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1.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902636

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 has impacted the U.S. economy and business organizations in multiple ways, yet its influence on company fundamentals and risk structures have not been fully elucidated. In this paper, we apply LDA, a mainstream topic model, to analyze the risk factor section from SEC filings (10-K and 10-Q), and describe risk structure change over the past two years. The results show that Covid-19 has transformed the risk structures U.S. companies face in the short run, exerting excessive stress on international interactions, operations, and supply chains. However, this shock has been waning since the second quarter of 2020. Our model shows that risk structure change (measured by topic distribution) from Covid-19 is a significant predictor of lower performance, but smaller companies tend to be stricken harder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Machine Learning , Organizations , Pandemics
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109494, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886124

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential for cross-species infection. Many viruses have been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). To date, little is known about whether and, if so, how the UPR is activated by PDCoV infection. Here, we investigated the activation state of UPR pathways and their effects on viral replication during PDCoV infection. We found that PDCoV infection induced ERS and activated all three known UPR pathways (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and PKR-like ER kinase [PERK]), as demonstrated by IRE1-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage and increased mRNA expression of XBP1s, ATF4, CHOP, GADD34, GRP78, and GRP94, as well as phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Through pharmacologic treatment, RNA interference, and overexpression experiments, we confirmed the negative role of the PERK-eIF2α pathway and the positive regulatory role of the ATF6 pathway, but found no obvious effect of IRE1 pathway, on PDCoV replication. Taken together, our results characterize, for the first time, the state of the ERS response during PDCoV infection and identify the PERK and ATF6 pathways as potential antiviral targets.


Subject(s)
Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Unfolded Protein Response , Animals , Deltacoronavirus , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2/metabolism , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Swine , eIF-2 Kinase/genetics , eIF-2 Kinase/metabolism
3.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(5): 716-725, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852420

ABSTRACT

Emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to cause waves of new infections globally. Developing effective antivirals against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants is an urgent task. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is an attractive drug target because of its central role in viral replication and its conservation among variants. We herein report a series of potent α-ketoamide-containing Mpro inhibitors obtained using the Ugi four-component reaction. The prioritized compound, Y180, showed an IC50 of 8.1 nM against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and had oral bioavailability of 92.9%, 31.9% and 85.7% in mice, rats and dogs, respectively. Y180 protected against wild-type SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and P.3 (Theta), with EC50 of 11.4, 20.3, 34.4 and 23.7 nM, respectively. Oral treatment with Y180 displayed a remarkable antiviral potency and substantially ameliorated the virus-induced tissue damage in both nasal turbinate and lung of B.1.1.7-infected K18-human ACE2 (K18-hACE2) transgenic mice. Therapeutic treatment with Y180 improved the survival of mice from 0 to 44.4% (P = 0.0086) upon B.1.617.1 infection in the lethal infection model. Importantly, Y180 was also highly effective against the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant both in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our study provides a promising lead compound for oral drug development against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Rats
4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 926: 175033, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850999

ABSTRACT

Efficient antiviral drug discovery has been a pressing issue of global public health concern since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), a reactive oxysterol catalyzed by cholesterol-25-hydroxylase, exerts broad-spectrum antiviral activity with high efficiency and low toxicity. 25HC restricts viral internalization and disturbs the maturity of viral proteins using multiple mechanisms. First, 25HC reduces lipid rafts and cholesterol in the cytomembrane by inhibiting sterol-regulatory element binding proteins-2, stimulating liver X receptor, and activating Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyl-transferase. Second, 25HC impairs endosomal pathways by restricting the function of oxysterol-binding protein or Niemann-pick protein C1, causing the virus to fail to release nucleic acid. Third, 25HC disturbs the prenylation of viral proteins by suppressing the sterol-regulatory element binding protein pathway and glycosylation by increasing the sensitivity of glycans to endoglycosidase. This paper reviews previous studies on the antiviral activity of 25HC in order to fully understand its role in innate immunity and how it may contribute to the development of urgently needed broad-spectrum antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxysterols , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Homeostasis , Humans , Hydroxycholesterols/pharmacology , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Proteins/metabolism
5.
Asian J Androl ; 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835087

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic, there have been concerns about the impact of vaccines on people's fertility, including the fertility of those who are currently preparing for pregnancy and those who might become pregnant in future. However, there is still a lack of research on the effect of the COVID-19 vaccine on male fertility, and it is not surprising that couples and donors have concerns regarding vaccination. In this study, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine semen quality before and after receipt of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. There were no statistically significant changes in semen parameters (volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility, and total progressive motile count) after two doses of vaccine (all P > 0.05). In summary, our study updates the most recent studies on the effects of the COVID-19 vaccine on male fertility, and the information from this study could be used to guide fertility recommendations for assisted reproductive technology (ART) patients and donors.

6.
Multimed Tools Appl ; 81(3): 4475-4494, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813760

ABSTRACT

Wearing a mask is an important way of preventing COVID-19 transmission and infection. German researchers found that wearing masks can effectively reduce the infection rate of COVID-19 by 40%. However, the detection of face mask-wearing in the real world is affected by factors such as light, occlusion, and multi-object. The detection effect is poor, and the wearing of cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves and other items greatly reduces the personal protection effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm for mask detection and classification that fuses transfer learning and deep learning. Firstly, this paper proposes a new algorithm for face mask detection that integrates transfer learning and Efficient-Yolov3, using EfficientNet as the backbone feature extraction network, and choosing CIoU as the loss function to reduce the number of network parameters and improve the accuracy of mask detection. Secondly, this paper divides the mask into two categories of qualified masks (N95 masks, disposable medical masks) and unqualified masks (cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves, etc.), creates a mask classification data set, and proposes a new mask classification algorithm that the combines transfer learning and MobileNet, enhances the generalization of the model and solves the problem of small data size and easy overfitting. Experiments on the public face mask detection data set show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance than existing algorithms. In addition, experiments are performed on the created mask classification data set. The mask classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 97.84%, which is better than other algorithms.

7.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 757362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581368

ABSTRACT

Cardiac injury is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the exact mechanisms have not been completely elucidated. The virus receptors on subsets of cells are key determinants of susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Due to its high sequence similarity to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 also utilizes ACE2 as the cell entry receptor. A growing number of studies have indicated that other receptors apart from ACE2 are involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aimed to elucidate the expression characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 cellular receptors in the heart. We first investigated ACE2 expression in a comprehensive transcriptional landscape of the human heart comprising single-nucleus RNA-seq (snRNA-seq) data for >280,000 cells. Then, the expression distributions of novel SARS-CoV-2 receptors were analyzed at the single-cell level to clarify the cardiovascular complications in COVID-19. We observed a higher percentage of ACE2-positive cells in pericytes (8.3%), fibroblasts (5.1%), and adipocytes (4.4%) in the human heart, compared to other cell types. The frequency of ACE2-positive cells in each cell type from the ventricles was significantly higher than that in the atria, suggesting that the ventricular cells are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The distribution patterns of other receptors (BSG, HSPA5, KREMEN1, NRP1, ANPEP, AXL) were significantly different from those of ACE2, demonstrating higher expression levels in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, our results suggest that fibroblasts and adipocytes, aside from pericytes, may be vulnerable targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human heart. Our study presents potential targets for future clinical studies and interventions for cardiac injury in patients with COVID-19.

8.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(1)2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580523

ABSTRACT

The spread of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak beginning in March 2020. Currently, there is a lack of suitable dose formulations that interrupt novel coronavirus transmission via corneal and conjunctival routes. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a thermosensitive gelling system based on a selenium-containing polymer for topical ocular continuous drug release. In detail, di-(1-hydroxylundecyl) selenide (DHSe), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), and poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) were polymerized to form poly(DHSe/PEG/PPG urethane). The polymer was used to carry poorly water-soluble remdesivir (RDV) at room temperature to form the final thermosensitive in situ gel, which exhibited a typical sol-gel transition at 35 °C. The formed polymer was further characterized by rheology, thermology, and scanning electron microscopy. In vitro release studies and in vivo retention and penetration tests indicated that the thermogel provided the prolonged release of RDV. The RDV-loaded in situ gel was proven to be non-biotoxic against human corneal epithelial cells, with good ocular tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbit eyes.

9.
Multimedia Tools and Applications ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564874

ABSTRACT

Wearing a mask is an important way of preventing COVID-19 transmission and infection. German researchers found that wearing masks can effectively reduce the infection rate of COVID-19 by 40%. However, the detection of face mask-wearing in the real world is affected by factors such as light, occlusion, and multi-object. The detection effect is poor, and the wearing of cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves and other items greatly reduces the personal protection effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm for mask detection and classification that fuses transfer learning and deep learning. Firstly, this paper proposes a new algorithm for face mask detection that integrates transfer learning and Efficient-Yolov3, using EfficientNet as the backbone feature extraction network, and choosing CIoU as the loss function to reduce the number of network parameters and improve the accuracy of mask detection. Secondly, this paper divides the mask into two categories of qualified masks (N95 masks, disposable medical masks) and unqualified masks (cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves, etc.), creates a mask classification data set, and proposes a new mask classification algorithm that the combines transfer learning and MobileNet, enhances the generalization of the model and solves the problem of small data size and easy overfitting. Experiments on the public face mask detection data set show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance than existing algorithms. In addition, experiments are performed on the created mask classification data set. The mask classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 97.84%, which is better than other algorithms.

10.
Phytomedicine ; 95: 153784, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has caused a high number of deaths worldwide. Inflammatory factors may play important roles in COVID-19 progression. Yindan Jiedu granules (YDJDG) can inhibit the progression of COVID-19, but the associated mechanism is unclear. PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of YDJDG on COVID-19 and explore its underlying mechanism. METHODS: We recruited 262 participants and randomly assigned 97 patients each to the YDJDG and control groups using one-to-one propensity score matching (PSM). Clinical effects were observed and serum inflammatory and immune indicators were measured. The target network model of YDJDG was established by predicting and determining the targets of identified compounds. The main constituents of the YDJDG extracts were identified and evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and molecular docking. Besides, the anti-inflammatory effects of YDJDG and its specific biological mechanism of action were studied. RESULTS: After PSM, the results showed that compared with the control group, the YDJDG group had a shorter time of dissipation of acute pulmonary exudative lesions (p < 0.0001), shorter time to negative conversion of viral nucleic acid (p < 0.01), more rapid decrease in serum amyloid A level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (p < 0.0001), and a higher rate of increase in CD4+T cell count (p = 0.0155). By overlapping the genes of YDJDG and COVID-19, 213 co-targeted genes were identified. Metascape enrichment analysis showed that 25 genes were significantly enriched in the NF-κB pathway, which were mainly targets of luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol as confirmed by MS analysis. Molecular docking revealed that the ligands of three compounds had strong interaction with NF-κB p65 and IκBα. In vivo, YDJDG significantly protected animals from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI), decreasing the lung wet/dry weight ratio, ALI score, and lung histological damage. In LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, YDJDG suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65. In vivo and in vitro, YDJDG exerted anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α). These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of NF-ĸB activation and IκBα phosphorylation. CONCLUSION: YDJDG may shorten the COVID-19 course and delay its progression by suppressing inflammation via targeting the NF-κB pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463827

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes diarrhoea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. No effective PDCoV vaccines or antiviral drugs are currently available. Here, we successfully generated an infectious clone of PDCoV strain CHN-HN-2014 using a combination of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based reverse genetics system with a one-step homologous recombination. The recued virus (rCHN-HN-2014) possesses similar growth characteristics to the parental virus in vitro. Based on the established infectious clone and CRISPR/Cas9 technology, a PDCoV reporter virus expressing nanoluciferase (Nluc) was constructed by replacing the NS6 gene. Using two drugs, lycorine and resveratrol, we found that the Nluc reporter virus exhibited high sensibility and easy quantification to rapid antiviral screening. We further used the Nluc reporter virus to test the susceptibility of different cell lines to PDCoV and found that cell lines derived from various host species, including human, swine, cattle and monkey enables PDCoV replication, broadening our understanding of the PDCoV cell tropism range. Taken together, our reporter viruses are available to high throughput screening for antiviral drugs and uncover the infectivity of PDCoV in various cells, which will accelerate our understanding of PDCoV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/genetics , Deltacoronavirus/metabolism , Genes, Reporter/genetics , Luciferases/genetics , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Deltacoronavirus/growth & development , Dogs , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Luciferases/biosynthesis , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Nanostructures , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/genetics
12.
J Virol ; 95(24): e0134521, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441856

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, causes serious diarrhea in suckling piglets and has the potential for cross-species transmission. Although extensive studies have been reported on the biology and pathogenesis of PDCoV, the mechanisms by which PDCoV enters cells are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated how PDCoV enters IPI-2I cells, a line of porcine intestinal epithelial cells derived from pig ileum. Immunofluorescence assays, small interfering RNA (siRNA) interference, specific pharmacological inhibitors, and dominant negative mutation results revealed that PDCoV entry into IPI-2I cells depended on clathrin, dynamin, and a low-pH environment but was independent of caveolae. Specific inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) revealed that PDCoV entry involves macropinocytosis and depends on NHE rather than on PI3K. Additionally, Rab5 and Rab7, but not Rab11, regulated PDCoV endocytosis. This is the first study to demonstrate that PDCoV uses clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis as alternative endocytic pathways to enter porcine intestinal epithelial cells. We also discussed the entry pathways of PDCoV into other porcine cell lines. Our findings reveal the entry mechanisms of PDCoV and provide new insight into the PDCoV life cycle. IMPORTANCE An emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus, PDCoV, has the potential for cross-species transmission, attracting extensive attenuation. Characterizing the detailed process of PDCoV entry into cells will deepen our understanding of the viral infection and pathogenesis and provide clues for therapeutic intervention against PDCoV. With the objective, we used complementary approaches to dissect the process in PDCoV-infected IPI-2I cells, a line of more physiologically relevant intestinal epithelial cells to PDCoV infection in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that PDCoV enters IPI-2I cells via macropinocytosis, which does not require a specific receptor, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which requires a low-pH environment and dynamin, while a caveola-mediated endocytic pathway is used by PDCoV to enter swine testicular (ST) cells and porcine kidney (LLC-PK1) cells. These findings provide a molecular detail of the cellular entry pathways of PDCoV and may direct us toward novel antiviral drug development.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/physiology , Dynamins/metabolism , Endocytosis , Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Cell Survival , Clathrin/metabolism , Coronavirus/genetics , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ileum/virology , Kidney/virology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pinocytosis , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Internalization , rab5 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
13.
Front Psychol ; 12: 713597, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441142

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 not only poses a huge threat to public health, but also affects people's mental health. Take scientific and effective psychological crisis intervention to prevent large-scale negative emotional contagion is an important task for epidemic prevention and control. This paper established a sentiment classification model to make sentiment annotation (positive and negative) about the 105,536 epidemic comments in 86 days on the official Weibo of People's Daily, the test results showed that the accuracy of the model reached 88%, and the AUC value was greater than 0.9. Based on the marked data set, we explored the potential law between the changes in Internet public opinion and epidemic situation in China. First of all, we found that most of the Weibo users showed positive emotions, and the negative emotions were mainly caused by the fear and concern about the epidemic itself and the doubts about the work of the government. Secondly, there is a strong correlation between the changes of epidemic situation and people's emotion. Also, we divided the epidemic into three period. The proportion of people's negative emotions showed a similar trend with the number of newly confirmed cases in the growth and decay period, and the extinction period. In addition, we also found that women have more positive emotional performance than men, and the high-impact groups is also more positive than the low-impact groups. We hope that these conclusions can help China and other countries experiencing severe epidemics to guide publics respond.

14.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 14: 1291-1301, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362179

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 pandemic has been verified as a public health emergency of international concern. During the special period, the health of vulnerable groups, such as children with autism, should be concerned. Some studies have been carried out to investigate the behavioral problems of children with autism during the COVID-19, but underlying mechanisms behind it is not clear. This study examines the role of parenting stress as a mediator in the relationship between parental self-efficacy and behavioral problems in Chinese children as well as the role of perceived social support as a moderator for this mediation effect. METHODS: A total of 439 parents of children with autism (mean age=40.17, SD=5.26) were surveyed and completed five questionnaires (Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire, Parental Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Parenting Stress Index-Short Form 15, Perceived Social Support Questionnaire, and Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five Factor Inventory). The statistical analyses were conducted by SPSS 26.0 and SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: Controlling for neuroticism, which is highly associated with psychological changes in parents, the study found that parental self-efficacy was significantly and negatively correlated with behavioral problems in children with autism. In addition, the relationship between parental self-efficacy and behavioral problems was mediated by parenting stress. Furthermore, parenting stress moderated the indirect relationship between parental self-efficacy and behavioral problems via perceived social support. CONCLUSION: These results provide direct evidences for the inextricable relationship between family, social factors and behavioral problems of children with autism. It suggest that improving perceived social support to enhance parental self-efficacy is critical to buffering against parenting stress and stabilizing children with autism during the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(5): e007098, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232381

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted clinical care worldwide. Evidence of how this health crisis affected common conditions like blood pressure (BP) control is uncertain. METHODS: We used longitudinal BP data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial to examine variations in home BP monitored via a smartphone-based application (app) in a total of 7394 elderly patients with hypertension aged 60 to 80 years stratified by their location in Wuhan (n=283) compared with other provinces of China (n=7111). Change in morning systolic BP (SBP) was analyzed for 5 30-day phases during the pandemic, including preepidemic (October 21 to November 20, 2019), incubation (November 21 to December 20, 2019), developing (December 21, 2019 to January 20, 2020), outbreak (January 21 to February 20, 2020), and plateau (February 21 to March 21, 2020). RESULTS: Compared with non-Wuhan areas of China, average morning SBP (adjusted for age, sex, body mass index) in Wuhan patients was significantly higher during the epidemic growth phases, which returned to normal at the plateau. Between-group differences in ΔSBP were +2.5, +3.0, and +2.1 mm Hg at the incubation, developing, and outbreak phases of COVID-19 (P<0.001), respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed a similar trend in trajectory pattern of SBP in both the intensive and standard BP control groups of the trial. Patients in Wuhan also had an increased regimen change in antihypertensive drugs during the outbreak compared with non-Wuhan patients. Expectedly, Wuhan patients were more likely to check their BP via the app, while doctors were less likely to monitor the app for BP control during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a short-term increase in morning SBP among elderly patients with hypertension in Wuhan but not other parts of China. Further study will be needed to understand if these findings extended to other parts of the world substantially affected by the virus. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03015311.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure Determination , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/physiopathology , Smartphone , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , China , Female , Humans , Hypertension/therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Self Care
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 634266, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110322

ABSTRACT

Background: Yindan Jiedu Granules (YDJDG) have been newly prescribed as a Chinese herbal formula. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: Overall, 131 patients with COVID-19 were included in this study. In addition to standard care, 60 of these patients received YDJDG (YDJDG group) and 71 received lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir-ritonavir group). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to match the characteristics of individuals in the two groups, while the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare the proportion recovery observed. Results: Cox analysis revealed that YDJDG and CD4 ≥ 660 cells/µL were independent predictive factors of proportion recovery. At baseline, disease types differed between the YDJDG and lopinavir-ritonavir treatment groups. Furthermore, no significant adverse effects or toxicities relevant to YDJDG were observed. The median recovery time was 21 days in the YDJDG group and 27 days in the lopinavir-ritonavir group. After PSM (1:1), 50 patient pairs, YDJDG vs. lopinavir-ritonavir, were analyzed. In the YDJDG group, the proportion of recovered patients was remarkably higher than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0013), especially for those presenting mild/moderate disease type and CD4 < 660 cells/µL. In the YDJDG group, the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions was significantly shorter than that observed in the lopinavir-ritonavir group (p = 0.0180 and p = 0.0028, respectively). Conclusion: YDJDG reveals the potential to hasten the recovery period in COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate disease type or CD4 < 660 cells/µL by shortening the mean duration of fever and pulmonary exudative lesions.

18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(24): 24570-24578, 2020 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011832

ABSTRACT

As of May 5, 2020, the number of confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) cases has been more than 3.5 million with 243,540 deaths. We aimed to determine the associations between ageing population, median age, life expectancy at birth and COVID-19 mortality. The numbers of COVID-19 cases and deaths in the European region were obtained from the World Health Organization database. The data on percentage of the population aged 65 and over, median age and life expectancy at birth were extracted from the World Factbook of Central Intelligence Agency. A total of 56 countries/areas in the Europe reported COVID-19 cases and deaths (1,121,853 cases and 100,938 deaths) on April 20, 2020. The results showed significant positive associations between COVID-19 mortality and ageing population (r =0.274; P =0.021), median age (r =0.255; P=0.029), male median age (r =0.284; P =0.017), female median age (r =0.224; P=0.049), life expectancy at birth (r =0.336; P=0.006), male life expectancy at birth (r =0.342; P=0.005), female life expectancy at birth (r =0.312; P=0.01) in the 56 European countries/areas. This study illustrated that COVID-19 mortality was positively associated with ageing population, median age, and life expectancy at birth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Life Expectancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Population Surveillance
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(24)2020 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006977

ABSTRACT

We assessed the mental health of parents (N = 1450, Mage = 40.76) of special needs children during the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted an online survey comprising items on demographic data; two self-designed questionnaires (children's behavioral problems/psychological demand of parents during COVID-19); and four standardized questionnaires, including the General Health Questionnaire, Perceived Social Support, Parenting Stress Index, and Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five Factor Inventory. The results showed that there were significant differences among parents of children with different challenges. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder were more likely to have mental health problems compared to parents whose children had an intellectual disability or a visual or hearing impairment. Behavioral problems of children and psychological demands of parents were common factors predicting the mental health of all parents. Parent-child dysfunctional interactions and parenting distress were associated with parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. Family support, having a difficult child, and parenting distress were associated with having children with an intellectual disability. It is necessary to pay attention to the parents' mental health, provide more social and family support, and reduce parenting pressures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Children , Mental Health , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Parenting
20.
Front Psychol ; 11: 565393, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate the state anxiety of parents of special needs children during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic and the influence of parental stress, social support, and other related variables on the anxiety of parents. METHODS: Bespoke questionnaires of children's and parent's mental and behavioral problems during the epidemic were used in the study. We also used the State Anxiety Inventory (S-AI), the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form-15 (PSI-SF-15), the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). The data used in the study were pooled from an online survey of parents of special needs children and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Overall, 1,451 individuals were included, of which 402 were fathers (27.71%) and 1,049 were mothers (72.29%). ANOVA results showed that educational background, family monthly income, and type of their child's disability made parents' state anxiety significantly different. The results of multiple linear regression showed that during the epidemic, social support negatively predicted parents' state anxiety (B = -0.15, p < 0.001), whereas parenting stress (B = 0.07, p = 0.001) and parental mental and behavioral problems (B = 0.37, p < 0.001) positively predicted parents' state anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: During the outbreak of COVID-19, parents of special needs children suffered mental and behavioral problems, together with parenting stress and social support, which influenced their state anxiety. These findings can be used to develop relevant psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during a pandemic like COVID-19.

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