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1.
Endocrine ; 2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075622

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of pneumonia caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is called COVID-19 and has led to a pandemic worldwide. It is reasonable to investigate and control factors affecting disease severity and mortality. The relation between vitamin D and viral pneumonia has been previously reported. Vitamin D deficiency is common and may increase hospital admission and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. This mini-review examines the pathways that show the association between vitamin D and COVID-19. On the other hand, it deals with the available evidence related to the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19. Also, we described the pathophysiology of the organs' involvement in COVID-19 and the effect of vitamin D on these outcomes. Vitamin D strengthens the innate and adaptive immune system, modulates immune responses, prevents lung and cardiovascular system damage, and reduces thrombotic events. Vitamin D exerts these effects in several pathways. Vitamin D prevents virus entry and replication by maintaining the integrity of the body's physical barrier. Vitamin D reduces the damage to vital organs and thrombotic events by increasing the level of Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), nitric oxide, and antioxidants or by reducing inflammatory cytokines and free radicals. Sufficient vitamin D may be reduced morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19. However, this issue should be investigated and confirmed by further research in the future.

2.
JEADV Clinical Practice ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1913856

ABSTRACT

After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) became widespread around the world, several vaccines have been developed with variable efficacy and potency and based on different platforms to control the pandemic. One of these vaccines is Sinopharm (BBIBP-CorV), which is an inactivated virus that was released by Sinopharm's Beijing institute in the summer of 2020. The most commonly reported side effects of the Sinopharm vaccine have included pain at the injection site, muscle pain, headache and fatigue. Dermatological reactions are also reported as less common and were mainly local injection site reactions. Fixed drug eruption (FDE) is a rare and unusual adverse effect and accounts for less than 1% of all severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine-related cutaneous manifestations. FDE has not been reported following the COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. Here, we describe a rare case of FDE following the administration of the first shot of the Sinopharm vaccine.

3.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 208, 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough, with a duration of coughing of more than 8 weeks in adults, affects 5-10% of the general population. One of the most common causes of chronic cough is cough-variant asthma, which accounts for approximately one-third of cases. This phenotype of asthma is characterized by extreme sensitivity of the neuronal pathways mediating cough to environmental irritants, which results in an urge to cough. This case is an example of cough-variant asthma presenting with allergic shiners due to her severe cough. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old Iranian woman, who was well before the start of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, presented with a nonproductive hacking cough that had begun after excessive use of antiseptic solutions. The only positive finding on physical examination was a reddish-purple rash on and around the eyelids mimicking a heliotrope rash, which had probably evolved due to the severity of the cough. The results of the pulmonary function test were within normal limits. Methacholine challenge test and chest x-ray were both normal. Chest high-resolution computed tomography revealed hyperinflation and tree-in-bud opacities. All other laboratory tests were normal. Because of the reversibility in her pulmonary function test, despite normal baseline parameters, asthma treatment was initiated, resulting in disappearance of the cough and the eye discoloration, being indicative of the correct diagnosis and proper treatment. CONCLUSION: Patients with cough-variant asthma may often have no other classic symptoms of asthma other than cough.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Cyprinidae , Exanthema , Animals , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/complications , Chronic Disease , Cough/etiology , Exanthema/complications , Female , Humans , Iran
4.
Obes Surg ; 32(5): 1689-1700, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777795

ABSTRACT

Currently, pneumonia caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic. To date, there is no specific antiviral treatment for the disease, and universal access to the vaccine is a serious challenge. Some observational studies have shown that COVID-19 is more common in countries with a high prevalence of obesity and that people with COVID-19 have a higher body mass index. In these studies, obesity increased the risk of disease, as well as its severity and mortality. This study aimed to review the mechanisms that link obesity to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Obesity, Morbid , Humans , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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