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1.
Cattle Practice ; 29(1):12-12, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2033861

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study are to determine if CAM use has potential to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use and support the global efforts against antimicrobial resistance, and to ensure that antimicrobials and other conventional treatment approaches are used where appropriate. 20 farms with a range of management systems, herd sizes and production goals were recruited to this study. Interviews were conducted with 24 farmers through a mixture of face-to-face, telephone and videoconferencing modalities necessitated by movement restrictions during the Covid-19 pandemic. In addition, 16 farms were visited to collect ethnographic participant observational data using ethnographic fieldnotes and photographs. Interviews were conducted using a topic guide and explored participants' experience of CAM, including drivers/barriers to CAM use, experiences of CAM use and how CAM might influence the use of conventional medicine such as antibiotics. Early findings indicate several drivers for UK dairy farmers to use CAM approaches, including their own personal [or friends' and relations'] experiences, the views of influential people and advisors, networks within the farming community and the fact that CAM use allows a greater sense of autonomy in health-based decision making. Farmers often refer to milk buyers and organic guidelines as factors which influence their use of CAM. They further refer to a desire to 'do something' for the animal and to minimise animal welfare related concerns. A range of CAM information sources were also consulted by farmers including, holistic health management organisations/courses, online materials, and pharmacies. Participating farmers associate the use of CAM approaches with other holistic health management practices, human-animal interactions, the actual character and physical characteristics of an animal and animal welfare. This indicates that CAM use is seen by farmers as part of a wider ethos and belief about holistic farming practices and land use. Additionally, data implies that some farmers value their positive personal experiences of CAM use over scientific evidence. In contrast, barriers to CAM use were also identified including: the perception that CAM approaches are reserved specifically for organic systems, little access to CAM and related resources and some existing tensions between farmers and other stakeholders' views. Early findings suggest that farmers are influenced in their use of CAM by a range of individuals within the agriculture community, including veterinary surgeons (some of whom use homeopathic practices), mainstream farming press and pro-CAM organisations and advisors.

2.
Natural Sciences Education ; 50(2), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1597366

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020 led to university closures and little time to convert all face-to-face courses online. We investigated how students in the College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA perceived emergency remote teaching during the early stages of the pandemic. The college maintains a hands-on pedagogy and “Learn by Doing” approach that is challenging to replicate in a remote setting. We conducted a survey of student experiences (n = 304) during the spring of 2020. We found that most students had a negative experience with aspects of emergency remote teaching during the study period. Approximately two-thirds perceived courses to be less effective at increasing knowledge and career-related skills;approximately three-quarters stated group problem solving was less effective;and approximately two-thirds were dissatisfied with the quantity and quality of course content. Around 10% of students felt courses were more effective in these areas. Familiar instructional modes (synchronous and pre-recorded lectures) were the most common and preferred by students (with 70 to 85% finding them useful vs 7 to 15% finding them useless), even though other instructional modes can be more effective strategies for online teaching. Our results highlight the need for concrete experiences in agriculture and natural resources courses. We suggest strategies for faculty and students to improve remote teaching outcomes in agriculture and natural resources disciplines. © 2021 The Authors. Natural Sciences Education © 2021 American Society of Agronomy

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