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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 442, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186073

ABSTRACT

Non-invasive oxygen saturation (SpO2) is a central vital sign used to shape the management of COVID-19 patients. Yet, there have been no report quantitatively describing SpO2 dynamics and patterns in COVID-19 patients using continuous SpO2 recordings. We performed a retrospective observational analysis of the clinical information and 27 K hours of continuous SpO2 high-resolution (1 Hz) recordings of 367 critical and non-critical COVID-19 patients hospitalised at the Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel. An absolute SpO2 threshold of 93% most efficiently discriminated between critical and non-critical patients, regardless of oxygen support. Oximetry-derived digital biomarker (OBMs) computed per 1 h monitoring window showed significant differences between groups, notably the cumulative time below 93% SpO2 (CT93). Patients with CT93 above 60% during the first hour of monitoring, were more likely to require oxygen support. Mechanical ventilation exhibited a strong effect on SpO2 dynamics by significantly reducing the frequency and depth of desaturations. OBMs related to periodicity and hypoxic burden were markedly affected, up to several hours before the initiation of the mechanical ventilation. In summary, OBMs, traditionally used in the field of sleep medicine research, are informative for continuous assessment of disease severity and response to respiratory support of hospitalised COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, OBMs may improve risk stratification and therapy management of critical care patients with respiratory impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Oximetry , Oxygen , Respiratory Rate
2.
Cancer Discov ; 11(10): 2430-2435, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472319

ABSTRACT

We had previously reported short-term efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine among cancer patients with solid tumors. We aimed to evaluate these outcomes at six months postvaccination. The study cohort comprised patients who were on treatment during vaccination and throughout six months postvaccination. Serologic tests were performed after second vaccination and six months afterward. An age-matched cohort of health care workers served as controls. Documentation of COVID-19 infection, blood tests, and imaging studies during the study period was reviewed. Participants included 154 patients and 135 controls. Six months postvaccination, 122 (79%) patients were seropositive compared with 114 (84%) controls (P = 0.32). Serology titer dramatically decreased in a similar manner in both cohorts. No COVID-19 cases were documented in controls, and one case occurred in patient cohort. All previously reported adverse effects resolved. Taken together, the pattern of immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of BNT162b2 in patients with cancer with solid tumors at six months postvaccination resembles that of the general population. SIGNIFICANCE: Evidence regarding efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with cancer indicate a favorable short-term profile. Immunomodulation due to anticancer treatments may affect immunity and immunogenicity of patients with cancer to the BNT162b2 vaccine over time. Our study sheds light on these long-term outcomes and portrays a trend that resembles the general population.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 2355.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Neoplasms , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neutropenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Time-to-Treatment , Vaccination
3.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 5(5): e1506, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis and consequent changes in medical practice have engendered feelings of distress in diverse populations, potentially adversely affecting the psychological well-being of cancer patients. AIM: The purpose of this observational longitudinal study was to evaluate psychosocial perspectives among patients with cancer on intravenous treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study recruited 164 cancer patients undergoing intravenous anti-neoplastic therapy in a tertiary cancer center. Psychosocial indices were assessed at two points in time, corresponding with the beginning of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Israel (March 2020) and the time of easing of restrictions implemented to curtail spread of infection (May 2020). At Time 1 (T1), elevated COVID-19 distress levels (score 1 and 2 on 5-point scale) were observed in 44% of patients, and associated with pre-existing hypertension and lung disease in multivariate analyses but no demographic or cancer related factors. At Time 2 (T2), 10% had elevated anxiety and 24% depression as indicated by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A/D). COVID-19 distress at T1 was related to higher levels of HADS-A at T2 (Spearman 0.33 p < .01), but not HADS-D. Patients with breast cancer expressed greater COVID-19 distress compared with other cancer types (p < .01), while both HADS-A and HADS-D were highest for patients with GI cancer. Patient report of loneliness and decreased support from relatives were factors associated with HADS-A (p = .03 and p < .01, respectively), while HADS-D was not similarly related to the factors evaluated. CONCLUSION: Patients with cancer undergoing intravenous treatment may be vulnerable to acute adverse psychological ramifications of COVID-19, specifically exhibiting high levels of anxiety. These appear unrelated to patient age or disease stage. Those with underlying comorbidities, breast cancer or reduced social support may be at higher risk.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology , Breast Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JAMA Oncol ; 7(10): 1507-1513, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300331

ABSTRACT

Importance: The efficacy and safety profile of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been acquired from phase 3 studies; however, patients with cancer were not represented in these trials. Owing to the recommendation to prioritize high-risk populations for vaccination, further data are warranted. Objective: To evaluate the use and safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine in patients undergoing treatment for cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: In January 2021, mass SARS-CoV-2 vaccination of high-risk populations, including patients with cancer, was initiated in Israel. This cohort study prospectively enrolled and followed up patients with cancer and healthy participants between January 15 and March 14, 2021. The study was conducted at the Division of Oncology of Rambam Health Care Campus, the major tertiary (referral) medical center of northern Israel. Participants included 232 patients with cancer who were receiving active treatment after the first and second doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and 261 healthy, age-matched health care workers who served as controls. Exposures: Serum samples were collected after each vaccine dose and in cases of seronegativity. Questionnaires regarding sociodemographic characteristics and adverse reactions were administered at serum collection. A regulatory agencies-approved assay was used to assess IgG at all time points. Patients' electronic medical records were reviewed for documentation of COVID-19 infection and results of blood cell counts, liver enzyme levels, and imaging studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Seroconversion rate after the first and second doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine and documented COVID-19 infection. Results: Of the 232 patients undergoing treatment for cancer, 132 were men (57%); mean (SD) age was 66 (12.09) years. After the first dose of BNT162b2 vaccine, 29% (n = 25) patients were seropositive compared with 84% (n = 220) of the controls (P < .001). After the second dose, the seropositive rate reached 86% (n = 187) in the patients. Testing rate ratios per 1000 person-days after the first dose were 12.5 (95% CI, 3.4-45.7) for the patients and 48.5 (95% CI, 37.2-63.2) for the controls. Patients undergoing chemotherapy showed reduced immunogenicity (odds ratio, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.98). In seronegative patients, the rate of documented absolute leukopenia reached 39%. No COVID-19 cases were documented throughout the study period; however, 2 cases in the patient cohort were noted immediately after the first dose. Reported adverse events were similar to data in former trials comprising mostly healthy individuals. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 vaccine appeared to be safe and achieve satisfactory serologic status in patients with cancer. There was a pronounced lag in antibody production compared with the rate in noncancer controls; however, seroconversion occurred in most patients after the second dose. Future real-world data are warranted to determine the long-term efficacy of the vaccine with regard to type of anticancer treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/blood , Neoplasms/immunology , Prospective Studies , Seroconversion , Tertiary Care Centers , Treatment Outcome
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 656405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247875

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a newly recognized illness with a predominantly respiratory presentation. It is important to characterize the differences in disease presentation and trajectory between COVID-19 patients and other patients with common respiratory illnesses. These differences can enhance knowledge of pathogenesis and help in guiding treatment. Methods: Data from electronic medical records were obtained from individuals admitted with respiratory illnesses to Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel, between October 1st, 2014 and October 1st, 2020. Four groups of patients were defined: COVID-19 (693), influenza (1,612), severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) (2,292), and Others (4,054). The variable analyzed include demographics (7), vital signs (8), lab tests (38), and comorbidities (15) from a total of 8,651 hospitalized adult patients. Statistical analysis was performed on biomarkers measured at admission and for their disease trajectory in the first 48 h of hospitalization, and on comorobidity prevalence. Results: COVID-19 patients were overall younger in age and had higher body mass index, compared to influenza and SARI. Comorbidity burden was lower in the COVID-19 group compared to influenza and SARI. Severely- and moderately-ill COVID-19 patients older than 65 years of age suffered higher rate of in-hospital mortality compared to hospitalized influenza patients. At admission, white blood cells and neutrophils were lower among COVID-19 patients compared to influenza and SARI patients, while pulse rate and lymphoctye percentage were higher. Trajectories of variables during the first 2 days of hospitalization revealed that white blood count, neutrophils percentage and glucose in blood increased among COVID-19 patients, while decreasing among other patients. Conclusions: The intrinsic virulence of COVID-19 appeared higher than influenza. In addition, several critical functions, such as immune response, coagulation, heart and respiratory function, and metabolism were uniquely affected by COVID-19.

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