Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 29
Filter
1.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 12: 100283, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867450

ABSTRACT

Background: Incidence rates of SARS-CoV-2 infections in low-resource communities can inform vaccination strategies and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Our objective was to estimate incidence over four epidemic waves in a slum in Rio de Janeiro, a proxy for economically deprived areas in the Global South. Methods: Prospective cohort of children and household contacts screened for SARS-CoV-2 by PCR and serology (IgG). The incidence density of PCR positive infections estimated for each wave - the first wave, Zeta, Gamma and Delta - was compared to an index combining NPIs and vaccination coverage. Findings: 718 families and 2501 individuals were enrolled, from May 2020 to November 2021. The incidence density of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to the first wave was 2, 3 times that of the other waves. The incidence among children was lower than that of older participants, except in later waves, when vaccination of the elderly reached 90%. Household agglomeration was significantly associated with incidence only during the first wave. Interpretation: The incidence of infection greatly exceeded rates reported in similar cohorts. The observed reduction in incidence in the elderly during the Delta variant wave, in spite of the rollback of NPIs, can be attributed to increased vaccine coverage. The high incidence in young people reinforces the importance of vaccination in this age group, a policy that has yet to receive the full support of some sectors of society. Funding: UK Medical Research Council, Foundation for the Advancement of Science of the State of Rio de Janeiro, National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
iScience ; 25(4): 104156, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757444

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil experienced two major lineage replacements until mid-2021. The first was driven by lineage P.2, in late 2020, and the second by lineage Gamma, in early 2021. To understand how these SARS-CoV-2 lineages spread in Brazil, we analyzed 11,724 genomes collected throughout the country between September 2020 and April 2021. Our findings indicate that lineage P.2 probably emerged in July 2020 in the Rio de Janeiro state and Gamma in November 2020 in the Amazonas state. Both states were the main hubs of viral disseminations to other Brazilian locations. We estimate that Gamma was 1.56-3.06 times more transmissible than P.2 in Rio de Janeiro and that the median effective reproductive number (Re) of Gamma varied according to the geographic context (Re = 1.59-3.55). In summary, our findings support that lineage Gamma was more transmissible and spread faster than P.2 in Brazil.

4.
Microb Genom ; 8(3)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1746155

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected almost 200 million people worldwide by July 2021 and the pandemic has been characterized by infection waves of viral lineages showing distinct fitness profiles. The simultaneous infection of a single individual by two distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages may impact COVID-19 disease progression and provides a window of opportunity for viral recombination and the emergence of new lineages with differential phenotype. Several hundred SARS-CoV-2 lineages are currently well phylogenetically defined, but two main factors have precluded major coinfection/codetection and recombination analysis thus far: (i) the low diversity of SARS-CoV-2 lineages during the first year of the pandemic, which limited the identification of lineage defining mutations necessary to distinguish coinfecting/recombining viral lineages; and the (ii) limited availability of raw sequencing data where abundance and distribution of intrasample/intrahost variability can be accessed. Here, we assembled a large sequencing dataset from Brazilian samples covering a period of 18 May 2020 to 30 April 2021 and probed it for unexpected patterns of high intrasample/intrahost variability. This approach enabled us to detect nine cases of SARS-CoV-2 coinfection with well characterized lineage-defining mutations, representing 0.61 % of all samples investigated. In addition, we matched these SARS-CoV-2 coinfections with spatio-temporal epidemiological data confirming its plausibility with the cocirculating lineages at the timeframe investigated. Our data suggests that coinfection with distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages is a rare phenomenon, although it is certainly a lower bound estimate considering the difficulty to detect coinfections with very similar SARS-CoV-2 lineages and the low number of samples sequenced from the total number of infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Superinfection/virology , Brazil , Genome, Viral , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
5.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab091, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713740

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) features is the significant number of mutations they acquired. However, the specific factors that drove the emergence of such variants since the second half of 2020 are not fully resolved. In this study, we describe a new SARS-CoV-2 P.1 sub-lineage circulating in Brazil, denoted here as Gamma-like-II, that as well as the previously described lineage Gamma-like-I shares several lineage-defining mutations with the VOC Gamma. Reconstructions of ancestor sequences support that most lineage-defining mutations of the Spike (S) protein, including those at the receptor-binding domain (RBD), accumulated at the first P.1 ancestor. In contrast, mutations outside the S protein were mostly fixed at subsequent steps. Our evolutionary analyses estimate that P.1-ancestral strains carrying RBD mutations of concern probably circulated cryptically in the Amazonas for several months before the emergence of the VOC Gamma. Unlike the VOC Gamma, the other P.1 sub-lineages displayed a much more restricted dissemination and accounted for a low fraction (<2 per cent) of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Brazil in 2021. The stepwise diversification of lineage P.1 through multiple inter-host transmissions is consistent with the hypothesis that partial immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infections in heavily affected regions might have been a major driving force behind the natural selection of some VOCs. The lag time between the emergence of the P.1 ancestor and the expansion of the VOC Gamma and the divergent epidemic trajectories of P.1 sub-lineages support a complex interplay between the emergence of mutations of concern and viral spread in Brazil.

6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0236621, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703078

ABSTRACT

The Amazonas was one of the most heavily affected Brazilian states by the COVID-19 epidemic. Despite a large number of infected people, particularly during the second wave associated with the spread of the Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma (lineage P.1), SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate in the Amazonas. To understand how SARS-CoV-2 persisted in a human population with a high immunity barrier, we generated 1,188 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences from individuals diagnosed in the Amazonas state from 1st January to 6th July 2021, of which 38 were vaccine breakthrough infections. Our study reveals a sharp increase in the relative prevalence of Gamma plus (P.1+) variants, designated Pango Lineages P.1.3 to P.1.6, harboring two types of additional Spike changes: deletions in the N-terminal (NTD) domain (particularly Δ144 or Δ141-144) associated with resistance to anti-NTD neutralizing antibodies or mutations at the S1/S2 junction (N679K or P681H) that probably enhance the binding affinity to the furin cleavage site, as suggested by our molecular dynamics simulations. As lineages P.1.4 (S:N679K) and P.1.6 (S:P681H) expanded (Re > 1) from March to July 2021, the lineage P.1 declined (Re < 1) and the median Ct value of SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in Amazonas significantly decreases. Still, we did not find an increased incidence of P.1+ variants among breakthrough cases of fully vaccinated patients (71%) in comparison to unvaccinated individuals (93%). This evidence supports that the ongoing endemic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the Amazonas is driven by the spread of new local Gamma/P.1 sublineages that are more transmissible, although not more efficient to evade vaccine-elicited immunity than the parental VOC. Finally, as SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread in human populations with a declining density of susceptible hosts, the risk of selecting more infectious variants or antibody evasion mutations is expected to increase. IMPORTANCE The continuous evolution of SARS-CoV-2 is an expected phenomenon that will continue to happen due to the high number of cases worldwide. The present study analyzed how a Variant of Concern (VOC) could still circulate in a population hardly affected by two COVID-19 waves and with vaccination in progress. Our results showed that the answer behind that was a new generation of Gamma-like viruses, which emerged locally carrying mutations that made it more transmissible and more capable of spreading, partially evading prior immunity triggered by natural infections or vaccines. With thousands of new cases daily, the current pandemics scenario suggests that SARS-CoV-2 will continue to evolve and efforts to reduce the number of infected subjects, including global equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, are mandatory. Thus, until the end of pandemics, the SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance will be an essential tool to better understand the drivers of the viral evolutionary process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/enzymology , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Motifs , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Furin/genetics , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323349

ABSTRACT

The coronaviruses (CoVs) called the attention of the world for causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV), in Asia in 2002-03, and respiratory disease in the Middle East (MERS-CoV), in 2012. In December 2019, yet again a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) first identified in Wuhan, China, was associated with a severe respiratory infection, known today as COVID-19. This new virus is highly transmissible, and quickly spread throughout China and 30 additional countries. As result, the World Health Organization (WHO) elevated the status of the COVID-19 outbreak from emergency of international concern to pandemic on March 11, 2020. The impact of COVID-19 on public health and economy fueled a worldwide race to approve therapeutic and prophylactic agents, but so far, there are no specific antiviral drugs or vaccines available. In current scenario, the development of in vitro systems for viral mass production and for testing antiviral and vaccine candidates proves to be an urgent matter. Research groups around the world are strongly focused on this, and the susceptibility of different cell lines to SARS-CoV-2 infection has already been demonstrated by molecular techniques. However, data on the biology of SARS-CoV-2 at the ultrastructural level in these in vitro models is still scarce. In this study, we documented, by transmission electron microscopy and real-time RT-PCR, the infection of Vero-E6 cells with SARS-CoV-2 samples isolated from Brazilian patients. The infected cells presented cytopathic effects and SARS-CoV-2 particles were observed attached to the cell surface and inside cytoplasmic vesicles. The entry of the virus into cells occurred through the endocytic pathway or by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane. Assembled nucleocapsids were verified inside rough endoplasmic reticulum cisterns (RER). Viral maturation seemed to occur by budding of viral particles from the RER into smooth membrane vesicles. Therefore, the susceptibility of Vero-E6 cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the viral pathway inside the cells were demonstrated by ultrastructural analysis.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317798

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.28 has been evolving in Brazil since February 2020 giving origin to multiple local clades including the new Variant of Concern (VOC) designated P.1 or 501Y.V3. The recent emergence of sub-lineages with convergent mutations in the spike (S) protein raises concern about the potential impact on viral infectivity and immune escape. We describe here the first three confirmed SARS-CoV-2 reinfections cases with the new VOC P.1 in residents of the Amazonas state, Brazil. Three female patients, 29, 40, and 50-year-old, were RT-PCR confirmed for SARS-CoV-2 on two occasions, with at least 92 days apart. Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were conducted to precisely access the SARS-CoV-2 lineages of each infection event. SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis confirmed three cases of reinfections caused by the VOC P.1 in patients that were primo-infected by distinct viral lineages 3–9 months earlier. Case 1 (29-year-old) was positive on March 24, 2020 (lineage B.1.195) and then on December 30, 2020 (lineage P.1);case 2 (50-year-old) was positive on October 19, 2020 (lineage B.1.1.33) and on January 19, 2021 (lineage P.1);case 3 (40-year-old) was positive on April 22, 2020 (lineage B.1.195) and on January 29, 2021 (lineage P.1). The three patients displayed low mean Ct values (< 22) at nasopharyngeal samples and reported less severe illness during reinfection. The present study provides the first evidence of the new VOC P.1 causing multiple reinfections during the second epidemic peak in the Amazonas state. Our findings suggest that reinfected individuals may have been infectious. Although immune responses induced by natural infections do not necessarily prevent subsequent infections by the VOC P.1, they may still protect from severe disease.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311463

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable features of the SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VOC) is the unusually large number of mutations they carry. However, the specific factors that drove the emergence of such variants since the second half of 2020 are not fully resolved. In this study, we described a new SARS-CoV-2 lineage provisionally designated as P.1-like-II that, as well as the previously described lineage P.1-like-I, shares several lineage-defining mutations with the VOC P.1 circulating in Brazil. Reconstructions of P.1 ancestor sequences demonstrate that the entire constellation of mutations that define the VOC P.1 did not accumulate within a single long-term infected individual, but was acquired by sequential addition during interhost transmissions. Our evolutionary analyses further estimate that P.1-ancestors strains carrying half of the P.1-lineage-defining mutations, including those at the receptor-binding domain of the Spike protein, circulated cryptically in the Amazonas state since August 2020. This evolutionary pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that partial human population immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infections during the first half of 2020 might have been the major driving force behind natural selection that allowed VOCs' emergence and worldwide spread. These findings also support a long lag-time between the emergence of variants with key mutations of concern and expansion of the VOC P.1 in Brazil.

10.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327103

ABSTRACT

In the present study, serum samples of 20 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from Brazil who were infected by the earlier SARS-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33, and by the variant of concern (VOC) Gamma (P.1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT 90 ) with wild isolates of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 lineages, including B.1, Zeta, N.10, and the VOCs Gamma, Alpha, and Delta that emerged in different timeframes of the pandemic. The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate if serum of COVID-19 patients infected by earlier lineages of SARS-CoV-2 were capable to neutralize recently emerged VOCs, and if PRNT 90 is a reliable serologic method to distinguish infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages. Overall, sera collected from the day of admittance to the hospital to 21 days after diagnostic of patients infected by the two earlier lineages B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 presented neutralizing capacity for all challenged VOCs, including Gamma and Delta, that were the most prevalent VOCs in Brazil. Among all variants tested, Delta and N.10 presented the lowest mean of neutralizing antibody titers, and B.1.1.7, presented the highest titers. Four patients infected with Gamma, that emerged in December 2020, presented neutralizing antibodies for B.1, B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28, its ancestor lineage. All of them had neutralizing antibodies under the level of detection for the VOC Delta. Interestingly, patients infected by B.1.1.28 presented very similar mean of neutralizing antibody titers for both B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28. Findings presented here indicate that most patients infected in early stages of COVID-19 pandemic presented neutralizing antibodies up to 21 days after diagnostic capable to neutralize wild types of all recently emerged VOCs in Brazil, and that the PRNT 90 it is not a reliable serologic method to distinguish natural infections caused by different SARS-CoV-2 lineages.

11.
Virus evolution ; 7(2), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624105

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC) features is the significant number of mutations they acquired. However, the specific factors that drove the emergence of such variants since the second half of 2020 are not fully resolved. In this study, we describe a new SARS-CoV-2 P.1 sub-lineage circulating in Brazil, denoted here as Gamma-like-II, that as well as the previously described lineage Gamma-like-I shares several lineage-defining mutations with the VOC Gamma. Reconstructions of ancestor sequences support that most lineage-defining mutations of the Spike (S) protein, including those at the receptor-binding domain (RBD), accumulated at the first P.1 ancestor. In contrast, mutations outside the S protein were mostly fixed at subsequent steps. Our evolutionary analyses estimate that P.1-ancestral strains carrying RBD mutations of concern probably circulated cryptically in the Amazonas for several months before the emergence of the VOC Gamma. Unlike the VOC Gamma, the other P.1 sub-lineages displayed a much more restricted dissemination and accounted for a low fraction (<2 per cent) of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Brazil in 2021. The stepwise diversification of lineage P.1 through multiple inter-host transmissions is consistent with the hypothesis that partial immunity acquired from natural SARS-CoV-2 infections in heavily affected regions might have been a major driving force behind the natural selection of some VOCs. The lag time between the emergence of the P.1 ancestor and the expansion of the VOC Gamma and the divergent epidemic trajectories of P.1 sub-lineages support a complex interplay between the emergence of mutations of concern and viral spread in Brazil.

12.
Cell ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601904

ABSTRACT

On the 24th November 2021 the sequence of a new SARS CoV-2 viral isolate Omicron-B.1.1.529 was announced, containing far more mutations in Spike (S) than previously reported variants. Neutralization titres of Omicron by sera from vaccinees and convalescent subjects infected with early pandemic as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta are substantially reduced or fail to neutralize. Titres against Omicron are boosted by third vaccine doses and are high in cases both vaccinated and infected by Delta. Mutations in Omicron knock out or substantially reduce neutralization by most of a large panel of potent monoclonal antibodies and antibodies under commercial development. Omicron S has structural changes from earlier viruses, combining mutations conferring tight binding to ACE2 to unleash evolution driven by immune escape, leading to a large number of mutations in the ACE2 binding site which rebalance receptor affinity to that of early pandemic viruses. A comprehensive analysis of sera from vaccinees, convalescent patients infected previously by multiple variants and potent monoclonal antibodies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic reveals a substantial overall reduction the ability to neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, which a third vaccine dose seems to ameliorate. Structural analyses of the Omicron RBD suggest a selective pressure enabling the virus bind ACE2 with increased affinity that is offset by other changes in the receptor binding motif that facilitates immune escape.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293389

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) Gamma during late 2020 and early 2021 in Brazilian settings with high seroprevalence raised some concern about the potential role of reinfections in driving the epidemic. Very few cases of reinfection associated with the VOC Gamma, however, have been reported. Here we describe 25 cases of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection confirmed by real-time RT-PCR twice within months apart in Brazil. SARS-CoV-2 genomic analysis confirmed that individuals were primo-infected between March and December 2020 with distinct viral lineages, including B.1.1, B.1.1.28, B.1.1.33, B.1.195 and P.2, and then reinfected with the VOC Gamma between 3 to 12 months after primo-infection. The overall mean cycle threshold (Ct) value of the first (25.7) and second (24.5) episodes were roughly similar for the whole group and 14 individuals displayed mean Ct values < 25.0 at reinfection. Sera of 14 patients tested by plaque reduction neutralization test after reinfection displayed detectable neutralizing antibodies against Gamma and other SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1.33, B.1.1.28 and Delta). All individuals have milder or no symptoms after reinfection and none required hospitalization. The present study demonstrates that the VOC Gamma was associated with reinfections during the second Brazilian epidemic wave in 2021 and raised concern about the potential infectiousness of reinfected subjects. Although individuals here analyzed failed to mount a long-term sterilizing immunity, they developed a high anti-Gamma neutralizing antibody response after reinfection that may provide some protection against severe disease.

15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292835

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) Delta was first detected in India in October 2020. The first imported cases of the Delta variant in Brazil were identified in April 2021 in the Southern region, followed by more cases in different country regions during the following months. By early September 2021, Delta was already the dominant variant in the Southeastern (87%), Southern (73%), and Northeastern (52%) Brazilian regions. This work aimed to understand the spatiotemporal dissemination dynamics of Delta in Brazil. To this end, we employed a combination of Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian methods to reconstruct the evolutionary relationship of 2,264 of VOC Delta complete genomes (482 from this study) recovered across 21 out of 27 Brazilian federal units. Our phylogeographic analyses identified three major transmission clusters of Delta in Brazil. The clade BR-I (n = 1,560) arose in Rio de Janeiro in late April 2021 and was the major cluster behind the dissemination of the VOC Delta in the Southeastern, Northeastern, Northern, and Central-Western regions. The clade BR-II (n = 207) arose in the Parana state in late April 2021 and aggregated the largest fraction of sampled genomes from the Southern region. Lastly, the clade BR-III emerged in the Sao Paulo state in early June 2021 and remained mostly restricted to this state. In the rapid turnover of viral variants characteristic of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, Brazilian regions seem to occupy different stages of an increasing prevalence of the VOC Delta in their epidemic profiles. This process demands continuous genomic and epidemiological surveillance toward identifying and mitigating new introductions, limiting their dissemination, and preventing the establishment of more significant outbreaks in a population already heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Virol J ; 18(1): 222, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report a genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Paraná, southern Brazil, from March 2020 to April 2021. Our analysis, based on 333 genomes, revealed that the first variants detected in the state of Paraná in March 2020 were the B.1.1.33 and B.1.1.28 variants. The variants B.1.1.28 and B.1.1.33 were predominant throughout 2020 until the introduction of the variant P.2 in August 2020 and a variant of concern (VOC), Gamma (P.1), in January 2021. The VOC Gamma, a ramification of the B.1.1.28 lineage first detected in Manaus (northern Brazil), has grown rapidly since December 2020 and was thought to be responsible for the deadly second wave of COVID-19 throughout Brazil. METHODS: The 333 genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from March 2020 to April 2021 were generated as part of the genomic surveillance carried out by Fiocruz in Brazil Genomahcov Fiocruz. SARS-CoV-2 sequencing was performed using representative samples from all geographic areas of Paraná. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the 333 genomes also included other SARS-CoV-2 genomes from the state of Paraná and other states in Brazil that were deposited in the GISAID. In addition, the time-scaled phylogenetic tree was constructed with up to 3 random sequences of the Gamma variant from each state in Brazil in each month of 2021. In this analysis we also added the sequences identified as the B.1.1.28 lineage of the Amazonas state and and the Gamma-like-II (P.1-like-II) lineage identified in different regions of Brazil. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses of the SARS-CoV-2 genomes that were previously classified as the VOC Gamma lineage by WHO/PANGO showed that some genomes from February to April 2021 branched in a monophyletic clade and that these samples grouped together with genomes recently described with the lineage Gamma-like-II. Additionally, a new mutation (E661D) in the spike (S) protein has been identified in nearly 10% of the genomes classified as the VOC Gamma from Paraná in March and April 2021.Finally, we analyzed the correlation between the lineage and the Gamma variant frequency, age group (patients younger or older than 60 years old) and the clinical data of 86 cases from the state of Paraná. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided a reliable picture of the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in the state of Paraná characterized by the dominance of the Gamma strain, as well as a high frequencies of the Gamma-like-II lineage and the S:E661D mutation. Epidemiological and genomic surveillance efforts should be continued to unveil the biological relevance of the novel mutations detected in the VOC Gamma in Paraná.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phylogeny , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5705, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442779

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 transmission rates are often linked to locally circulating strains of SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe 203 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences analyzed from strains circulating in Rwanda from May 2020 to February 2021. In particular, we report a shift in variant distribution towards the emerging sub-lineage A.23.1 that is currently dominating. Furthermore, we report the detection of the first Rwandan cases of the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants of concern among incoming travelers tested at Kigali International Airport. To assess the importance of viral introductions from neighboring countries and local transmission, we exploit available individual travel history metadata to inform spatio-temporal phylogeographic inference, enabling us to take into account infections from unsampled locations. We uncover an important role of neighboring countries in seeding introductions into Rwanda, including those from which no genomic sequences were available. Our results highlight the importance of systematic genomic surveillance and regional collaborations for a durable response towards combating COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Travel-Related Illness , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Male , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Rwanda/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Whole Genome Sequencing
18.
Virus Evol ; 7(2): veab069, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416152

ABSTRACT

Mutations at both the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the amino (N)-terminal domain (NTD) of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike (S) glycoprotein can alter its antigenicity and promote immune escape. We identified that SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in Brazil with mutations of concern in the RBD independently acquired convergent deletions and insertions in the NTD of the S protein, which altered the NTD antigenic-supersite and other predicted epitopes at this region. Importantly, we detected the community transmission of different P.1 lineages bearing NTD indels ∆69-70 (which can impact several SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic protocols), ∆144 and ins214ANRN, and a new VOI N.10 derived from the B.1.1.33 lineage carrying three NTD deletions (∆141-144, ∆211, and ∆256-258). These findings support that the ongoing widespread transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil generates new viral lineages that might be more resistant to antibody neutralization than parental variants of concern.

19.
Cell ; 184(11): 2939-2954.e9, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343152

ABSTRACT

Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations, including P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa, and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10, and 9 changes in the spike, respectively). All have mutations in the ACE2 binding site, with P.1 and B.1.351 having a virtually identical triplet (E484K, K417N/T, and N501Y), which we show confer similar increased affinity for ACE2. We show that, surprisingly, P.1 is significantly less resistant to naturally acquired or vaccine-induced antibody responses than B.1.351, suggesting that changes outside the receptor-binding domain (RBD) impact neutralization. Monoclonal antibody (mAb) 222 neutralizes all three variants despite interacting with two of the ACE2-binding site mutations. We explain this through structural analysis and use the 222 light chain to largely restore neutralization potency to a major class of public antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunization, Passive , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL