Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 2 de 2
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1510(1): 79-99, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822055


Targeted protein degradation is critical for proper cellular function and development. Protein degradation pathways, such as the ubiquitin proteasomes system, autophagy, and endosome-lysosome pathway, must be tightly regulated to ensure proper elimination of misfolded and aggregated proteins and regulate changing protein levels during cellular differentiation, while ensuring that normal proteins remain unscathed. Protein degradation pathways have also garnered interest as a means to selectively eliminate target proteins that may be difficult to inhibit via other mechanisms. On June 7 and 8, 2021, several experts in protein degradation pathways met virtually for the Keystone eSymposium "Targeting protein degradation: from small molecules to complex organelles." The event brought together researchers working in different protein degradation pathways in an effort to begin to develop a holistic, integrated vision of protein degradation that incorporates all the major pathways to understand how changes in them can lead to disease pathology and, alternatively, how they can be leveraged for novel therapeutics.

Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex , Ubiquitin , Autophagy/physiology , Humans , Organelles , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Ubiquitin/metabolism
Exp Cell Res ; 396(1): 112276, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752714


Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process devoted to the removal of unnecessary and harmful cellular components. In its general form, autophagy governs cellular lifecycle through the formation of double membrane vesicles, termed autophagosomes, that enwrap and deliver unwanted intracellular components to lysosomes. In addition to this omniscient role, forms of selective autophagy, relying on specialized receptors for cargo recognition, exert fine-tuned control over cellular homeostasis. In this regard, xenophagy plays a pivotal role in restricting the replication of intracellular pathogens, thus acting as an ancient innate defense system against infections. Recently, selective autophagy of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), more simply ER-phagy, has been uncovered as a critical mechanism governing ER network shape and function. Six ER-resident proteins have been characterized as ER-phagy receptors and their orchestrated function enables ER homeostasis and turnover overtime. Unfortunately, ER is also the preferred site for viral replication and several viruses hijack ER machinery for their needs. Thus, it is not surprising that some ER-phagy receptors can act to counteract viral replication and minimize the spread of infection throughout the organism. On the other hand, evolutionary pressure has armed pathogens with strategies to evade and subvert xenophagy and ER-phagy. Although ER-phagy biology is still in its infancy, the present review aims to summarize recent ER-phagy literature, with a special focus on its role in counteracting viral infections. Moreover, we aim to offer some hints for future targeted approaches to counteract host-pathogen interactions by modulating xenophagy and ER-phagy pathways.

Autophagosomes/immunology , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Macroautophagy/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Autophagosomes/metabolism , Bacteria/immunology , Bacterial Infections/genetics , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum/microbiology , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/genetics , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/immunology , Homeostasis/genetics , Homeostasis/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/metabolism , Macroautophagy/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology