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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703218

ABSTRACT

Within a year after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, several vaccines had been developed, clinically evaluated, proven to be efficacious in preventing symptomatic disease, and licensed for global use. The remaining questions about the vaccines concern the duration of protection offered by vaccination and its efficacy against variants of concern. Therefore, we set out to analyze the humoral and cellular immune responses 6 months into homologous and heterologous prime-boost vaccinations. We recruited 190 health care workers and measured their anti-spike IgG levels, their neutralizing capacities against the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain and the Delta variant using a surrogate viral neutralization test, and their IFNγ-responses towards SARS-CoV-2-derived spike peptides. We here show that IFNγ secretion in response to peptide stimulation was significantly enhanced in all three vaccination groups and comparable in magnitude. In contrast, the heterologous prime-boost regimen using AZD1222 and BNT162b2 yielded the highest anti-spike IgG levels, which were 3-4.5 times more than the levels resulting from homologous AZD1222 and BNT162b2 vaccination, respectively. Likewise, the neutralizing capacity against both the wild type as well as the Delta receptor binding domains was significantly higher following the heterologous prime-boost regimen. In conclusion, our results suggest that mixing different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might lead to more efficacious and longer-lasting humoral protection against breakthrough infections.

2.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 29, 2022 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While vaccination programs against the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally ongoing, disparate strategies for the deployment of spike antigen show varying effectiveness. METHODS: In order to explore this phenomenon, we sought to compare the early immune responses against AZD1222 and BNT162b2. SARS-CoV-2 seronegative participants received a single dose of either vaccine and were analyzed for immune cell, effector T cell, and antibody dynamics. RESULTS: AZD1222 induced transient leukopenia and major changes among innate and adaptive subpopulations. Both vaccines induced spike protein-specific effector T cells which were dominated by type 1 helper T cell responses following AZD1222 vaccination. A significant reduction of anti-inflammatory T cells upon re-stimulation was also restricted to AZD1222 vaccinees. While IgM and IgG were the dominant isotypes elicited by AZD1222, BNT162b2 led to a significant production of IgG and IgA. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the strategy for spike protein delivery impacts on how and to what extent immune priming against the main SARS-CoV-2 antigen proceeds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 780039, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608013

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the increased emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the impact on schools and preschools remains a matter of debate. To ensure that schools and preschools are kept open safely, the identification of factors influencing the extent of outbreaks is of importance. Aim: To monitor dynamics of COVID-19 infections in schools and preschools and identify factors influencing the extent of outbreaks. Methods: In this prospective observational study we analyzed routine surveillance data of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, from calendar week (CW) 32, 2020 to CW19, 2021 regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection events in schools and preschools considering changes in infection control measures over time. A multivariate linear regression model was fitted to evaluate factors influencing the number of students, teachers and staff tested positive following index cases in schools and preschools. Due to an existing multicollinearity in the common multivariate regression model between the variables "face mask obligation for children" and "face mask obligation for adults", two further separate regression models were set up (Multivariate Model Adults and Multivariate Model Children). Results: We observed a significant increase in secondary cases in preschools in the first quarter of 2021 (CW8 to CW15, 2021), and simultaneously a decrease in secondary cases in schools. In multivariate regression analysis, the strongest predictor of the extent of the outbreaks was the teacher/ caregiver mask obligation (B = -1.9; 95% CI: -2.9 to -1.0; p < 0.001). Furthermore, adult index cases (adult only or child+adult combinations) increased the likelihood of secondary cases (B = 1.3; 95% CI: 0.9 to 1.8; p < 0.001). The face mask obligation for children also showed a significant reduction in the number of secondary cases (B = -0.6; 95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2; p = 0.004. Conclusion: The present study indicates that outbreak events at schools and preschools are effectively contained by an obligation for adults and children to wear face masks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Schools , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Germany , Humans , Masks , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Gesundheitswesen ; 83(11): 890-893, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 in schools continues to be a subject of controversy. METHODOLOGY: "schugi-MV" collects data on the incidence of infection, hygiene management and other factors in structured inspections of schools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Recommendations for safe teaching are to be derived from the results. This article presents information on the first 10 schools visited between 18.12.2020 and 20.01.2021. RESULTS: At the schools visited, the ratio of the number of index cases among adults and children was 1:1.25. The inspections showed a great heterogeneity of schools and school buildings and the resulting possibilities for implementing infection control measures. CONCLUSION: Based on the present preliminary results, hygiene and infection control measures at schools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania cannot be standardised, but should leave room for design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(21): 1582, 2020 10.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1042116
6.
Radiologe ; 60(10): 893-898, 2020 Oct.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856126

ABSTRACT

Until July 31, 2020, about 17.6 million SARS-CoV­2 infections and 680,000 deaths from COVID-19 were reported. SARS-CoV­2 is most likely transmitted by droplets and probably by aerosols. Patients become infectious 2-3 days before the onset of symptoms, and persons with asymptomatic infections are also infectious. COVID-19 affects the upper respiratory tract, lungs (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]), heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs. SARS-CoV­2 uses ACE2 a receptor to enter host cells. Vasculitis, endothelial damage, thromboembolic events and organ failure are accompanied by a massive cytokine response. Elderly people and those with pre-existing diseases are particularly vulnerable. An efficient antiviral therapy is not yet available. Severely ill patients may benefit from dexamethasone and early treatment of complications. Candidate vaccines are currently being tested in clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift ; 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, tends to be clinically inapparent more often or less severe than in adults. The spread of this infection from children poses a danger to vulnerable adults. Therefore, child care institutions and schools currently are widely closed. METHODS: Since the status of infection tends to be congruent in mothers and their children, we tested 401 mothers of children between 1 and 10 years in the city of Rostock (State of Mecklenburg-Westpomerania, northeast of Germany), for the presence of RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs, and of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. RESULTS: In none of the mothers tested, RNA of this virus was detected in the throat swab. In the ELISA test, IgG antibodies were positive in one serum sample, IgA antibodies were positive in 11, and borderline in 3 serum samples. All 401 sera were negative in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with FITC-labeled IgG, IgA, und IgM antibodies. CONCLUSION: At the time of this study, neither SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nor specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in the mothers tested in Rostock.

8.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(17): e96-e100, 2020 08.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In children, the infection with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, tends to be clinically inapparent more often or less severe than in adults. The spread of this infection from children poses a danger to vulnerable adults. Therefore, child care institutions and schools currently are widely closed. METHODS: Since the status of infection tends to be congruent in mothers and their children, we tested 401 mothers of children between 1 and 10 years in the city of Rostock (State of Mecklenburg-Westpomerania, northeast of Germany), for the presence of RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in throat swabs, and of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in serum. RESULTS: In none of the mothers tested, RNA of this virus was detected in the throat swab. In the ELISA test, IgG antibodies were positive in one serum sample, IgA antibodies were positive in 11, and borderline in 3 serum samples. All 401 sera were negative in the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) with FITC-labeled IgG, IgA, und IgM antibodies. CONCLUSION: At the time of this study, neither SARS-CoV-2 RNA, nor specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were detectable in the mothers tested in Rostock.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Oropharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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