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Panminerva Med ; 63(4): 529-538, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689607


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has changed bronchoscopy practices worldwide. Bronchoscopy is a high-risk aerosol-generating procedure with a potential for direct SARS-CoV-2 exposure and hospital-acquired infection. Current guidelines about personal protective equipment and environment considerations represent key competencies to minimize droplets dispersion and reduce the risk of transmission. Different measures should be put in field based on setting, patient's clinical characteristics, urgency and indications of bronchoscopy. The use of this technique in SARS-CoV-2 patients is reported primarily for removal of airway plugs and for obtaining microbiological culture samples. In mechanically ventilated patients with SARS-CoV-2, bronchoscopy is commonly used to manage complications such as hemoptysis, atelectasis or lung collapse when prone positioning, physiotherapy or recruitment maneuvers have failed. Further indications are represented by assistance during percutaneous tracheostomy. Continuous positive airway pressure, non-invasive ventilation support and high flow nasal cannula oxygen are frequently used in patient affected by Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): management of patients' airways and ventilation strategies differs from bronchoscopy indications, patient's clinical status and in course or required ventilatory support. Sedation is usually administered by the pulmonologist (performing the bronchoscopy) or by the anesthetist depending on the complexity of the procedure and the level of sedation required. Lastly, elective bronchoscopy for diagnostic indications during COVID-19 pandemic should be carried on respecting rigid standards which allow to minimize potential viral transmission, independently from patient's COVID-19 status. This narrative review aims to evaluate the indications, procedural measures and ventilatory strategies of bronchoscopy performed in different settings during COVID-19 pandemic.

Bronchoscopy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Tracheostomy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cannula , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
Respir Care ; 67(2): 227-240, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410802


During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, noninvasive respiratory support has played a central role in managing patients affected by moderate-to-severe acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, despite inadequate scientific evidence to support its usage. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) treatment has gained popularity because of its effectiveness in delivering a high fraction of humidified oxygen, which improves ventilatory efficiency and the respiratory pattern, as well as its reported high tolerability, ease of use, and application outside of ICUs. Nevertheless, the risk of infection transmission to health-care workers has raised some concerns about its use in the first wave of the pandemic outbreak, with controversial recommendations provided by different scientific societies. This narrative review provides an overview of the recent evidence on the physiologic rationale, risks, and benefits of using HFNC instead of conventional oxygen therapy and other types of noninvasive respiratory support devices, such as continuous positive airway pressure and noninvasive ventilation in patients affected by COVID-19 pneumonia with associated acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. It also summarizes the available evidence with regard to the clinical use of HFNC during the current pandemic and its reported outcomes, and highlights the risks of bioaerosol dispersion associated with HFNC use.

COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Cannula , Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
Respiration ; 100(10): 1027-1037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261221


The imbalance between the prevalence of patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) and acute-on-chronic respiratory failure and the number of intensive care unit (ICU) beds requires new solutions. The increasing use of non-invasive respiratory tools to support patients at earlier stages of ARF and the increased expertise of non-ICU clinicians in other types of supportive care have led to the development of adult pulmonary intensive care units (PICUs) and pulmonary intermediate care units (PIMCUs). As in other European countries, Italian PICUs and PIMCUs provide an intermediate level of care as the setting designed for managing ARF patients without severe non-pulmonary dysfunction. The PICUs and PIMCUs may also act as step-down units for weaning patients from prolonged mechanical ventilation and for discharging patients still requiring ventilatory support at home. These units may play an important role in the on-going coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. This position paper promoted by the Italian Thoracic Society (ITS-AIPO) describes the models, facilities, staff, equipment, and operating methods of PICUs and PIMCUs.

COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units/organization & administration , Intermediate Care Facilities/organization & administration , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Therapy , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy , Patient Selection , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Societies, Medical