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Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 799298, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775692


Acute kidney injury (AKI), electrolyte, and acid-base disorders complicate the clinical course of critically ill patients with coronavirus-associated disease (COVID-19) and are associated with poor outcomes. It is not known whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the intensive care unit (ICU) changes the clinical significance of AKI and/or electrolyte or acid-base disorders developing during ICU stay. We conducted a retrospective study in critically ill patients with COVID-19 to evaluate whether the severity of clinical conditions at admission in the ICU affects the impact of AKI and of serum electrolytes or acid-base status on mortality. We carried out a 28-day retrospective follow-up study on 115 critically ill patients consecutively admitted to ICU for severe COVID-19 at a tertiary care university hospital and surviving longer than 24 h. We collected baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, and longitudinal data on kidney function, kidney replacement therapy, serum electrolytes, and acid-base status. We used Cox proportional hazards multiple regression models to test the interaction between the time-varying variates new-onset AKI or electrolyte or acid-base disorders and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score at admission. After adjusting for age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, and AKI present at ICU admission, new-onset AKI was significantly associated with 28-day mortality only in the patients in the lowest and middle SOFA score tertiles [lowest SOFA tertile, hazard ratio (HR) 4.27 (95% CI: 1.27-14.44; P = 0.019), middle SOFA tertile, HR 3.17 (95% CI: 1.11-9.04, P = 0.031), highest SOFA tertile, HR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.24-2.50; P = 0.66); P = 0.026 for interaction with SOFA as a continuous variable]. After stratifying for APACHE II tertile, results were similar [adjusted HR (aHR) in the lowest tertile 6.24 (95% CI: 1.85-21.03, P = 0.003)]. SOFA or APACHE II at admission did not affect the relationship of serum electrolytes and acid-base status with mortality, except for new-onset acidosis which was associated with increased mortality, with the HR of death increasing with SOFA or APACHE II score (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). Thus, unlike in the most severe critically ill patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19, in patients with the less severe conditions at admission the development of AKI during the stay is a strong indicator of increased hazard of death.

PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148243


OBJECTIVES: Effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently needed. We hypothesized that colchicine, by counteracting proinflammatory pathways implicated in the uncontrolled inflammatory response of COVID-19 patients, reduces pulmonary complications, and improves survival. METHODS: This retrospective study included 71 consecutive COVID-19 patients (hospitalized with pneumonia on CT scan or outpatients) who received colchicine and compared with 70 control patients who did not receive colchicine in two serial time periods at the same institution. We used inverse probability of treatment propensity-score weighting to examine differences in mortality, clinical improvement (using a 7-point ordinary scale), and inflammatory markers between the two groups. RESULTS: Amongst the 141 COVID-19 patients (118 [83.7%] hospitalized), 70 (50%) received colchicine. The 21-day crude cumulative mortality was 7.5% in the colchicine group and 28.5% in the control group (P = 0.006; adjusted hazard ratio: 0.24 [95%CI: 0.09 to 0.67]); 21-day clinical improvement occurred in 40.0% of the patients on colchicine and in 26.6% of control patients (adjusted relative improvement rate: 1.80 [95%CI: 1.00 to 3.22]). The strong association between the use of colchicine and reduced mortality was further supported by the diverging linear trends of percent daily change in lymphocyte count (P = 0.018), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), and in C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.009). Colchicine was stopped because of transient side effects (diarrhea or skin rashes) in 7% of patients. CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study colchicine was associated with reduced mortality and accelerated recovery in COVID-19 patients. This support the rationale for current larger randomized controlled trials testing the safety/efficacy profile of colchicine in COVID-19 patients.

COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Colchicine/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
J Crit Care ; 63: 22-25, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062451


Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a frequent complication in critically ill patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and it has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, especially when Kidney Replacement Therapy (KRT) is required. A condition of hypercoagulability has been frequently reported in COVID-19 patients, and this very fact may complicate KRT management. Sustained Low Efficiency Dialysis (SLED) is a hybrid dialysis modality increasingly used in critically ill patients since it allows to maintain acceptable hemodynamic stability and to overcome the increased clotting risk of the extracorporeal circuit, especially when Regional Citrate Anticoagulation (RCA) protocols are applied. Notably, given the mainly diffusive mechanism of solute transport, SLED is associated with lower stress on both hemofilter and blood cells as compared to convective KRT modalities. Finally, RCA, as compared with heparin-based protocols, does not further increase the already high hemorrhagic risk of patients with AKI. Based on these premises, we performed a pilot study on the clinical management of critically ill patients with COVID-19 associated AKI who underwent SLED with a simplified RCA protocol. Low circuit clotting rates were observed, as well as adequate KRT duration was achieved in most cases, without any relevant metabolic complication nor worsening of hemodynamic status.

Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Citric Acid/therapeutic use , Critical Care/methods , Hybrid Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Treatment Outcome