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1.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-334741

ABSTRACT

We assessed if immune responses are enhanced in CD-1 mice by heterologous vaccination with two different nucleic acid-based COVID-19 vaccines: a next-generation human adenovirus serotype 5 (hAd5)-vectored dual-antigen spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) vaccine (AdS+N) and a self-amplifying and -adjuvanted S RNA vaccine (SASA S) delivered by a nano-lipid carrier. The AdS+N vaccine encodes S modified with a fusion motif to increase cell-surface expression. The N antigen is modified with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) to direct N to the endosomal/lysosomal compartment and increase MHC class I and II stimulation potential. The S sequence in the SASA S vaccine comprises the D614G mutation, two prolines to stabilize S in the prefusion conformation, and 3 glutamines in the furin cleavage region to increase cross-reactivity across variants. CD-1 mice received vaccination by homologous and heterologous prime > boost combinations. Humoral responses to S were the highest with any regimen including the SASA S vaccine, and IgG bound to wild type and Delta (B.1.617.2) variant S1 at similar levels. An AdS+N boost of an SASA S prime particularly enhanced both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to both wild type and Delta S peptides relative to all other vaccine regimens. Sera from mice receiving SASA S homologous or heterologous vaccination were found to be highly neutralizing of all pseudovirus strains tested: Wuhan, Beta, Delta, and Omicron strain. The findings here support the clinical testing of heterologous vaccination by an SASA S > AdS+N regimen to provide increased protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

2.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329367

ABSTRACT

Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and delayed implementation of diagnostics have led to poorly defined viral prevalence rates. To address this, we analyzed seropositivity in US adults who have not previously been diagnosed with COVID-19. Individuals with characteristics that reflect the US population (n = 11,382) and who had not previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 were selected by quota sampling from 241,424 volunteers (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04334954 ). Enrolled participants provided medical, geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic information and 9,028 blood samples. The majority (88.7%) of samples were collected between May 10th and July 31st, 2020. Samples were analyzed via ELISA for anti-Spike and anti-RBD antibodies. Estimation of seroprevalence was performed by using a weighted analysis to reflect the US population. We detected an undiagnosed seropositivity rate of 4.6% (95% CI: 2.6 - 6.5%). There was distinct regional variability, with heightened seropositivity in locations of early outbreaks. Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the highest estimated undiagnosed seropositivity within groups was detected in younger participants (ages 18-45, 5.9%), females (5.5%), Black/African American (14.2%), Hispanic (6.1%), and Urban residents (5.3%), and lower undiagnosed seropositivity in those with chronic diseases. During the first wave of infection over the spring/summer of 2020 an estimate of 4.6% of adults had a prior undiagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infection. These data indicate that there were 4.8 (95% CI: 2.8-6.8) undiagnosed cases for every diagnosed case of COVID-19 during this same time period in the United States, and an estimated 16.8 million undiagnosed cases by mid-July 2020.

3.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31:2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1610559
4.
European Journal of Public Health ; 31, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1514812

ABSTRACT

At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, health care providers had to abruptly change their way of providing care in order to simultaneously plan for and manage a rise of COVID-19 cases while maintaining essential health services. Even the most well-resourced health systems faced pressures from new challenges brought on by COVID-19, and every country had to make difficult choices about how to maintain access to essential care while treating a novel communicable disease. Using the information available on the HSRM platform from the early phases of the pandemic, we analyze how countries planned services for potential surge capacity, designed patient flows ensuring separation between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, and maintained routine services in both hospital and outpatient settings. Many country responses displayed striking similarities despite very real differences in the organization of health and care services. These include transitioning the management of COVID-19 mild cases from hospitals to outpatient settings, increasing the use of remote consultations, and cancelling or postponing non-urgent services during the height of the first wave. In the immediate future, countries will have to continue balancing care for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients to minimize adverse health outcomes, ideally with supporting guidelines and COVID-19-specific care zones. Many countries expect to operate at lower capacity for routinely provided care, which will impact patient access and waiting times. Looking forward, policymakers will have to consider whether strategies adopted during the COVID-19 pandemic will become permanent features of care provision.

5.
JMIR Cancer ; 7(3): e28852, 2021 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) interventions can increase PA and improve well-being among adults affected by cancer; however, most adults do not meet cancer-specific PA recommendations. Lack of time, facility access, and travel distances are barriers to participation in PA interventions. eHealth technologies may address some of these barriers, serving as a viable way to promote PA behavior change in this population. However, no review from July 2018 has synthesized available evidence across eHealth and cancer types or examined the use of behavioral theory and behavior change techniques (BCTs), leaving important gaps in knowledge. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to provide a comprehensive, updated overview of evidence on eHealth PA interventions for adults with cancer by describing the current state of the literature, exploring associations between intervention characteristics and effectiveness, and identifying future research needs. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, SportDiscus, Scopus, and CENTRAL were searched for eHealth PA interventions for adults affected by cancer. Study selection and data extraction were performed in duplicate, with consultation from the senior author (NCR). BCT coding, risk of bias, and completeness of reporting were performed using standardized tools. Results were summarized via narrative synthesis and harvest plots. Weight analyses were conducted to explore the associations between intervention characteristics and effectiveness. RESULTS: A total of 71 articles (67 studies) involving 6655 participants (mean age 56.7 years, SD 8.2) were included. Nearly 50% (32/67) of the articles were published after July 2018. Significant postintervention PA increases were noted in 52% (35/67) of the studies, and PA maintenance was noted in 41% (5/12) of the studies that included a follow-up. Study duration, primary objectives, and eHealth modality (eg, websites, activity trackers, and SMS text messaging) varied widely. Social cognitive theory (23/67, 34%) was the most used theory. The mean number of BCTs used across the studies was 13.5 (SD 5.5), with self-monitoring, credible sources, and goal setting being used in >90% of studies. Weight analyses showed the greatest associations between increased PA levels and PA as a primary outcome (0.621), interventions using websites (0.656) or mobile apps (0.563), interventions integrating multiple behavioral theories (0.750), and interventions using BCTs of problem solving (0.657) and action planning (0.645). All studies had concerns with high risk of bias, mostly because of the risk of confounding, measurement bias, and incomplete reporting. CONCLUSIONS: A range of eHealth PA interventions may increase PA levels among adults affected by cancer, and specific components (eg, websites, use of theory, and action planning) may be linked to greater effectiveness. However, more work is needed to ascertain and optimize effectiveness, measure long-term effects, and address concerns with bias and incomplete reporting. This evidence is required to support arguments for integrating eHealth within PA promotion in oncology.

6.
Monthly Labor Review ; 2020:1-13, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1130139

ABSTRACT

This article describes the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on price changes for food categories within the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics import/export price indexes, producer price indexes, and consumer price indexes. In addition, the article assesses the pandemic’s impact on price data collection efforts. Safety precautions established during the pandemic created data collection challenges for some price indexes more than others. © 2020. All rights reserved.

7.
8.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-6248

ABSTRACT

'Federated Learning' (FL) is a method to train Artificial Intelligence (AI) models with data from multiple sources while maintaining anonymity of the data thus removing many barriers to data sharing. During the SARS-COV-2 pandemic, 20 institutes collaborated on a healthcare FL study to predict future oxygen requirements of infected patients using inputs of vital signs, laboratory data, and chest x-rays, constituting the "EXAM" (EMR CXR AI Model) model. EXAM achieved an average Area Under the Curve (AUC) of over 0.92, an average improvement of 16%, and a 38% increase in generalisability over local models. The FL paradigm was successfully applied to facilitate a rapid data science collaboration without data exchange, resulting in a model that generalised across heterogeneous, unharmonized datasets. This provided the broader healthcare community with a validated model to respond to COVID-19 challenges, as well as set the stage for broader use of FL in healthcare.

9.
Eurohealth ; 26(2):68-72, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-942065

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals face the concurrent challenges of maintaining routine services while attending to COVID-19 patients. This article shares approaches taken in six countries to resume hospital care after the first wave of the pandemic by surveying country experts and using data extracted from the COVID-19 Health Systems Response Monitor (HSRM). Four strategies were observed in all six countries: prioritisation or rationing of treatments, converting clinical spaces to separate patients, using virtual treatments, and implementing COVID-19 free hospitals or floors. Clear guidance about how to prioritise activities would support hospitals in the next phases of the pandemic.

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