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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 466-473, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761303

ABSTRACT

Beginning the week of December 19-25, 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) became the predominant circulating variant in the United States (i.e., accounted for >50% of sequenced isolates).* Information on the impact that booster or additional doses of COVID-19 vaccines have on preventing hospitalizations during Omicron predominance is limited. Data from the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)† were analyzed to compare COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates among adults aged ≥18 years during B.1.617.2 (Delta; July 1-December 18, 2021) and Omicron (December 19, 2021-January 31, 2022) variant predominance, overall and by race/ethnicity and vaccination status. During the Omicron-predominant period, weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 adults) peaked at 38.4, compared with 15.5 during Delta predominance. Hospitalizations rates increased among all adults irrespective of vaccination status (unvaccinated, primary series only, or primary series plus a booster or additional dose). Hospitalization rates during peak Omicron circulation (January 2022) among unvaccinated adults remained 12 times the rates among vaccinated adults who received booster or additional doses and four times the rates among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose. The rate among adults who received a primary series, but no booster or additional dose, was three times the rate among adults who received a booster or additional dose. During the Omicron-predominant period, peak hospitalization rates among non-Hispanic Black (Black) adults were nearly four times the rate of non-Hispanic White (White) adults and was the highest rate observed among any racial and ethnic group during the pandemic. Compared with the Delta-predominant period, the proportion of unvaccinated hospitalized Black adults increased during the Omicron-predominant period. All adults should stay up to date (1) with COVID-19 vaccination to reduce their risk for COVID-19-associated hospitalization. Implementing strategies that result in the equitable receipt of COVID-19 vaccinations, through building vaccine confidence, raising awareness of the benefits of vaccination, and removing barriers to vaccination access among persons with disproportionately higher hospitalizations rates from COVID-19, including Black adults, is an urgent public health priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/ethnology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , United States/epidemiology
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330117

ABSTRACT

Background Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 are significant causes of respiratory illness in children. Methods Influenza and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children <18 years old were analyzed from FluSurv-NET and COVID-NET, two population-based surveillance systems with similar catchment areas and methodology. The annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100 000 during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic (October 1, 2020–September 30, 2021) was compared to influenza-associated hospitalization rates during the 2017–18 through 2019–20 influenza seasons. In-hospital outcomes, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death, were compared. Results Among children <18 years old, the COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate (48.2) was higher than influenza-associated hospitalization rates: 2017–18 (33.5), 2018–19 (33.8), and 2019–20 (41.7). The COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate was higher among adolescents 12–17 years old (COVID-19: 59.9;influenza range: 12.2-14.1), but similar or lower among children 5–11 (COVID-19: 25.0;influenza range: 24.3-31.7) and 0–4 (COVID-19: 66.8;influenza range: 70.9-91.5) years old. Among children <18 years old, a higher proportion with COVID-19 required ICU admission compared with influenza (26.4% vs 21.6%;p<0.01). Pediatric deaths were uncommon during both COVID-19- and influenza-associated hospitalizations (0.7% vs 0.5%;p=0.28). Conclusions In the setting of extensive mitigation measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, the annual COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate during 2020–2021 was higher among adolescents and similar or lower among children <12 years old compared with influenza during the three seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 adds substantially to the existing burden of pediatric hospitalizations and severe outcomes caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses. Summary Annual hospitalization rates and proportions of hospitalized children experiencing severe outcomes were as high or higher for COVID-19 during October 2020–September 2021 compared with influenza during the three seasons before the COVID-19 pandemic, based on U.S. population-based surveillance data.

3.
Pediatrics ; 149(1):1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1602637

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe population-based rates and risk factors for pediatric severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (ie, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death). METHODS: During March 2020 to May 2021, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network identified 3106 children hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in 14 states. Among 2293 children primarily admitted for COVID-19, multivariable generalized estimating equations generated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between demographic and medical characteristics ed from patient electronic medical records and severe COVID-19. We calculated age-adjusted cumulative population-based rates of severe COVID-19 among all children. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of hospitalized children had severe COVID-19;0.5% died during hospitalization. Among hospitalized children aged <2 years, chronic lung disease (aRR: 2.2;95% CI: 1.1-4.3), neurologic disorders (aRR: 2.0;95% CI: 1.5-2.6), cardiovascular disease (aRR: 1.7;95% CI: 1.2-2.3), prematurity (aRR: 1.6;95% CI: 1.1-2.2), and airway abnormality (aRR: 1.6;95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with severe COVID-19. Among hospitalized children aged 2 to 17 years, feeding tube dependence (aRR: 2.0;95% CI: 1.5-2.5), diabetes mellitus (aRR: 1.9;95% CI: 1.6-2.3) and obesity (aRR: 1.2;95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were associated with severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 occurred among 12.0 per 100 000 children overall and was highest among infants, Hispanic children, and non-Hispanic Black children. CONCLUSIONS: Results identify children at potentially higher risk of severe COVID-19 who may benefit from prevention efforts, including vaccination. Rates establish a baseline for monitoring changes in pediatric illness severity after increased availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the emergence of new variants. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Pediatrics is the property of American Academy of Pediatrics and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

4.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294907

ABSTRACT

Background As of August 21, 2021, >60% of the U.S. population aged ≥18 years were fully vaccinated with vaccines highly effective in preventing hospitalization due to Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Infection despite full vaccination (vaccine breakthrough) has been reported, but characteristics of those with vaccine breakthrough resulting in hospitalization and relative rates of hospitalization in unvaccinated and vaccinated persons are not well described, including during late June and July 2021 when the highly transmissible Delta variant predominated. Methods From January 1–June 30, 2021, cases defined as adults aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were identified from >250 acute care hospitals in the population-based COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). Through chart review for sampled cases, we examine characteristics associated with vaccination breakthrough. From January 24–July 24, 2021, state immunization information system data linked to both >37,000 cases representative cases and the defined surveillance catchment area population were used to compare weekly hospitalization rates in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Unweighted case counts and weighted percentages are presented. Results From January 1 – June 30, 2021, fully vaccinated cases increased from 1 (0.01%) to 321 (16.1%) per month. Among 4,732 sampled cases, fully vaccinated persons admitted with COVID-19 were older compared with unvaccinated persons (median age 73 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 65-80] v. 59 years [IQR 48-70];p<0.001), more likely to have 3 or more underlying medical conditions (201 (70.8%) v. 2,305 (56.1%), respectively;p<0.001) and be residents of long-term care facilities [37 (14.5%) v. 146 (5.5%), respectively;p<0.001]. From January 24 – July 24, 2021, cumulative hospitalization rates were 17 times higher in unvaccinated persons compared with vaccinated persons (423 cases per 100,000 population v. 26 per 100,000 population, respectively);rate ratios were 23, 22 and 13 for those aged 18-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years respectively. For June 27 – July 24, hospitalization rates were ≥10 times higher in unvaccinated persons compared with vaccinated persons for all age groups across all weeks. Conclusion Population-based hospitalization rates show that unvaccinated adults aged ≥18 years are 17 times more likely to be hospitalized compared with vaccinated adults. Rates are far higher in unvaccinated persons in all adult age groups, including during a period when the Delta variant was the predominant strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Vaccines continue to play a critical role in preventing serious COVID-19 illness and remain highly effective in preventing COVID-19 hospitalizations.

5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(10): 1409-1419, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused substantial morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe monthly clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19. DESIGN: Pooled cross-sectional study. SETTING: 99 counties in 14 states participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET). PATIENTS: U.S. adults (aged ≥18 years) hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 1 March to 31 December 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Monthly hospitalizations, intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and in-hospital death rates per 100 000 persons in the population; monthly trends in weighted percentages of interventions, including ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use, among an age- and site-stratified random sample of hospitalized case patients. RESULTS: Among 116 743 hospitalized adults with COVID-19, the median age was 62 years, 50.7% were male, and 40.8% were non-Hispanic White. Monthly rates of hospitalization (105.3 per 100 000 persons), ICU admission (20.2 per 100 000 persons), and death (11.7 per 100 000 persons) peaked during December 2020. Rates of all 3 outcomes were highest among adults aged 65 years or older, males, and Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black persons. Among 18 508 sampled hospitalized adults, use of remdesivir and systemic corticosteroids increased from 1.7% and 18.9%, respectively, in March to 53.8% and 74.2%, respectively, in December. Frequency of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressor use decreased from March (37.8%, 27.8%, and 22.7%, respectively) to December (20.5%, 12.3%, and 12.8%, respectively); use of noninvasive respiratory support increased from March to December. LIMITATION: COVID-NET covers approximately 10% of the U.S. population; findings may not be generalizable to the entire country. CONCLUSION: Rates of COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, and death were highest in December 2020, corresponding with the third peak of the U.S. pandemic. The frequency of intensive interventions for management of hospitalized patients decreased over time. These data provide a longitudinal assessment of clinical trends among adults hospitalized with COVID-19 before widespread implementation of COVID-19 vaccines. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/trends , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/trends , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Young Adult
6.
Pediatrics ; 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Describe population-based rates and risk factors for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (ie, ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death) among hospitalized children. METHODS: During March 2020 to May 2021, the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network identified 3106 children hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in 14 states. Among 2293 children primarily admitted for COVID-19, multivariable generalized estimating equations generated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between demographic and medical characteristics abstracted from medical records and severe COVID-19. We calculated age-adjusted cumulative population-based rates of severe COVID-19 among all children. RESULTS: Approximately 30% of hospitalized children had severe COVID-19; 0.5% died during hospitalization. Among hospitalized children aged <2 years, chronic lung disease (aRR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.3), neurologic disorders (aRR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5‒2.6), cardiovascular disease (aRR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.2‒2.3), prematurity (aRR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1‒2.2), and airway abnormality (aRR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1‒2.2) were associated with severe COVID-19. Among hospitalized children aged 2 to 17 years, feeding tube dependence (aRR: 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5‒2.5), diabetes mellitus (aRR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.6‒2.3) and obesity (aRR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0‒1.4) were associated with severe COVID-19. Severe COVID-19 occurred among 12.0 per 100 000 children overall and was highest among infants, Hispanic children, and non-Hispanic Black children. CONCLUSIONS: Results identify children at potentially higher risk of severe COVID-19 who may benefit from prevention efforts, including vaccination. Rates establish a baseline for monitoring changes in pediatric illness severity after increased availability of COVID-19 vaccines and the emergence of new variants.

7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2130479, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482074

ABSTRACT

Importance: Racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Objectives: To evaluate whether rates of severe COVID-19, defined as hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, or in-hospital death, are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups compared with non-Hispanic White persons. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 99 counties within 14 US states participating in the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network. Participants were persons of all ages hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Exposures: Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalization, defined as a positive SARS-CoV-2 test within 14 days prior to or during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cumulative age-adjusted rates (per 100 000 population) of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death by race and ethnicity. Rate ratios (RR) were calculated for each racial and ethnic group compared with White persons. Results: Among 153 692 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 143 342 (93.3%) with information on race and ethnicity were included in the analysis. Of these, 105 421 (73.5%) were 50 years or older, 72 159 (50.3%) were male, 28 762 (20.1%) were Hispanic or Latino, 2056 (1.4%) were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, 7737 (5.4%) were non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander, 40 806 (28.5%) were non-Hispanic Black, and 63 981 (44.6%) were White. Compared with White persons, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely to have higher cumulative age-adjusted rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, and death as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native (hospitalization: RR, 3.70; 95% CI, 3.54-3.87; ICU admission: RR, 6.49; 95% CI, 6.01-7.01; death: RR, 7.19; 95% CI, 6.47-7.99); Latino (hospitalization: RR, 3.06; 95% CI, 3.01-3.10; ICU admission: RR, 4.20; 95% CI, 4.08-4.33; death: RR, 3.85; 95% CI, 3.68-4.01); Black (hospitalization: RR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.81-2.89; ICU admission: RR, 3.17; 95% CI, 3.09-3.26; death: RR, 2.58; 95% CI, 2.48-2.69); and Asian or Pacific Islander (hospitalization: RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; ICU admission: RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.83-1.98; death: RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.55-1.74). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional analysis, American Indian or Alaska Native, Latino, Black, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons were more likely than White persons to have a COVID-19-associated hospitalization, ICU admission, or in-hospital death during the first year of the US COVID-19 pandemic. Equitable access to COVID-19 preventive measures, including vaccination, is needed to minimize the gap in racial and ethnic disparities of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Some studies suggested more COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among racial and ethnic minorities. To inform public health practice, the COVID-19-associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) quantified associations between race/ethnicity, census tract socioeconomic indicators, and COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates. METHODS: Using data from COVID-NET population-based surveillance reported during March 1-April 30, 2020 along with socioeconomic and denominator data from the US Census Bureau, we calculated COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates by racial/ethnic and census tract-level socioeconomic strata. RESULTS: Among 16,000 COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, 34.8% occurred among non-Hispanic White (White) persons, 36.3% among non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 18.2% among Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons. Age-adjusted COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate were 151.6 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 147.1-156.1) in census tracts with >15.2%-83.2% of persons living below the federal poverty level (high-poverty census tracts) and 75.5 (95% CI: 72.9-78.1) in census tracts with 0%-4.9% of persons living below the federal poverty level (low-poverty census tracts). Among White, Black, and Hispanic persons living in high-poverty census tracts, age-adjusted hospitalization rates were 120.3 (95% CI: 112.3-128.2), 252.2 (95% CI: 241.4-263.0), and 341.1 (95% CI: 317.3-365.0), respectively, compared with 58.2 (95% CI: 55.4-61.1), 304.0 (95%: 282.4-325.6), and 540.3 (95% CI: 477.0-603.6), respectively, in low-poverty census tracts. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates were highest in high-poverty census tracts, but rates among Black and Hispanic persons were high regardless of poverty level. Public health practitioners must ensure mitigation measures and vaccination campaigns address needs of racial/ethnic minority groups and people living in high-poverty census tracts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Hospitalization , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(23): 851-857, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264714

ABSTRACT

Most COVID-19-associated hospitalizations occur in older adults, but severe disease that requires hospitalization occurs in all age groups, including adolescents aged 12-17 years (1). On May 10, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration expanded the Emergency Use Authorization for Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to include persons aged 12-15 years, and CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended it for this age group on May 12, 2021.* Before that time, COVID-19 vaccines had been available only to persons aged ≥16 years. Understanding and describing the epidemiology of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations in adolescents and comparing it with adolescent hospitalizations associated with other vaccine-preventable respiratory viruses, such as influenza, offers evidence of the benefits of expanding the recommended age range for vaccination and provides a baseline and context from which to assess vaccination impact. Using the Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), CDC examined COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among adolescents aged 12-17 years, including demographic and clinical characteristics of adolescents admitted during January 1-March 31, 2021, and hospitalization rates (hospitalizations per 100,000 persons) among adolescents during March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021. Among 204 adolescents who were likely hospitalized primarily for COVID-19 during January 1-March 31, 2021, 31.4% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), and 4.9% required invasive mechanical ventilation; there were no associated deaths. During March 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, weekly adolescent hospitalization rates peaked at 2.1 per 100,000 in early January 2021, declined to 0.6 in mid-March, and then rose to 1.3 in April. Cumulative COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates during October 1, 2020-April 24, 2021, were 2.5-3.0 times higher than were influenza-associated hospitalization rates from three recent influenza seasons (2017-18, 2018-19, and 2019-20) obtained from the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET). Recent increased COVID-19-associated hospitalization rates in March and April 2021 and the potential for severe disease in adolescents reinforce the importance of continued COVID-19 prevention measures, including vaccination and correct and consistent wearing of masks by persons not yet fully vaccinated or when required by laws, rules, or regulations.†.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , United States/epidemiology
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1576-1583, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895763

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) can be exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), both within and outside the workplace, increasing their risk for infection. Among 6,760 adults hospitalized during March 1-May 31, 2020, for whom HCP status was determined by the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET), 5.9% were HCP. Nursing-related occupations (36.3%) represented the largest proportion of HCP hospitalized with COVID-19. Median age of hospitalized HCP was 49 years, and 89.8% had at least one underlying medical condition, of which obesity was most commonly reported (72.5%). A substantial proportion of HCP with COVID-19 had indicators of severe disease: 27.5% were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU), 15.8% required invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4.2% died during hospitalization. HCP can have severe COVID-19-associated illness, highlighting the need for continued infection prevention and control in health care settings as well as community mitigation efforts to reduce transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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