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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(1)2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580614

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the midst of a pandemic, apps can be used to provide close follow-up, ensure that patients are monitored at home, avoid excessive pressure on medical facilities, prevent the movement of people (both patients and health professionals), and reduce the risk of infection. OBJECTIVE: To adapt and validate the use of a smartphone application for outpatient follow-up of COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge. METHODS: We conducted an open-label clinical trial at Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron in Barcelona, Spain. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to be followed by the Farmalarm app or by their primary care center. The primary endpoint was the reduction in the need for in-person return visits. RESULTS: From 31 March to 4 May 2020, 150 patients were enrolled in the study at hospital discharge: 74 patients were randomized to the experimental group, and 76 to the control group. All patients in the control group and all except for six in the experimental group completed the study. During hospitalization, before study inclusion, all but 4 (97.3%) had viral pneumonia, 91 (60.7%) required supplemental oxygen, and 16 (10.7%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. COVID-19-related return visits to the emergency department were significantly higher in the control group (7.9% vs. 0%; p = 0.028) in the per-protocol analysis. Telephone consultations with the emergency department were performed by 12 (15.8%) patients in the control group and 0 (0%) in the experimental group (p < 0.001). Satisfaction with outpatient monitoring was rated higher by the experimental group (5 vs. 4 points; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Following COVID-19 hospital discharge, home follow-up via a mobile app was effective in reducing in-person return visits without undermining patient satisfaction or perception of health, compared with standard follow-up.

2.
Stroke ; 52(12): 3908-3917, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We evaluated whether stroke severity, functional outcome, and mortality are different in patients with ischemic stroke with or without coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre cohort study in Catalonia, Spain. Recruitment was consecutive from mid-March to mid-May 2020. Patients had an acute ischemic stroke within 48 hours and a previous modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 to 3. We collected demographic data, vascular risk factors, prior mRS score, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, rate of reperfusion therapies, logistics, and metrics. Primary end point was functional outcome at 3 months. Favourable outcome was defined depending on the previous mRS score. Secondary outcome was mortality at 3 months. We performed mRS shift and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: We evaluated 701 patients (mean age 72.3±13.3 years, 60.5% men) and 91 (13%) had COVID-19 infection. Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19 (8 [3-18] versus 6 [2-14], P=0.049). Proportion of patients with a favourable functional outcome was 33.7% in the COVID-19 and 47% in the non-COVID-19 group. However, after a multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection did not increase the probability of unfavourable functional outcome. Mortality rate was 39.3% among patients with COVID-19 and 16.1% in the non-COVID-19 group. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, COVID-19 infection was a risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio, 3.14 [95% CI, 2.10-4.71]; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ischemic stroke and COVID-19 infection have more severe strokes and a higher mortality than patients with stroke without COVID-19 infection. However, functional outcome is comparable in both groups.

3.
J Clin Neurosci ; 88: 108-112, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174389

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with vascular and thrombotic complications, some of which may result from endothelial dysfunction, including the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). We report a case series of 8 patients with COVID-19 and PRES diagnosed at two academic medical centers between March and July of 2020. The clinical, laboratory and radiographic data, treatment, and short-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. The mean age was 57.9 ± 12 years, and 50% were women. Four patients had previous vascular comorbidities. All the patients suffered from severe pneumonia, requiring intensive care unit admission. Five patients were not hypertensive at presentation (all SBP < 127 mmHg). Neurologic symptoms included seizures in 7 patients; impaired consciousness in 5 patients; focal neurological signs in 3 patients; and visual disturbances in 1 patient. All patients underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging which indicated asymmetric T2 prolongation or diffusion changes (50%), extensive fronto-parieto-occipital involvement (25%), vascular irregularities (12.5%) and intracranial hemorrhage (25%). Four patients were treated with tocilizumab. Three patients were discharged without neurologic disability, 2 patients had persistent focal neurologic deficits and 2 expired. One patient's prognosis remains guarded. Together, these data support the relationship between PRES and endothelial dysfunction associated with severe COVID-19. In patients with severe COVID-19, PRES can be triggered by uncontrolled hypertension, or occur independently in the setting of systemic illness and certain medications. Like other infectious processes, critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be at greater risk of PRES because of impaired vasoreactivity or the use of novel agents like Tocilizumab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/etiology , Adult , Aged , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Comorbidity , Consciousness Disorders/etiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Seizures/etiology , Vision Disorders/etiology
4.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 43, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a small but clinically significant risk of stroke, the cause of which is frequently cryptogenic. In a large multinational cohort of consecutive COVID-19 patients with stroke, we evaluated clinical predictors of cryptogenic stroke, short-term functional outcomes and in-hospital mortality among patients according to stroke etiology. METHODS: We explored clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes of consecutively evaluated patients 18 years of age or older with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 31 hospitals in 4 countries (3/1/20-6/16/20). RESULTS: Of the 14.483 laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19, 156 (1.1%) were diagnosed with AIS. Sixty-one (39.4%) were female, 84 (67.2%) white, and 88 (61.5%) were between 60 and 79 years of age. The most frequently reported etiology of AIS was cryptogenic (55/129, 42.6%), which was associated with significantly higher white blood cell count, c-reactive protein, and D-dimer levels than non-cryptogenic AIS patients (p

Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Ischemic Stroke/virology , Registries , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Computed Tomography Angiography , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/blood , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke , United States/epidemiology
5.
Stroke ; 52(1): 31-39, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion can be concurrent with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion in patients with COVID-19 are substantially unknown. Our aim was to study early outcomes after MT in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Multicenter, European, cohort study involving 34 stroke centers in France, Italy, Spain, and Belgium. Data were collected between March 1, 2020 and May 5, 2020. Consecutive laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases with large vessel occlusion, who were treated with MT, were included. Primary investigated outcome: 30-day mortality. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: early neurological improvement (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement ≥8 points or 24 hours National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 0-1), successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction grade ≥2b), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: We evaluated 93 patients with COVID-19 with large vessel occlusion who underwent MT (median age, 71 years [interquartile range, 59-79]; 63 men [67.7%]). Median pretreatment National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 17 (interquartile range, 11-21) and 8 (interquartile range, 7-9), respectively. Anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke represented 93.5% of cases. The rate modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction 2b to 3 was 79.6% (74 patients [95% CI, 71.3-87.8]). Thirty-day mortality was 29% (27 patients [95% CI, 20-39.4]). Early neurological improvement was 19.5% (17 patients [95% CI, 11.8-29.5]), and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage was 5.4% (5 patients [95% CI, 1.7-12.1]). Patients who died at 30 days exhibited significantly lower lymphocyte count, higher levels of aspartate, and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase). After adjustment for age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, and successful reperfusion, these biological markers remained associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio of 2.70 [95% CI, 1.21-5.98] per SD-log decrease in lymphocyte count, 2.66 [95% CI, 1.22-5.77] per SD-log increase in aspartate, and 4.30 [95% CI, 1.43-12.91] per SD-log increase in LDH). CONCLUSIONS: The 29% rate of 30-day mortality after MT among patients with COVID-19 is not negligible. Abnormalities of lymphocyte count, LDH and aspartate may depict a patient's profiles with poorer outcomes after MT. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04406090.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endovascular Procedures , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Europe , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombectomy/mortality , Treatment Outcome
6.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 437-447, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-806135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been associated with a significant risk of thrombotic events in critically ill patients. AIM: To summarize the findings of a multinational observational cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort of consecutive adults evaluated in the emergency department and/or admitted with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) across 31 hospitals in four countries (1 February 2020-16 June 2020). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of cerebrovascular events, inclusive of acute ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhages (ICH), and cortical vein and/or sinus thrombosis (CVST). RESULTS: Of the 14,483 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2, 172 were diagnosed with an acute cerebrovascular event (1.13% of cohort; 1130/100,000 patients, 95%CI 970-1320/100,000), 68/171 (40.5%) were female and 96/172 (55.8%) were between the ages 60 and 79 years. Of these, 156 had acute ischemic stroke (1.08%; 1080/100,000 95%CI 920-1260/100,000), 28 ICH (0.19%; 190/100,000 95%CI 130-280/100,000), and 3 with CVST (0.02%; 20/100,000, 95%CI 4-60/100,000). The in-hospital mortality rate for SARS-CoV-2-associated stroke was 38.1% and for ICH 58.3%. After adjusting for clustering by site and age, baseline stroke severity, and all predictors of in-hospital mortality found in univariate regression (p < 0.1: male sex, tobacco use, arrival by emergency medical services, lower platelet and lymphocyte counts, and intracranial occlusion), cryptogenic stroke mechanism (aOR 5.01, 95%CI 1.63-15.44, p < 0.01), older age (aOR 1.78, 95%CI 1.07-2.94, p = 0.03), and lower lymphocyte count on admission (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.34-0.98, p = 0.04) were the only independent predictors of mortality among patients with stroke and COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a small but significant risk of clinically relevant cerebrovascular events, particularly ischemic stroke. The mortality rate is high for COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular complications; therefore, aggressive monitoring and early intervention should be pursued to mitigate poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Thrombosis/etiology , Tobacco Use , Young Adult
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105225, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increased rate of thrombotic events has been associated to Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) with a variable rate of acute stroke. Our aim is to uncover the rate of acute stroke in COVID-19 patients and identify those cases in which a possible causative relationship could exist. METHODS: We performed a single-center analysis of a prospective mandatory database. We studied all patients with confirmed COVID-19 and stroke diagnoses from March 2nd to April 30th. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were prospectively collected. Final diagnosis was determined after full diagnostic work-up unless impossible due to death. RESULTS: Of 2050 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 21 (1.02%) presented an acute ischemic stroke 21 and 4 (0.2%) suffered an intracranial hemorrhage. After the diagnostic work-up, in 60.0% ischemic and all hemorrhagic strokes patients an etiology non-related with COVID-19 was identified. Only in 6 patients the stroke cause was considered possibly related to COVID-19, all of them required mechanical ventilation before stroke onset. Ten patients underwent endovascular treatment; compared with patients who underwent EVT in the same period, COVID-19 was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (50% versus 15%; Odds Ratio, 6.67; 95% CI, 1.1-40.4; p 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of acute stroke in patients with COVID-19 was below 2% and most of them previously presented established stroke risk factors. Without other potential cause, stroke was an uncommon complication and exclusive of patients with a severe pulmonary injury. The presence of COVID-19 in patients who underwent EVT was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals, High-Volume , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Databases, Factual , Female , Hospital Mortality , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/virology , Time Factors
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