maruping, Fowler, Reddy, Govindasamy and Mathews.

7.
18th IEEE India Council International Conference, INDICON 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1752407

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused an exponential increase in mortality rate globally and has dealt a devastating blow to nations all over the world. This unforeseen calamity needs to be tackled and early detection of this disease could help in this regard. Several research studies used Chest X-rays and CT scans to detect the disease, which can be made cost-effective by using cough samples. These systems can further be refined by using multiple health parameters to provide more accurate results. In this view, this paper proposes a constructive way for the early detection of COVID-19 by considering cough samples and clinical data (Saturation of Peripheral Oxygen (SpO2) level, body temperature, heart rate, and symptoms). The dataset was collected by using a Raspberry Pi and an online questionnaire. In this paper, we put forward two approaches being Manual feature extraction and Mixed data neural networks (Multi-layer Perceptron and Convolutional Neural Networks) for efficiently handling the problem. To help the user access the system more comfortably, a mobile application was developed. The Mixed data neural networks yielded the best performance with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) score of 0.94 and an accuracy of 0.85. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327037

ABSTRACT

Following the results of the ENSEMBLE 2 study, which demonstrated improved vaccine efficacy of a two-dose regimen of Ad26.COV.2 vaccine given 2 months apart, we expanded the Sisonke study which had provided single dose Ad26.COV.2 vaccine to almost 500 000 health care workers (HCW) in South Africa to include a booster dose of the Ad26.COV.2. Sisonke 2 enrolled 227 310 HCW from the 8 November to the 17 December 2021. Enrolment commenced before the onset of the Omicron driven fourth wave in South Africa affording us an opportunity to evaluate early VE in preventing hospital admissions of a homologous boost of the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine given 6-9 months after the initial vaccination in HCW. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine booster in 69 092 HCW as compared to unvaccinated individuals enrolled in the same managed care organization using a test negative design. We compared VE against COVID19 admission for omicron during the period 15 November to 20 December 2021. After adjusting for confounders, we observed that VE for hospitalisation increased over time since booster dose, from 63% (95%CI 31-81%);to 84% (95% CI 67-92%) and then 85% (95% CI: 54-95%), 0-13 days, 14-27 days, and 1-2 months post-boost. We provide the first evidence of the effectiveness of a homologous Ad26.COV.2 vaccine boost given 6-9 months after the initial single vaccination series during a period of omicron variant circulation. This data is important given the increased reliance on the Ad26.COV.2 vaccine in Africa.

9.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326920

ABSTRACT

Background: The Sisonke open-label phase 3b implementation study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of the Janssen Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine among health care workers (HCWs) in South Africa. Here, we present the safety data. Methods: We monitored adverse events (AEs) at vaccination sites, through self-reporting triggered by text messages after vaccination, health care provider reports and by active case finding. The frequency and incidence rate of non-serious and serious AEs were evaluated from day of first vaccination (17 February 2021) until 28 days after the final vaccination (15 June 2021). COVID-19 breakthrough infections, hospitalisations and deaths were ascertained via linkage of the electronic vaccination register with existing national databases. Findings: Of 477,234 participants, 10,279 (2.2%) reported AEs, of which 139 (1.4%) were serious. Women reported more AEs than men (2.3% vs. 1.6%). AE reports decreased with increasing age (3.2% for 18–30, 2.1% for 31-45, 1.8% for 46-55 and 1.5% in >55-year-olds). Participants with previous COVID-19 infection reported slightly more AEs (2.6% vs. 2.1%). The commonest reactogenicity events were headache and body aches, followed by injection site pain and fever, and most occurred within 48 hours of vaccination. Two cases of Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome and four cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome were reported post-vaccination. Serious AEs and AEs of special interest including vascular and nervous system events, immune system disorders and deaths occurred at lower than the expected population rates. Interpretation: The single-dose Ad26.CoV2.S vaccine had an acceptable safety profile supporting the continued use of this vaccine in our setting.

10.
11.
Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Advent Trends Multidiscip. Res. Innov., ICATMRI ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1210100

ABSTRACT

Recent pandemic situation of covid-19 which is caused due to the outbreak of highly dangerous and easily spreadable corona virus is an increasing concern throughout the entire world. The purpose of this study is to develop an alert system which alerts employees to maintain social distance in corporate working environments. A real-Time location systems (RTLS) based on ultra wide band (UWB) wireless technology gives most accurate locations of approximately 10cm using methods like trilateration and TDOA (Time Difference of Arrival). Co-ordinates of the location can be obtained by installing RTLS in predefined area which are used to calculate the distance between Mobile UWB Devices (MUD's). An alert triggered by a system to maintain distance if distance between the employees is less than the prescribed social distance can keep the work premises safe and control the spread of corona virus. This study can be a great solution to control spread of virus in corporate working environments which are mostly of confined in size and indoor in nature. © 2020 IEEE.

12.
Indian Journal of Economics and Business ; 19(1):57-69, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-923209

ABSTRACT

The study examines the effect of Gross Capital formation on Real Gross Domestic product growth for the period 1970-71 to 2018-19 using the Unit root test and Autoregressive Distributed Lag(ARDL) technique. The unit root test results reveals that GDP growth rate, General Government expenditure, Inflation are integrated at level I(0);while gross capital formation and gross domestic saving are integrated at first order I(1). The results of the ARDL technique indicates that Gross Capital Formation, General Government expenditure and Inflation have significantly contributed for the Economic growth in India. There is also evidence that the Gross Domestic Saving is not significant to boost economic growth. As per International Rating Agencies and IMF, India’s growth rate is expected to decelerate to below 2 %in 2020 due to COVID-19, pandemic and contraction in the world output growth. More public investments on productive activities would address the economic slowdown in the coming years. The authors stressed the need for formulating a rational Monetary-Fiscal Policy mix for addressing the economic slowdown in India in the coming years. The authors point out that there is a need to create conducive environment for enhancing savings and investments in the economy which contribute for sustained economic growth. © 2020, Ashwin Anokha Publications and Distributors. All rights reserved.

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