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1.
Influenza and other respiratory viruses ; 17(3), 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2280721

ABSTRACT

Background Bacterial and viral infections can occur with SARS‐CoV‐2 infection, but prevalence, risk factors, and associated clinical outcomes are not fully understood. Methods We used the Coronavirus Disease 2019‐Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID‐NET), a population‐based surveillance system, to investigate the occurrence of bacterial and viral infections among hospitalized adults with laboratory‐confirmed SARS‐CoV‐2 infection between March 2020 and April 2022. Clinician‐driven testing for bacterial pathogens from sputum, deep respiratory, and sterile sites were included. The demographic and clinical features of those with and without bacterial infections were compared. We also describe the prevalence of viral pathogens including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and non‐SARS‐CoV‐2 endemic coronaviruses. Results Among 36 490 hospitalized adults with COVID‐19, 53.3% had bacterial cultures taken within 7 days of admission and 6.0% of these had a clinically relevant bacterial pathogen. After adjustment for demographic factors and co‐morbidities, bacterial infections in patients with COVID‐19 within 7 days of admission were associated with an adjusted relative risk of death 2.3 times that of patients with negative bacterial testing. Staphylococcus aureus and Gram‐negative rods were the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens. Among hospitalized adults with COVID‐19, 2766 (7.6%) were tested for seven virus groups. A non‐SARS‐CoV‐2 virus was identified in 0.9% of tested patients. Conclusions Among patients with clinician‐driven testing, 6.0% of adults hospitalized with COVID‐19 were identified to have bacterial coinfections and 0.9% were identified to have viral coinfections;identification of a bacterial coinfection within 7 days of admission was associated with increased mortality.

2.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(3): e13107, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280722

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacterial and viral infections can occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but prevalence, risk factors, and associated clinical outcomes are not fully understood. Methods: We used the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), a population-based surveillance system, to investigate the occurrence of bacterial and viral infections among hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 2020 and April 2022. Clinician-driven testing for bacterial pathogens from sputum, deep respiratory, and sterile sites were included. The demographic and clinical features of those with and without bacterial infections were compared. We also describe the prevalence of viral pathogens including respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, parainfluenza viruses, and non-SARS-CoV-2 endemic coronaviruses. Results: Among 36 490 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, 53.3% had bacterial cultures taken within 7 days of admission and 6.0% of these had a clinically relevant bacterial pathogen. After adjustment for demographic factors and co-morbidities, bacterial infections in patients with COVID-19 within 7 days of admission were associated with an adjusted relative risk of death 2.3 times that of patients with negative bacterial testing. Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative rods were the most frequently isolated bacterial pathogens. Among hospitalized adults with COVID-19, 2766 (7.6%) were tested for seven virus groups. A non-SARS-CoV-2 virus was identified in 0.9% of tested patients. Conclusions: Among patients with clinician-driven testing, 6.0% of adults hospitalized with COVID-19 were identified to have bacterial coinfections and 0.9% were identified to have viral coinfections; identification of a bacterial coinfection within 7 days of admission was associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Virus Diseases , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are significant causes of respiratory illness in children. METHODS: Influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years old were analyzed from FluSurv-NET and COVID-NET, two population-based surveillance systems with similar catchment areas and methodology. The annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100 000 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2020-September 30, 2021) was compared to influenza-associated hospitalization rates during the 2017-18 through 2019-20 influenza seasons. In-hospital outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, were compared. RESULTS: Among children <18 years old, the COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate (48.2) was higher than influenza-associated hospitalization rates: 2017-18 (33.5), 2018-19 (33.8), and 2019-20 (41.7). The COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate was higher among adolescents 12-17 years old (COVID-19: 59.9; influenza range: 12.2-14.1), but similar or lower among children 5-11 (COVID-19: 25.0; influenza range: 24.3-31.7) and 0-4 (COVID-19: 66.8; influenza range: 70.9-91.5) years old. Among children <18 years old, a higher proportion with COVID-19 required ICU admission compared with influenza (26.4% vs 21.6%; p < 0.01). Pediatric deaths were uncommon during both COVID-19- and influenza-associated hospitalizations (0.7% vs 0.5%; p = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of extensive mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate during 2020-2021 was higher among adolescents and similar or lower among children <12 years old compared with influenza during the three seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 adds substantially to the existing burden of pediatric hospitalizations and severe outcomes caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(50): 1589-1596, 2022 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164342

ABSTRACT

The 2022-23 influenza season shows an early rise in pediatric influenza-associated hospitalizations (1). SARS-CoV-2 viruses also continue to circulate (2). The current influenza season is the first with substantial co-circulation of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 (3). Although both seasonal influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2 can contribute to substantial pediatric morbidity (3-5), whether coinfection increases disease severity compared with that associated with infection with one virus alone is unknown. This report describes characteristics and prevalence of laboratory-confirmed influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 coinfections among patients aged <18 years who had been hospitalized or died with influenza as reported to three CDC surveillance platforms during the 2021-22 influenza season. Data from two Respiratory Virus Hospitalizations Surveillance Network (RESP-NET) platforms (October 1, 2021-April 30, 2022),§ and notifiable pediatric deaths associated¶ with influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection (October 3, 2021-October 1, 2022)** were analyzed. SARS-CoV-2 coinfections occurred in 6% (32 of 575) of pediatric influenza-associated hospitalizations and in 16% (seven of 44) of pediatric influenza-associated deaths. Compared with patients without coinfection, a higher proportion of those hospitalized with coinfection received invasive mechanical ventilation (4% versus 13%; p = 0.03) and bilevel positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP/CPAP) (6% versus 16%; p = 0.05). Among seven coinfected patients who died, none had completed influenza vaccination, and only one received influenza antivirals.†† To help prevent severe outcomes, clinicians should follow recommended respiratory virus testing algorithms to guide treatment decisions and consider early antiviral treatment initiation for pediatric patients with suspected or confirmed influenza, including those with SARS-CoV-2 coinfection who are hospitalized or at increased risk for severe illness. The public and parents should adopt prevention strategies including considering wearing well-fitted, high-quality masks when respiratory virus circulation is high and staying up-to-date with recommended influenza and COVID-19 vaccinations for persons aged ≥6 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Child , Humans , Adolescent , United States/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Seasons , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Death
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(34): 1085-1091, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025808

ABSTRACT

Beginning the week of March 20­26, 2022, the Omicron BA.2 variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating variant in the United States, accounting for >50% of sequenced isolates.* Data from the COVID-19­Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were analyzed to describe recent COVID-19­associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during the period coinciding with BA.2 predominance (BA.2 period [Omicron BA.2 and BA.2.12.1; March 20­May 31, 2022]). Weekly hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 population) among adults aged ≥65 years increased threefold, from 6.9 (week ending April 2, 2022) to 27.6 (week ending May 28, 2022); hospitalization rates in adults aged 18­49 and 50­64 years both increased 1.7-fold during the same time interval. Hospitalization rates among unvaccinated adults were 3.4 times as high as those among vaccinated adults. Among hospitalized nonpregnant patients in this same period, 39.1% had received a primary vaccination series and 1 booster or additional dose; 5.0% had received a primary series and ≥2 boosters or additional doses. All adults should stay up to date† with COVID-19 vaccination, and multiple nonpharmaceutical and medical prevention measures should be used to protect those at high risk for severe COVID-19 illness, irrespective of vaccination status§ (1).Beginning the week of March 20­26, 2022, the Omicron BA.2 variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became the predominant circulating variant in the United States, accounting for >50% of sequenced isolates.* Data from the COVID-19­Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were analyzed to describe recent COVID-19­associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during the period coinciding with BA.2 predominance (BA.2 period [Omicron BA.2 and BA.2.12.1; March 20­May 31, 2022]). Weekly hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 population) among adults aged ≥65 years increased threefold, from 6.9 (week ending April 2, 2022) to 27.6 (week ending May 28, 2022); hospitalization rates in adults aged 18­49 and 50­64 years both increased 1.7-fold during the same time interval. Hospitalization rates among unvaccinated adults were 3.4 times as high as those among vaccinated adults. Among hospitalized nonpregnant patients in this same period, 39.1% had received a primary vaccination series and 1 booster or additional dose; 5.0% had received a primary series and ≥2 boosters or additional doses. All adults should stay up to date† with COVID-19 vaccination, and multiple nonpharmaceutical and medical prevention measures should be used to protect those at high risk for severe COVID-19 illness, irrespective of vaccination status§ (1).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
6.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(10): 1071-1081, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013227

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding risk factors for hospitalization in vaccinated persons and the association of COVID-19 vaccines with hospitalization rates is critical for public health efforts to control COVID-19. Objective: To determine characteristics of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among vaccinated persons and comparative hospitalization rates in unvaccinated and vaccinated persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: From January 1, 2021, to April 30, 2022, patients 18 years or older with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from more than 250 hospitals in the population-based COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. State immunization information system data were linked to cases, and the vaccination coverage data of the defined catchment population were used to compare hospitalization rates in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patient characteristics were compared in a representative sample with detailed medical record review; unweighted case counts and weighted percentages were calculated. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days before or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among vaccinated vs unvaccinated persons and factors associated with COVID-19-associated hospitalization in vaccinated persons were assessed. Results: Using representative data from 192 509 hospitalizations (see Table 1 for demographic information), monthly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates ranged from 3.5 times to 17.7 times higher in unvaccinated persons than vaccinated persons regardless of booster dose status. From January to April 2022, when the Omicron variant was predominant, hospitalization rates were 10.5 times higher in unvaccinated persons and 2.5 times higher in vaccinated persons with no booster dose, respectively, compared with those who had received a booster dose. Among sampled cases, vaccinated hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were older than those who were unvaccinated (median [IQR] age, 70 [58-80] years vs 58 [46-70] years, respectively; P < .001) and more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions (1926 [77.8%] vs 4124 [51.6%], respectively; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of US adults hospitalized with COVID-19, unvaccinated adults were more likely to be hospitalized compared with vaccinated adults; hospitalization rates were lowest in those who had received a booster dose. Hospitalized vaccinated persons were older and more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions and be long-term care facility residents compared with hospitalized unvaccinated persons. The study results suggest that clinicians and public health practitioners should continue to promote vaccination with all recommended doses for eligible persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(27): 878-884, 2022 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924758

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised persons are at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death (1). Data on adults aged ≥18 years hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 10 U.S. states in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) were analyzed to assess associations between immunocompromise and ICU admission and in-hospital death during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2022. Associations of COVID-19 vaccination status with ICU admission and in-hospital death were also examined during March 1, 2021-February 28, 2022. During March 1, 2020-February 28, 2022, among a sample of 22,345 adults hospitalized for COVID-19, 12.2% were immunocompromised. Among unvaccinated patients, those with immunocompromise had higher odds of ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.08-1.49) and in-hospital death (aOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.05-1.70) than did nonimmunocompromised patients. Among vaccinated patients,* those with immunocompromise had higher odds of ICU admission (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01-1.92) and in-hospital death (aOR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.28-2.75) than did nonimmunocompromised patients. During March 1, 2021-February 28, 2022, among nonimmunocompromised patients, patients who were vaccinated had lower odds of death (aOR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.39-0.86) than did unvaccinated patients; among immunocompromised patients, odds of death between vaccinated and unvaccinated patients did not differ. Immunocompromised persons need additional protection from COVID-19 and using multiple known COVID-19 prevention strategies,† including nonpharmaceutical interventions, up-to-date vaccination of immunocompromised persons and their close contacts,§ early testing, and COVID-19 prophylactic (Evusheld) and early antiviral treatment,¶ can help prevent hospitalization and subsequent severe COVID-19 outcomes among immunocompromised persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunocompromised Host
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 466-473, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761303

ABSTRACT

Beginning the week of December 19-25, 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant in the United States (i.e., accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates).* Information on the impact that booster or additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines have on preventing hospitalizations during Omicron predominance is limited. Data from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† were analyzed to compare COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during B.1.617.2 (Delta; July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 31, 2022) variant predominance, overall and by race/ethnicity and vaccination status. During the Omicron-predominant period, weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 adults) peaked at 38.4, compared with 15.5 during Delta predominance. Hospitalizations rates increased among all adults irrespective of vaccination status (unvaccinated, primary series only, or primary series plus a booster or additional dose). Hospitalization rates during peak Omicron circulation (January 2022) among unvaccinated adults remained 12 times the rates among vaccinated adults who received booster or additional doses and four times the rates among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose. The rate among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose, was three times the rate among adults who received a booster or additional dose. During the Omicron-predominant period, peak hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black (Black) adults were nearly four times the rate of non-Hispanic White (White) adults and was the highest rate observed among any racial and ethnic group during the pandemic. Compared with the Delta-predominant period, the proportion of unvaccinated hospitalized Black adults increased during the Omicron-predominant period. All adults should stay up to date (1) with COVID-19 vaccination to reduce their risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization. Implementing strategies that result in the equitable receipt of COVID-19 vaccinations, through building vaccine confidence, raising awareness of the benefits of vaccination, and removing barriers to vaccination access among persons with disproportionately higher hospitalizations rates from COVID-19, including Black adults, is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , United States/epidemiology
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
10.
Pediatrics ; 149(1)2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe population-based rates and risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (ie, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death) among hospitalized children. METHODS: During March 2020 to May 2021, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network identified 3106 children hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in 14 states. Among 2293 children primarily admitted for COVID-19, multivariable generalized estimating equations generated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between demographic and medical characteristics abstracted from medical records and severe COVID-19. We calculated age-adjusted cumulative population-based rates of severe COVID-19 among all children. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of hospitalized children had severe COVID-19; 0.5% died during hospitalization. Among hospitalized children aged <2 years, chronic lung disease (aRR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3), neurologic disorders (aRR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5‒2.6), cardiovascular disease (aRR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2‒2.3), prematurity (aRR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1‒2.2), and airway abnormality (aRR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1‒2.2) were associated with severe COVID-19. Among hospitalized children aged 2 to 17 years, feeding tube dependence (aRR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5‒2.5), diabetes mellitus (aRR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6‒2.3) and obesity (aRR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0‒1.4) were associated with severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 occurred among 12.0 per 100 000 children overall and was highest among infants, Hispanic children, and non-Hispanic Black children. CONCLUSIONS: Results identify children at potentially higher risk of severe COVID-19 who may benefit from prevention efforts, including vaccination. Rates establish a baseline for monitoring changes in pediatric illness severity after increased availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the emergence of new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130479, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482074

ABSTRACT

Importance: Racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Objectives: To evaluate whether rates of severe COVID-19, defined as hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or in-hospital death, are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups compared with non-Hispanic White persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 99 counties within 14 US states participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. Participants were persons of all ages hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test within 14 days prior to or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative age-adjusted rates (per 100 000 population) of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by race and ethnicity. Rate ratios (RR) were calculated for each racial and ethnic group compared with White persons. Results: Among 153 692 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 143 342 (93.3%) with information on race and ethnicity were included in the analysis. Of these, 105 421 (73.5%) were 50 years or older, 72 159 (50.3%) were male, 28 762 (20.1%) were Hispanic or Latino, 2056 (1.4%) were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, 7737 (5.4%) were non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander, 40 806 (28.5%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 63 981 (44.6%) were White. Compared with White persons, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely to have higher cumulative age-adjusted rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native (hospitalization: RR, 3.70; 95% CI, 3.54-3.87; ICU admission: RR, 6.49; 95% CI, 6.01-7.01; death: RR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.47-7.99); Latino (hospitalization: RR, 3.06; 95% CI, 3.01-3.10; ICU admission: RR, 4.20; 95% CI, 4.08-4.33; death: RR, 3.85; 95% CI, 3.68-4.01); Black (hospitalization: RR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.81-2.89; ICU admission: RR, 3.17; 95% CI, 3.09-3.26; death: RR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.48-2.69); and Asian or Pacific Islander (hospitalization: RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; ICU admission: RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.83-1.98; death: RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.55-1.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely than White persons to have a COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, or in-hospital death during the first year of the US COVID-19 pandemic. Equitable access to COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccination, is needed to minimize the gap in racial and ethnic disparities of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethnicity/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggested more COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among racial and ethnic minorities. To inform public health practice, the COVID-19-associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) quantified associations between race/ethnicity, census tract socioeconomic indicators, and COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates. METHODS: Using data from COVID-NET population-based surveillance reported during March 1-April 30, 2020 along with socioeconomic and denominator data from the US Census Bureau, we calculated COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates by racial/ethnic and census tract-level socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: Among 16,000 COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 34.8% occurred among non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 36.3% among non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 18.2% among Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons. Age-adjusted COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate were 151.6 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 147.1-156.1) in census tracts with >15.2%-83.2% of persons living below the federal poverty level (high-poverty census tracts) and 75.5 (95% CI: 72.9-78.1) in census tracts with 0%-4.9% of persons living below the federal poverty level (low-poverty census tracts). Among White, Black, and Hispanic persons living in high-poverty census tracts, age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 120.3 (95% CI: 112.3-128.2), 252.2 (95% CI: 241.4-263.0), and 341.1 (95% CI: 317.3-365.0), respectively, compared with 58.2 (95% CI: 55.4-61.1), 304.0 (95%: 282.4-325.6), and 540.3 (95% CI: 477.0-603.6), respectively, in low-poverty census tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates were highest in high-poverty census tracts, but rates among Black and Hispanic persons were high regardless of poverty level. Public health practitioners must ensure mitigation measures and vaccination campaigns address needs of racial/ethnic minority groups and people living in high-poverty census tracts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(23): 851-857, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264714

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occur in older adults, but severe disease that requires hospitalization occurs in all age groups, including adolescents aged 12-17 years (1). On May 10, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include persons aged 12-15 years, and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for this age group on May 12, 2021.* Before that time, COVID-19 vaccines had been available only to persons aged ≥16 years. Understanding and describing the epidemiology of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in adolescents and comparing it with adolescent hospitalizations associated with other vaccine-preventable respiratory viruses, such as influenza, offers evidence of the benefits of expanding the recommended age range for vaccination and provides a baseline and context from which to assess vaccination impact. Using the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), CDC examined COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among adolescents aged 12-17 years, including demographic and clinical characteristics of adolescents admitted during January 1-March 31, 2021, and hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) among adolescents during March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021. Among 204 adolescents who were likely hospitalized primarily for COVID-19 during January 1-March 31, 2021, 31.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 4.9% required invasive mechanical ventilation; there were no associated deaths. During March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, weekly adolescent hospitalization rates peaked at 2.1 per 100,000 in early January 2021, declined to 0.6 in mid-March, and then rose to 1.3 in April. Cumulative COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates during October 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, were 2.5-3.0 times higher than were influenza-associated hospitalization rates from three recent influenza seasons (2017-18, 2018-19, and 2019-20) obtained from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET). Recent increased COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates in March and April 2021 and the potential for severe disease in adolescents reinforce the importance of continued COVID-19 prevention measures, including vaccination and correct and consistent wearing of masks by persons not yet fully vaccinated or when required by laws, rules, or regulations.†.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1576-1583, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895763

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) can be exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both within and outside the workplace, increasing their risk for infection. Among 6,760 adults hospitalized during March 1-May 31, 2020, for whom HCP status was determined by the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), 5.9% were HCP. Nursing-related occupations (36.3%) represented the largest proportion of HCP hospitalized with COVID-19. Median age of hospitalized HCP was 49 years, and 89.8% had at least one underlying medical condition, of which obesity was most commonly reported (72.5%). A substantial proportion of HCP with COVID-19 had indicators of severe disease: 27.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 15.8% required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4.2% died during hospitalization. HCP can have severe COVID-19-associated illness, highlighting the need for continued infection prevention and control in health care settings as well as community mitigation efforts to reduce transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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