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Mol Aspects Med ; : 101113, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234687


Sialic-acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins are cell surface immune receptors known as Siglecs that play a paramount role as modulators of immunity. In recent years, research has underscored how the underlaying biology of this family of receptors influences the outcome of viral infections. While Siglecs are needed to promote effective antiviral immune responses, they can also pave the way to viral dissemination within tissues. Here, we review how recent preclinical findings focusing on the interplay between Siglecs and viruses may translate into promising broad-spectrum therapeutic interventions or key biomarkers to monitor the course of viral infections.

Cell Rep ; 31(3): 107549, 2020 04 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-100496


Importin-α adaptor proteins orchestrate dynamic nuclear transport processes involved in cellular homeostasis. Here, we show that importin-α3, one of the main NF-κB transporters, is the most abundantly expressed classical nuclear transport factor in the mammalian respiratory tract. Importin-α3 promoter activity is regulated by TNF-α-induced NF-κB in a concentration-dependent manner. High-level TNF-α-inducing highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HPAIVs) isolated from fatal human cases harboring human-type polymerase signatures (PB2 627K, 701N) significantly downregulate importin-α3 mRNA expression in primary lung cells. Importin-α3 depletion is restored upon back-mutating the HPAIV polymerase into an avian-type signature (PB2 627E, 701D) that can no longer induce high TNF-α levels. Importin-α3-deficient mice show reduced NF-κB-activated antiviral gene expression and increased influenza lethality. Thus, importin-α3 plays a key role in antiviral immunity against influenza. Lifting the bottleneck in importin-α3 availability in the lung might provide a new strategy to combat respiratory virus infections.

Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , alpha Karyopherins/biosynthesis , A549 Cells , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Down-Regulation , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , Influenza, Human/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Middle Aged , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/genetics , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Vero Cells , alpha Karyopherins/genetics , alpha Karyopherins/immunology