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2.
J Autoimmun ; 122: 102682, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275428

ABSTRACT

The variability in resolution of SARS-CoV-2-infections between individuals neither is comprehended, nor are the long-term immunological consequences. To assess the long-term impact of a SARS-CoV-2-infection on the immune system, we conducted a prospective study of 80 acute and former SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals and 39 unexposed donors to evaluate autoantibody responses and immune composition. Autoantibody levels against cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP), a specific predictor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), were significantly (p = 0.035) elevated in convalescents only, whereas both acute COVID-19 patients and long-term convalescents showed critically increased levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase (TG), a specific predictor of celiac disease (CD) (p = 0.002). Both, anti-CCP and anti-TG antibody levels were still detectable after 4-8 months post infection. Anti-TG antibodies occurred predominantly in aged patients in a context of a post-SARS-CoV-2-specific immune composition (R2 = 0.31; p = 0.044). This study shows that increased anti-CCP and anti-TG autoantibody levels can remain long-term after recovering even from mildly experienced COVID-19. The inter-relationship of the lung as viral entry side and RA- and CD-associated autoimmunity indicates that a SARS-CoV-2-infection could be a relevant environmental factor in their pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Peptides, Cyclic/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies/blood , Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Celiac Disease/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transglutaminases/immunology , Young Adult
4.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 168-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060446

ABSTRACT

The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and protein in anatomically distinct regions of the nasopharynx and brain. Furthermore, we describe the morphological changes associated with infection such as thromboembolic ischemic infarction of the CNS and present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can enter the nervous system by crossing the neural-mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 appears to follow neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Central Nervous System , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Smell/physiology , Virus Internalization
6.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(2): 168-175, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952133

ABSTRACT

The newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19, a pandemic respiratory disease. Moreover, thromboembolic events throughout the body, including in the CNS, have been described. Given the neurological symptoms observed in a large majority of individuals with COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 penetrance of the CNS is likely. By various means, we demonstrate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA and protein in anatomically distinct regions of the nasopharynx and brain. Furthermore, we describe the morphological changes associated with infection such as thromboembolic ischemic infarction of the CNS and present evidence of SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. SARS-CoV-2 can enter the nervous system by crossing the neural-mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings. Subsequently, SARS-CoV-2 appears to follow neuroanatomical structures, penetrating defined neuroanatomical areas including the primary respiratory and cardiovascular control center in the medulla oblongata.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/virology , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Central Nervous System , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Smell/physiology , Virus Internalization
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