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Journal of Tropical Medicine (16879686) ; : 2019/01/01 00:00:00.000, 2023.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2231717


Despite the rigorous global efforts to control SARS-CoV-2 transmission, it continues to pose a serious threat to humans with the frequent emergence of new variants. Thus, robust therapeutics to combat the virus are a desperate need. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein is an important target protein as it mediates the entry of the virus inside the host cells, which is initiated by the binding of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) to its cognate receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2). Herein, the inhibition potential of several naturally occurring coumarins was investigated against the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants using computational approaches. Molecular docking studies revealed 26 coumarins with better binding energies than the reference ligands, molnupiravir and ceftazidime, against the S-RBD of the omicron variant. The top 10 best-docked coumarins were further analyzed to understand their binding interactions against the spike proteins of other variants (wild-type, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta), and these studies also demonstrated decent binding energies. Physicochemical, QSAR, and pharmacokinetics analyses of the coumarins revealed wedelolactone as the best inhibitor of the spike protein with ideal Lipinski's drug-likeness and optimal ADMET properties. Furthermore, coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulation studies of spike protein-wedelolactone complexes validated the stable binding of wedelolactone in the respective binding pockets. As an outcome, wedelolactone could be utilized to develop a potent drug candidate against COVID-19 by blocking the viral entry into the host cell. [ FROM AUTHOR]

Adv Pharmacol Pharm Sci ; 2022: 3742318, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113196


The in silico method has provided a versatile process of developing lead compounds from a large database in a short duration. Therefore, it is imperative to look for vaccinations and medications that can stop the havoc caused by SARS-CoV-2. The spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 is required for the viral entry into the host cells, hence inhibiting the virus from fusing and infecting the host. This study determined the binding interactions of 36 flavonoids along with two FDA-approved drugs against the spike protein receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 through molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition, the molecular mechanics generalized Born surface area (MM/GBSA) approach was used to calculate the binding-free energy (BFE). Flavonoids were selected based on their in vitro assays on SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. Our pharmacokinetics study revealed that cyanidin showed good drug-likeness, fulfilled Lipinski's rule of five, and conferred favorable toxicity parameters. Furthermore, MD simulations showed that cyanidin interacts with spike protein and alters the conformation and binding-free energy suited. Finally, an in vitro assay indicated that about 50% reduction in the binding of hACE2 with S1-RBD in the presence of cyanidin-containing red grapes crude extract was achieved at approximately 1.25 mg/mL. Hence, cyanidin may be a promising adjuvant medication for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein based on in silico and in vitro research.

Journal of Chemistry ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1932846


The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, has been a global concern. While there have been some vaccines and drugs, the rapid emergence of variants due to mutations has threatened public health. As the de novo drug development process is expensive and time-consuming, repurposing existing antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is an alternative and promising approach to mitigate the current situation. Several studies have indicated that some natural products exhibit inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2. This study is aimed at analyzing the potential of natural alkaloids, using various computational tools, as drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. The molecular docking analysis predicted that naturally occurring alkaloids can bind with RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRP). The QSAR analysis was conducted by using the way2drug/PASS online web resource, and the pharmacokinetics and toxicity properties of these alkaloids were predicted using pkCSM, SwissADME, and ProTox-II webserver. Among the different alkaloids studied, neferine and berbamine were repurposed as potential drug candidates based on their binding affinity and interactions with RdRP. Further, molecular dynamics simulation of 90 ns revealed the conformational stability of the neferine-RdRP complex.