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Front Pharmacol ; 12: 794453, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643530


Background: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could experience multiple coinfections, and judicial antimicrobials, including antibiotics, is paramount to treat these coinfections. This study evaluated physicians' perception, attitude, and confidence about antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial prescribing in patients with COVID-19. Methods: A self-administered and validated online questionnaire comprised of six sections was disseminated among physicians working in public sector hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan, using the convenience sampling method from April to May 2021. The study also assessed the validity and reliability of the study questionnaire using exploratory factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. In addition, the descriptive and inferential statistics present survey results. Results: A total of 387 physicians participated in this study. The study showed that the questionnaire demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77). Most physicians (n = 221, 57.1%) believed that AMR is a considerable problem in Pakistan. Less than a quarter of respondents (n = 91, 23.5%) consulted with local antibiotic resistance data to prescribe antibiotics in COVID-19 patients. However, the respondents were confident to select a suitable antibiotic (n = 229, 59.2%). More than three-quarters of the respondents believed that advice from a senior colleague (n = 336, 86.8%), infectious disease (ID) physician (n = 315, 81.4%), and implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) could facilitate appropriate prescribing of antibiotics in COVID-19 patients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that physicians with more than 10 years of experience had higher odds of consulting local guidelines for antibiotic therapy (OR, 4.71 95% CI: 1.62-13.73, p = 0.004) than physicians with less than 5 years of experience. Similar trends were found for consulting national guidelines and local resistance data to select an empiric antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: AMR-related awareness was optimal among physicians. Only a few physicians looked up local antibiotic resistance data before prescribing antibiotics to COVID-19 patients empirically. The significant approaches advised by physicians to reduce AMR risk among COVID-19 patients were the implementation of ASPs combined with advice from ID physicians.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(7)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295945


The current study aims to assess the beliefs of the general public in Pakistan towards conspiracy theories, acceptance, willingness to pay, and preference for the COVID-19 vaccine. A cross-sectional study was conducted through an online self-administered questionnaire during January 2021. The Chi-square test or Fisher exact test was utilized for statistical data analysis. A total of 2158 respondents completed the questionnaire, among them 1192 (55.2%) were male with 23.87 (SD: ±6.23) years as mean age. The conspiracy beliefs circulating regarding the COVID-19 vaccine were believed by 9.3% to 28.4% of the study participants. Among them, 1040 (48.2%) agreed to vaccinate on its availability while 934 (43.3%) reported the Chinese vaccine as their preference. The conspiracy beliefs of the participants were significantly associated with acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. The existence of conspiracy beliefs and low vaccine acceptance among the general population is a serious threat to successful COVID-19 vaccination.

Psychol Health Med ; 27(1): 54-68, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101768


The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has significantly affected the mental health of people globally. This study aimed to investigate the mental health status and associated factors among residents of Pakistan. An online questionnaire survey was conducted from April 3 to May 7, 2020, using convenience and snowball sampling techniques. Data regarding demographics, physical health status and contact history during the last 2 weeks were collected. Furthermore, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scales (DASS-21) were utilized to measure the mental health of the participants. The analyses included descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Of the 1663 participants who completed this survey, 1598 met the inclusion criteria. The results revealed mild to moderate depression among 390 participants (24.4%), mild to moderate anxiety among 490 participants (30.7%) and mild to moderate stress among 52 participants (3.3%). A majority of the participants rated their health as good (n = 751, 47.0%). Moreover, students reported significantly higher scores on depression (B = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.71-1.88; p < 0.05), anxiety (B = 0.56, 95% CI = -0.06 to 1.18; p < 0.05) and stress (B = 0.56, 95% CI = -0.12 to 1.23; p < 0.05). Physical symptoms, including fever, cough and myalgia, and contact history in the last 14 days reported significant associations with depression, anxiety and stress (p < 0.05). The mental health status of the people was noted to be affected during the COVID-19 outbreak. Assessment of several factors with significant associations with depression, anxiety and stress may aid in developing psychological interventions for vulnerable groups.

COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Health Status , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires